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Henrg HI. Sagl^ 


A'lUHm i^lijis'^y 







J.nbexn£BB : 








This is the first Etymological Dictionary that has appeared of 
any modem Celtic language, and the immediate cause of its 
appearance is the desire to implement the promise made at the 
publication of Dr Cameron's Reliquim Gelticce, that an etymo- 
logical dictionary should be published as a third or companion 
volume to that work. Some learned friends have suggested that 
it is too early yet to publish such a work, and that the great Irish 
Dictionary, which is being prepared just now by a German savant, 
•should be waited for ; but what I hope is that a second edition of 
this present book will be called for when the German work has 
appeared. Celtic scholars, if they find nothing else in the present 
Dictionary, will, at least, find a nearly pure vocabulary of Scotch 
■Gaelic, purged of the mass of Irish words that appear in our 
larger dictionaries ; and, as for my countrymen in the Highlands, 
who are so very fond of etymologising, the work appears none 
too soon, if it will direct them in the proper philologic path to 
tread. "With this latter view I have prefaced the work with a 
brief account of the principles of Gaelic philology. 

The words discussed in this Dictionary number 6900 : deriva- 
tive words are not given, but otherwise the vocabulary here 
presented is the completest of any that has yet appeared. Of this 
large vocabulary, about two-thirds are native Gaelic and Celtic 
words, over twenty per cent, are borrowed, and thirteen per 
■cent, are of doubtful origin, no etymology being presented for 
them, though doubtless most of them are native. 

The work is founded on the Highland Society's Gaelic 
Dictionary, supplemented by M'Alpine, M'Eachan, and other 
sources. I guarded especially against admitting Irish words, 
■with which dictionaries like those of Shaw and Armstrong swarm. 


Shaw, in 1780, plundered unscrupulously from Lhuyd (1707) 
and O'Brien (1758), and subsequent dictionary-makers accepted too> 
many of Shaw's Irish words. Another trouble has been the getting 
of genuine Irish words, for O'Reilly (1823) simply incorporated 
Shaw's Dictionary and MTarlane's Scotch Gaelic Vocabulary 
(1815) into his own. For genuine modern Irish words I have had 
to trust to Lhuyd, O'Brien, Coneys, and Foley. For early Irish, 
I have relied mainly on Windisch, Ascoli, and Atkinson, supple- 
menting them by the numerous vocabularies added by modem 
editors to the Irish texts published by them. 

For the etymologies, I am especially indebted to Dr Wbitley 
Stokes' various works, and more particularly to his lately published 
Vrkeltischer Sprachschatz. I have, however, searched far and wide, 
and I trust I have not missed anything in the way of Celtic 
etymology that has been done for the last twenty or thirty years 
here or on the Continent. In form the book follows the example 
of Mr Wharton's excellent works on Latin and Greek philology^ 
the Etyma Latino, and the Etyma Oroeca, and, more especially,, 
the fuller method of PreUwitz' Etymolgisches Worterhvch der 
Griechischen Sprache. 

The vocabulary of names and surnames does not profess to be 
complete. That errors have crept into the work is doubtless too 
true. I am sorry that I was unable, being so far always from the 
University centres, to get learned friends to look over my proofs- 
and make suggestions as the work proceeded ; and I hope th& 
reader will, therefore, be all the more indulgent towards such 
mistakes as he may meet with. 

iNVEKNBSSj 13th January, 1896. 



Ag. S. . — Anglo-Saxon 

Arm. . — Armenian 

Br. . . — Breton 

Bulg, . — Bulgarian — O. Bulg. = 

Ch. SI. 
Ch. SI. — Church Slavonic 
Corn. . — Cornish 
Dan. . — Danish 
Dial. . — Dialectic, belonging to a 

Du. . . —Dutch 
E, . . — Early as Early Eng.= 

E. Eng. 
Eng. . — English 
Er. . . —French 
G. . . . — GaeUc 
Gaul. . — Gaulish 
Grer. . . — German 
Got. . . —Gothic 
Gr. . . —Greek 
H. . . . — High, as High German = 

Heb. . — Hebrew 
Hes. . . . — Hesychius 
I. E. . . — Indo-European 

Ir. . . . 

— bish 

Ital. . . 

— Italian 

Lab. . . 

— Latin 

Lett. . 

— Lettic 

Lit. . . 

— Lithuanian 

M. . . 

— Middle, as Middle Irish 

=M. Ir. 

Mod. . 

■ — Modern 

N. . . . 

— Norse 

K. . . . 

— New, as New Slavonic = 

N. Slav. 

N. Sc. 

— Northern Scotch 

0. . . . 

—Old, as Old Irish = 0. Ir. 

0. H. G 

. — Old High German 

Pers. . 

— Persian 

Pruss. . 

— Prussian 

Sc. . . 


Skr.. . 

— Sanskrit 

SI. . . 

— Slavonic 

Slav. . 

— Slavonic 

Slov. . 

— Slovenic 

Span. . 


Sw. . . 

— Swedish 

W. . 


Zd. . . 

— Zend or Old Bactrian 

A. M'D. 
Atk. . 

Arm., Arms. 
B. of Deer 
Bez. Beit. . 

C S 

Celt.' Mag.' 
Con. . . 
Corm. . . 

D. of L. 


— ^Alexander Maodonald's Gaelic Songs,with vocabulary.. 
— Atkinson's Dictionary to the Passions and Homilies 

from the Leabhar Breac, 1887. 
— Armstrong's Gaelic Dictionary, 1825. 
— Book of Deer, edited by Stokes in Goidelica, 1872. 
— Bezzenberger's Beitrdge zwr Kunde der Idg. SpracheUy. 

a German periodical still proceeding. 
— Common Speech, not yet recorded in literature. 
— The Celtic Magazine, 13 vols. , stopped in 1888. 
— Coneys' Irish-English Dictionary, 1849. 
— Cormao's Glossary, published in 1862 and 1868,, 

edited by Dr Whitley Stokes. 
—The Dean of Limwre's Boole, edited in 1862, 1892. 


Four Mast. . . — Annals of the Four Masters, published in 1848, 1851. 

Fol — Foley's English-Irish Dictionary, 1855. 

Heb — Dialect of the Hebrides. 

H. S. D. . . . — The Highland Society's Dictiona/ry of the Gaelic 

Language, 1828. 
Inv. Gael. Soc. Tr. —Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness, 19 

. vols. , still proceeding. 
L. na H. . . . — Lebor na h-uidre, or the Book of the Dun Cow, an 

Irish MS. of 1100. 

Lh — Lhuyd's Archmologia Brittanica, 1707. 

Lib. Leinster . — Book of Leinster, an Irish MS. of 1150. 

M'A — Macalpine's Gaelic Dictionary, 18.32. 

M'D. . . . - -Alexander Macdonald's Gaelick and English Vocab- 

vZary, 1741. 

M'E — M'Eachan's Fadair, 1862. 

M'F — M'Farlane's Focalair or Gaelic Vocabulary, 1815. 

M'L. . . . — M'Leod and Dewar's DictioTiary of the Gaelic Lan- 

guage, 1831. 

N. H - North Highlands. 

Nich. . . . — Sheriff Nicholson's Gaelic Proverbs. 

O'Br —O'Brien's Irish-English Dictionary, 1768 and 1832. 

O'Cl — O'Clery's Glossary, republished in Revue Celtique, 

Vols. IV. v., date 1643. 

O'R —0''^ei\WB Irish-English Dictionary, \%2Z. 

Kev. Celt. . . . — Revue Celtique, a periodical published at Paris, now 

in its 17th vol. 
S. C. R. ... — The Scottish Celtic Review, 1 vol., edited by Dr 

Cameron, 1885. 

Sh — Shaw's Gaelic and English Dictionary, 1780. 

Stew. . . . — Vocabularyat the end of Stewart's Gaelic Collection. 
Zeit — Kuhn's Zeitschrift f. vergl. Sprachforschung, a 

German periodical still proceeding. 

An asterisk (*) denotes always a hypothetical word ; the sign (t) 
denotes that the word is obsolete. The numeral above the line denotes 
the number of the edition or the number of the volume. 


Adamnan, abbot of lona, who died in 704, wrote a life of St Columba. 

edited by Reeves 1857, re-issued by Skene in 1874. 
Ascom is publishing in connection with his editions of the MSS. of Milan 

and St Gall a " Glossary of Ancient Irish," of which the vowels and 

some consonants are already issued. 
Bezzenbesgek edits the Btz. Beit, noted above, has contributed to it 

Celtic articles, and has furnished comments or suggested etymologies 

in Dr Stokes' Urheltischer Sprachschatz. 
Bradley's Stratmann's Middle English Dictionary. 
Brugmann is the author of the "Comparative Grammar of the Indo- 

Germanic Languages," a large work, where Celtic is fully treated. 
Cameron : The late Dr Cameron edited the Scottish Celtic Review, where 

he published valuable Gaelic etymologies, and left the MS. material 

which forms the basis of the two volumes of his Eeliquiai Celticce. 
Cameron : Mr John Cameron of the Gaelic Names of Plants, 1883. 
CabmichaeiJs Agrestic Customs of the Hebrides, in the Napier Commission 

Edmonston is the author of an Etymological Glossary of the Orkney Dialect. 
Ernault, author of an Etymological Dictionary of Middle Breton, and 

contributor to the Bev. Celt, of many articles on Breton. 
FiCK, compiler of the Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Germanic 

Languages (not translated yet), completed in 1876. The fourth 

edition was begun in 1890 with Dr Whitley Stokes and Dr Bezzen- 

berger as coUaborateurs : the second volume of this edition is Dr 

Stokes' Urkdtischer Sprachshatz — Early Celtic Word-Treasure, 1894. 
Jamieson, author of the Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language, 

2 vols., 1808, Paisley edition, 5 vols., 1879-1887. 
De Jubainville, editor of the Bev. Celt. , has written much on Celtic 

philology in that periodical and otherwise. 
GuTERBOCK, author of a brochure on Latin Loan-words in Irish, 1882. 
Hennessey, who offered some etymologies in his Criticism of Macpherson's 

Ossian in the Academy, August 1871. 
Kluge, compiler of the latest and best Etymological Dictionary of the 

German Language, 5th edition here used mostly. 
Loth, author of inter alia the Vocdbulaire Vieux-Breton, 1884, the work 

usually referred to under his name. 
MACKINNON : Prof. Mackinnon in Inv. Gael. Sac. Tr., in Celt. Mag. and in 

the Scotsman. 
M'Lean : Hector Maclean, lately dead, virrote many articles on Gaelic 

philology in newspapers and periodicals ; here quoted as an authority 

on the language. 
K. Meyer, editor of Cath Finntrdga, 1884, Vision of MacOonglinne, 1892, 

&c., all with vocabularies. 
Murray, editor of the Philological Society's Nezo English Dictionary in 

process of publication. 
■OsTHOFF : especially in Indogermanischen Forschungen,* 264-294. 


Prellwitz, compiler of an Etymological Dictionary of Greek, 1892. 
Rhts : Prof. Rhys is author of Lectures on Welsh Philology, 1879, Cdtic 

Britain, 1884. Hibbert Lectures, 1886, and a colophon to the Marac 

Prayer Booh, 2 vols., published last year, on the Phonetics of the 

Manx Language. 
Skbat, author of the Etymological Dictionary of the English Language. 
Stokes : Dr Whitley Stokes, author of books and articles too numerous 

to detail here. His Urkeltiicher Sprachschatz was used throughout 

the work ; it is to this work his name nearly always refers. 
Stuachan : Prof. Strachan's paper on Gompensatory Lengthening of'Vomds 

in Irish is the usual reference in this case. 
Thubneysbn, author of Kelto-ramanisehes, 1884, the work usually referred 

to here, though use has been made of his articles in Zeit. and Sev. 

Whaeton, author of Etyma Orceca, 1882, and Etyma Latina, 1890. 
WiNDisCH, editor of Irische Texte mit WOrterhuch, used throughout this 

work, author of a Concise Irish Grammar, of Keltische Sprachen in the 

Allgemeine EncyUopcedie, of the Celtic additions to Curtius' Greek 

Etymology, &c. 
Zeuss, Grammatica Oeltica, second edition by Ebel. 
ZiMMEE, editor of Glossoi Hibemicae, 1881, author of Keltische Studien, 

1881, 1884, pvirsuedin Zeit., oi Keltische Beitrage, in which he discusses 

the Norse influence on Irish, and many other articles. 



Gaelic belongs to the Celtic group of languages, and the Celtic is 
itself a branch of the Indo-European or Aryan family of speech ; 
for it has been found that the languages of Europe (with the 
exception of Turkish, Hungarian, Basque, and Ugro-Pinnish), and 
those of Asia from the Caucasus to Ceylon, resemble each other 
in grammar and vocabulary to such an extent that they must all 
be considered as descended from one parent or original tongue. 
This parent tongue is variously called the Aryan, Indo-European, 
Indo-Germanic, and even the Indo-Celtio language. It was 
spoken, it is believed, some three thousand years B.C. in ancient 
Sarmatia or South Russia ; and from this as centre the speakers 
of the Aryan tongue, which even then showed dialectical differ- 
ences, radiated east, west, north and south to the various countries 
now occupied by the descendant languages. The civilization of 
the primitive Aryans appears to have been an earlier and more 
nomadic form of that presented to us by the Celtic tribe of the 
Helvetii in Ceesar's time. Here a number of village communities, 
weary of the work of agriculture, or led by the desire of better 
soil, cut their crops, pulled down their lightly built houses and 
huts, packed child and chattel on the waggons with their teams of 
oxen, and sought their fortune in a distant land. In this way 
the Celts and the Italians parted from the old Aryan home to 
move up the Danube, the former settling on the Rhine and the 
latter on the Gulf of Venice. The other races went their several 
ways — the Indians and Iranians eastward across the steppes, the 
Teutons went to the north-west, and the Hellenes to the south. 

The Aryan or Indo-European languages fall into six leading 
groups (leaving Albanian and Armenian out of account), thus : — 

I. Indo-Iranian or Abian, divisible into two branches : 

fa) Indian branch, including Sanskrit, now dead, but dating 
in its literature to at least 1000 B.C., and the descendant 
modem (dialects or) languages, such as Hindustani, 
Bengali, aud Mahratti. 


(h) Iranian branch, which comprises Zend or Old Bactrian. 
(circ. 1000 B.C.), Old Persian and Modem Persian. 

II. Greek or Hellenic, inclusive of ancient and modem Greek 

(from Homer in 800 B.C. onwards). Ancient Greek was 
divided traditionally into three dialects — Ionic (with Attic or 
literary Greek), Doric, and ^Eolic. 

III. Italic, divided in early times into two main groups — the 
Latin and the Umbro-Osean. From Latin are descended 
Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Ehoeto-romanic and 
Eoumanian, called generally the Romance languages. 

IV. Celtic, of which anon. 

V. Teutonic, which includes three groups — (a) East Teutonic or 

Gothic (fourth cent, a.d.) ; (bj North Teutonic or Scandi- 
navian, inclusive of Old Norse and the modern languages 
called Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, and Danish ; and (c) 
West Teutonic, which divides again into High German 
(whence modern German), the Old High German being a 
language contemporary with Old Irish, and Low German, 
which includes Old Saxon, Anglo-Saxon, English, Dutch, and 

VI. Balto-Slavonic or Letto-Slavonic, which includes Lithu- 
anian, dating from the seventeenth century, yet showing 
remarkable traces of antiquity, Lettic, Old Prussian of the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, now extinct, Old Bulgarian 
or Church Slavonic, into which the Bible was translated in 
the ninth century, and the Slavonic modern languages of 
Russia, etc. 

These six groups cannot, save probably in the case of Latin 
and Celtic, be drawn closer together in a genealogical way. 
Radiating as they did from a common centre, the adjacent groups 
are more like one another than those further off. The European 
languages, inclusive of Armenian, present the three primitive 
vowels a, c, o intact, while the Indo-Iranian group coalesces them 
all into the sound a. Again the Asiatic languages join with the 
Balto-Slavonic in changing Aryan palatal k into a sibilant sound. 
Similarly two or three other groups may be found with common 
peculiarities {e.g., Greek, Latin, and Celtic with oi or i in the nom. 
pi. masc. of the o- declension). Latin and Celtic, further, show 
intimate relations in having in common an i in the gen. ■sing, of 
the 0- declension (originally a locative), -tion- verbal nouns, a 
future in b, and the passive in -r. 


The Celtic group at present comprises five living languages j 
last century there were six, when Cornish still lived. These six 
Celtic languages are grouped again into two branches, which may 
be named the Beittonic and the Gadelic. The former includes 
the Welsh, Cornish, and Breton; the Gadelic comprises Irish^ 
Manx, and (Scotch) Gaelic. The main difference between these 
two branches of the Celtic group consists in this : the velar 
guttural of the Aryan parent tongue, which we represent here by 
the symbol q, when labialised, that is when the sound w or m 
attaches itself to it, becomes in Brittonic a simple p and in 
Gadelic a c {k. Ogam qv). Thus the Welsh for " five " is pump,. 
Cornish pymp, and Breton pemp, Gaulish pempe, whereas the 
Gaelic is c6ig, Manx queig, and Irish cAig : the corresponding 
Latin form is quinque. Professor Rhys has hence called the two 
branches of the Celtic the P group and the Q group (from Ogmic 
g'M = Gaelic c). The distinction into P and Q groups existed 
before the Christian era, for the Gauls of Csesar's time belonged 
mainly, if not altogether, to the P group : such distinctive forms 
as Gaulish petor, four (Welsh pedvjar, Gaelic ceithir), epos, horse 
(Welsh ehol, Gaelic each), and pempe, five, already noted, with 
some others, prove this amply. At the beginning of the 
Christian era the Celtic languages were distributed much as 
follows : GAincJSH, spoken in France and Spain, but fast dying 
before the provincial Latin (and disappearing finally in the fifth 
century of our era) ; Gallo-British or Beittonic, spoken hi 
Britain by the conquering Gaulish tribes ; Pictish, belonging to 
the Gallo-Brittonio or P group, and spoken in Scotland and, 
possibly, in northern England ; and Gadelic, spoken in Ireland 
and perhaps on the West Coast of Scotland and in the Isles. The 
etymologj' of the national names will be seen in Appendix A. 
Our results may be summed in a tabular form thus : — 


[Gadelic J Manx 

Q GroupJ [Gaelic 

[Dialects in Spain and Gaul (?) 


P Group 

GaUo-Brittonicf Brittonic . . -v Cornish 

Gaulish— various 

•- [Welsh 

There are no literary remains of the Gaulish language existent;, 
but a vast mass of personal and place names have been handed 


'down, and also a few words of the ordinary speech have been 
recorded by the Classical writers. The language of Brittany came 
from Britain in the fifth and sixth centuries, and it may have 
found remains in Brittany of the kindred Gaulish tongue. The 
Brittonic languages — ^Welsh, Cornish, and Breton— appear first in 
.glosses as early as the eighth century. These glosses are 
marginal or super-linear translations into Celtic of words or 
phrases in the Latiti texts contained in the MSS. so " glossed." 
The period of the glosses is known as the " Old " stage of the 
languages — Old Breton, Old Cornish, Old Welsh. Eeal literary 
works do not occur till the " Middle " period of these tongues, 
commencing with the twelfth century and ending with the six- 
teenth. Thereafter we have Modern or New Breton and Welsh, 
as the case may be. In this work. New Breton and New Welsh 
are denoted simply by Breton and Welsh without any qualifying 

The Gaelic languages — Irish, Manx, and Scotch Gaelic — 
have a much closer connection with one another than the 
Brittonic languages. Till the Reformation and, indeed, for a 
century or more thereafter, the Irish and Scotch Gaelic had a 
common literary language, though the spoken tongues had 
diverged considerably, a divergence which can be traced even in 
the oldest of our Gaelic documents — the Book of Deer. In the 
eighteenth century Scotch Gaelic broke completely with the 
Irish and began a literary career of its own with a literary dialect 
that could be understood easily aU over the Highlands and Isles. 
Manx is more allied to Scotch Gaelic than it is to the Irish ; it 
is, in fact, a remnant of the Gaelic of the Kingdom of the Isles. 

The oldest monuments of Gadelic literature are the Ogam 
inscriptions, which were cut on the stones marking the graves of 
men of the Gaelic race. They are found in South Ireland, Wales 
and Eastern Pictland as far as the Shetland Isles, and belong mostly 
to the fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth centuries. The alphabet, 
which is formed on a proto-telegraphic system by so many strokes 
for each letter above, through, or below a stem line, is as 
Joliows : — 

I M il l nil mil ' " '" "" ""■ 

b, 1, f, s, n ; h, d, t, c, q ; 

I II III lilt Hill I II III n i l iii i i 

m, g, ng, z, r ; a, o, a, e, i. 

Examples of Ogam inscriptions are : — 

Sagramni maqi Cunotami 

" (The stone) of Sagramnos son of Cunotamus." 


Maqi Deceddas avi Toranias 

" Of the son of Deces 0' Toranis." 

Cimanettas m[aqij mucoi Nettasegamonas 

" Of Cunanes son of the son of Nettasegamon." 

Tria maqa Mailagni 

" Of the three sons of Maolan." 

These examples show that the state of declensional inflection was 
as high as that of contemporary Latin. The genitives in i belong 
to the declension ; the i, as in Old Irish, is not taken yet into 
the preceding syllable {maqi has not become maic). The genitives 
OS and as belong to the consonantal declension, and the hesitation 
liotween a and o is interesting, for the later language presents 
the same phenomenon — the o in unaccented syllables being 
dulled to a. The Ogam language seems to have been a preserved 
literary language ; its inflections were antique compared to tho 
spoken language, and Old Irish, so near it in time as almost to be 
contemporary, is vastly changed and decayed compared to it. 

Irish is divided into the following four leading periods : — 

I. Old Irish : from about 800 to 1000 a.d. This is the period 

of the glosses and marginal comments on MSS. Besides 
some scraps of poetry and prose entered on MS. margins, 
there is the Book of Armagh (tenth century), which contains 
continuous Old Irish narrative. 

II. Early Irish, or Early Middle Irish : from 1000 to 1200 a.d 

— practically the period of Irish independence after the- 
supersession of the Danes at Clontarf and before the English 
conquest. The two great MSS. of Lebor na h-uidre, the- 
Book of the Dun Cow, and the Book of Leinstor mark this- 
period. Many documents, such as Cormac's Glossary, claimed 
for the earlier period, are, on account of their appearance in 
later MSS., considered in this work to belong to this period. 

III. Middle Irish : from 1200 to 1550 (and in the case of the- 
Four Masters and O'Clery even to the seventeenth century in 
many instances). The chief MSS. here are the Yellow Book of 
Lecan, the Book of Ballimote, the Leabar Breac or Speckled 
Book, and the Book of Lismore. 

IV. Modern or New Irish, here called Irish : from 1550 to the 
present time. 

As already said, the literary language of Ireland and Scotlar.d 
remained the same till about 1700, with, however, here and there 
an outburst of independence. The oldest document of Scottish. 
Gaelic is the Book of Deer, a MS. which contains half a dozen, 
entries in Gaelic of grants of land made to the monastery of Deer.. 


The entries belong to the eleventh and twelfth centuries, the most 
important being the first — the Legend of Deer, extending to 19 
lines of continuous prose. These entries form what we call Old 
Gaelic, but the language is Early Irish of an advanced or phoneti- 
cally decayed kind. The next document is the Book of the Dean 
of Lismore, written about 1512 in phonetic Gaelic, so that we may 
take it as representing the Scotch vernacular of the time in 
inflexion and pronunciation. It differs considerably from the 
contemporary late Middle Irish ; it is more phonetically decayed. 
We call it here Middle Gaelic, a term which also includes the 
MSS. of the M'Vurich seanachies. The Fernaig MSS., written 
about 1 688, is also phonetic in its spelling, and forms a valuable 
link in the chain of Scotch Gaelic phonetics from the Book of 
Deer till now. The term Gaelic means Modem Gaelic. 

Scotch Gaelic is written on the orthographic lines of Modem 
Irish, which in its turn represents the orthography of Old Irish. 
The greatest departure from ancient methods consists in the 
insistence now upon the rule of " Broad to broad and small to 
small." That is to say, a consonant must be flanked by vowels of 
the same quality, the " broad" being a, o, u, and the " small" e 
and i. Gaelic itself has fallen much away from the inflexional 
fulness of Old Irish. Practically there are only two cases — nom. 
and gen : the dative is confined to the singular of feminine nouns 
(a-declension) and xo the plural of a few words as laid down in the 
grammars but not practised in speech. The rich verbal inflexion 
of the old language is extremely poorly represented by the 
impersonal and unchanging forms of the two tenses — only two — 
that remain in the indicative mood. Aspiration, which affects all 
consonants now (though unmarked for /, n, r), has come to play 
the part of inflection largely ; this is especially the case with the 
article, noun, and adjective. Eclipsis by n is practically un- 
known ; but phonetic decay is evidenced everywhere in the loss of 
Inflection and the uniformising of declension and conjugation. 

There are two main Dialects of Gaelic, and these again have 
many sub-dialects. The two leading Dialects are known as the 
Northern and Southern Dialects. The boundary between them 
is described as passing up the Firth of Lorn to Loch Leven, and 
then across from Ballachulish to the Grampians, and thence along 
that range. The Southern Dialect is more Irish than the 
Northern, and it has also adhered to the inflections better (e.g., 
-the dual case still exists in feminine a nouns). The crucial dis- 
tinction consists in the different way in which the Dialects deal 
with e derived from compensatory lengthening ; in the South it is 
tu, in the North ia (e.g., feur Against Jiar, b reng Agaimst briag, <fcc.) 
The sound of long ao differs materially in the two Dialects, the 


:Southern having the sound opener than the Northern Dialect. 
'The Southern Dialect is practically the literary language. 

Modem Gaelic has far more borrowed words than Irish at any 
stage of its existence. The languages borrowed from have been 
.mainly English (or Scotch) and Norse. Nearly all the loan-words 
taken directly from Latin belong to the Middle or Old period of 
■Gaelic and Irish ; and they belong to the domain of the Church 
and the learned and other secular work in which the monks and 
the rest of the clergy engaged, Many Latin words, too, have been 
borrowed from the English, which, in its turn, borrowed them 
•often from French (such as pns, cunntas, cuirt, spors, &o.) Latin 
words borrowed directly into English and passed into Gaelic are 
few, such as post, plasd, peur, &c. From native English and from 
Scotch a great vocabulary has been borrowed. In regard to 
Scotch, many words of French origin have come into Gaelic through 
it. At times it is difficult to decide whether the Teutonic word 
was borrowed from Scotch (English) or from Norse. The con- 
tributions from the Norse mostly belong to the sea ; in fact, most 
of the Gaelic shipping terms are Norse. 

Under the heading of Phonetics we deal with the sounds of 
the language — the vowels, semi-vowels, and consonants, separately 
and in their inter-action upon one another. 

§ 1. Alphabet. 

The Gaelic alphabet consists of eighteeri letters, viz., a, b, c, d, 
e, f, g, h, i, I, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, and u. Irish, Old and New, have 
the same letters as the Gaelic. As this number of letters in no 
way adequately represents the sounds, signs and combinations are 

Firstly, the long vowels are denoted by a grave accent : a, \, 
u, e, 6, the latter two having also the forms S, 6, to denote sounds 
analogous to those in English vein, boar. Whereas a, %, ii, which 
have only one sound, represent corresponding Indo-European 
.sounds (d, I, u), none of the long sounds of e or o represent a 
simple corresponding I. E. sound. 

The Gaelic vowels are divided into two classes — Abroad and 
.small. The broad vowels are a, o, u ; the small, e, i. The Gaelic 
•diphthongs represent (1) simple sounds, (2) real diphthong sounds, 
or (3) modification of the consonants and carrying out of the law 
of " broad to broad and small to small." They are as follows : — 

ai, ao 


ea, ei, eo, eu, eb 

ei, ei 

ia, io, iu, iu 




ua, ui 



Here ea, ei, eu represent 0. Ir. e, i, and are practically simple 
sounds, as certainly is ao whether long or short. The forms ia, 
ua are genuine diphthongs, as are usually the long vowel com- 
binations. The rest may he diphthongs, or may be a trick of 
spelling, as in the word ^os (0. \r.fis), where the o shows that the 
s has its normal sound, and not that of sh, as fis would imply. 

Triphthongs occur in the course of inflection, and in the case 
of ao otherwise. These are — aoi, eoi, iai, iui, uai, ehi, iid. 

The consonants are classified in accordance with the positioQ 
of the organs of speech concerned in their utterance : — 

I. Liquids. — The liquids are I and r, with the nasals n and m. 
In writing, m only is " aspirated," becoming to the eye mh, to the 
ear a v with nasal influence on the preceding vowel. The other 
liquids, I, n, and r, are really aspirated in positions requiring- 
aspiration, though no h is attached to show it. There is, however, 
only a slight change of sound made in these letters by the aspira- 
tion — a more voiced sound being given them in the aspirating 

II. Mutes and Explosives. — These all suffer aspiration when 
intervocalic. They are classified as follows :^- 

Tenues. Mediae. Aspirates. 

Labials p b ph,bh 

Dentals t ^ d th, dh 

Gutturals c g ch, gh 

The dentals d and t become spirants when in contact with, or 
flanked by, the " small" vowels e and i. The other mutes are not 
afiected by such contact. The aspirate sounds are — ph=fy 
bh = v, th = h, dh and gh=y, cA = German and Scotch ch. 

III. The Spirants. — These, outside the above spiraut-made 
mutes, are / and s. The sound sh is represented by s flanked with 
" small" vowels. The aspirate forms of these are — fh ( = the 
Greek open breathing or nothing, practically), sh ( = A). 

Celtic Alphabet. 

The Celtic alphabet, as deduced from tho Neo-Celtic dialects, 
checked by Gaulish, possessed the following sounds : — 

I. Vowels : — 

Short — i, u, e, o, a 

Long — I ( = 1, e), u, e ( = ei), o ( = au), a,_{ = d, a) 

Diphthongs — ei, oi, ai, eu, oi, au 

II. Liquids — r, I, m, n 

III. Spirants — (A), s, j, v 


IV. Explosives : — Tenues. Medis. 

Labials — b 

Dentals t d 

Gutturals k, hv (p) g, gv (b) 

It has to be noted that Indo-European /> initial and intervocalic 
is lost in Celtic. Before another consonant, it manifests its former 
presence by certain results which still remain. Thus I. E. septn 
is G. seachd, swpno-s becomes suan. 

Indo-Evjropean Alphabet. 
By a comparison of the six Indo-European or Aryan language 
groups, the sounds possessed by the parent tongue may be 
inferred. The following is the form of the I. E. alphabet which is 
used in the present work : — 

I. Vowels : Short — i, u, e, o, a, 9 

Long — I, u, e, 0, a 
Diphthongs — ei, oi, ai, eu, ou, au 
ei, oi, ai, eu, ou, an 

II. Semi-vowels : i, u, represented in this work always by 

j, V. See the spirants. 

III. CONSONANT-VOWELS : r, I, Vl, 11, f, I, m, n 

IV. Liquids and Nasals : r, I, m, n 

V. Spirants -.j, v, s, z 

VI. Explosives : — Tenues. Mediae. Aspirates. 

Labial p h ph, bh 

Dental t d th, dh 

Palatal k g kh, gh 

Velar q g gh, gh 

§ 2. Vowel Modification. 
In Gaelic the vowel or vowel combination of a syllable may 
undergo " mutation" (German umlaut) in the course of inflection 
or word-building. This mutation is caused by the influence 
exerted backward by the vowel of the next syllable now or previ- 
ously existent. There are three classes of mutation in Gaelic 
caused either by a following (1) e or i, (2) a or o, or (3) u. 

Mutation by " e" or " i." 
a becomes (1) ai : cat, gen. cait, damh, g. daimh. 

(2) oi (with double liquids usually) : dall, pi. doill, 

clann, g. cloinne. 

(3) ui (with liquids) : ball, pi. buill, allt, g. uillt. 

Also where Irish shows o : balg, 0. Ir. bole, 
pi. builg ; so clag, fait, gal, fuil, car. 


(4) i : mac, g. mic. Dialectically ai becomes ei,. 
especially with liquids, and in ordinary G.. 
eile represents 0. Ir. aile ; so^seiUach, too. 
becomes (1) oi : sgoltadh, sgoilte. 

(2) ui : bonn, g. buinn, post, g. puist. 
u becomes ui : dubh, comp. duibhe. 
e becomes ei : beir for *bere, catch thou. 
a, b, u become ai, bi, ui : laimhe, bige, diiin. 
ao, eo, iu, ua become triphthongs. 
ea becomes (1) ei : each, g. eich. 

(2) i : ceann, g. cinn ; the usual mutation. 
eu, with liquids, becomes ebi : beul, g. bebil. It sometimes 

becomes ao : eudann, aodann. 
ia is restored to ^i : fiadh, g. feidh ; irregularly — -fiar, crooked, 

comp. _/iaire, biadh, g. bvlh. 
io becomes i : fionn, g. jinn. 

Mutation by "o" or "a." 
becomes a, a mutation of principal syllables rare in Irish : 

cas, Ir. cos, original *coxa ; cadal for codal. 
u becomes o : sruth, g. srotha ; nuadh, nodha. 
e becomes ea : cearc from cerca. 
i becomes ea -.fear from *virc-s. 
ei becomes ia : the stem feidh becomes fiadh in the nom. 

\ becomes lo : fior from *viro-s. 

Mutation by "«.'' 
A succeeding u affects only i or e ; it is a mutation which does 
not now operate. Thus iiodh comes from *vidu- (0. Ir. fid) ; bior 
from *beru (0. Ir. bir) ; sliochd from slektu- ; cionn from the dat. 
*eennu, from *cenno. 

§ 3. Indo-Eueopean and Gaelic Vowels. 

The representation in Gaelic of the I. E. vowels is very com- 
plicated owing to the principles of mutation discussed above. 

I.E. i. 

(1) Gaelic i, 0. Ir. i, W. y. 

bith, world, O. Ir. bith, W. byd, Br. bed : * bitu-s, root gi. So 
ith, fidir, nigh, fir (gen. and pi. of fear, as also nid from nead, 

(2) G. ea, 0. Ir. e. 

beaiha, live, 0. Ir. bethu : * bitus, stem * bitdt-, root gi. S 
eccdh, it, fear, geamhradh, meanbh, nead, seas, seasg, sleamhuinn 


(3) G. io, 0. Ir. i. 

G. fiodk, wood, 0. Ir. fid, W. ywydd, Br. gwez : *vidu-. So 
fix)s, iodh-. The io of fionn, 0. Ir. find is due to the liquid 
and medial mute, which together always preserve the i and 
even develop it from an original n or en (nb, iid, ng). 

(4) G., 0. Ir. in. 

This is a mutation by u : fliuch, wet, from *vliqu- : tiugh, 

* tiffllnS. 

I.E. II. 

(1) G., 0. Ir. u, W. w< (o). 

G., 0. Ir. srutk, stream, W. frwd : *srutu-s. So bun, dubh, 
guth, viuc, rausach, slugadk, smug, tulach. 
Here add G. ui : cluinn, luibh, uisge. 

(2) G., 0. Ir. 0. 

bonn, bottom, 0. Ir. bond, W. ban, *bundo-s. So bothan, con, 
dogs', do-, so-, domhan, dorus, torn, os, trod. 

IE. e. 

(1) G., 0. Ir. e, W. e. 

Simple e is rare in G. : leth, side, 0. Ir. leth, W. lied, *letos. 
So teth, hot. 

(2) G. ea, 0. Ir. e. 

G. eac/t, horse, 0. Ir. ech, W. ebo!, Lat. egwres. So numerous 
words — eadh, space, bean, heart, cearc, ceart, dearc, dearg, 
deas, fearg, geal, geas, meadhon, meamna, tneas, neart, reachd, 
seach, seachd, sean, searg, teach, teas, treabh. 

(3) G. ei, 0. Ir. e. 

G. beir, take, 0. Ir. berim, W. adfer, Lat. fero. So heil 
(meil), ceil,- ceirtle, ceithir, creid, deick, deis, ready, meirbh, 
seinn, teich, teine. 

(4) G., 0. Ir. i. 

G., 0. Ir. fine, tribe, root ven, 0. H. G. wini, Ag. S. wine, 
friend. So cineal, gin, ite, mil, misg, sinnsear, tigh. 

(5) G. io, 0. Ir., i. 

G. bior, spit, 0. Ir. bir, W. ber, Lat. veru. So iol-, sliochd, 
smior, hiolaire, ciomach, tioram. 

(6) Compensatory long vowels in G. and 0. Ir. These arise from 

loss of one consonant before another, one of which must be a 

a. ent becomes G. eud, 0. Ir. et. G. cevd, first, 0. Ir. cet, W. 
cynt. So seud, journey. Similarly enk ; G. breug, lie, 


0. Ir. hrec, *hrenM : enkt; G. euchd, E. Ir. echt (Of. 
creuchd, *crempt- ?) : ens ; G. ceus, crucify. Parallel to 
these forms in ent, enh are those in nt, nk, such as ceud, 
one hundred, 0. Ir. cl«, W. cant, Lat. centum (so deud, 
eug, geug). 

h. ell : in G. neul, cloud, 0. Ir. nSl, W. niwl. 
egr : in G. feur, grass, 0. Ir. fer, W. gwair. 
egn : in G:. feun, 0. Ir. /era : *vegno-s. 
etl : in G. sgeul, 0. Ir. seel, W. chwedl. 
etn : in G. e«», 0. Ir. dn, W. erfw. 

c. G. eadar and t^i^' show short vowels for original *enter and 
e«.i. This is due to sentence accent in the case of eadar 
and to the word accent in the case of thig or to both. 

For cewn, levm, etc., see under n. 

I.E. 0. 

(1) G., Ir. 0. 

G. CO-, comh-, with, 0. Ir. co-, com-, W. cy-, cyf-, *lcom-; so ro- 
( = Lat. •pro), fo ( = Gr. vno), nochd, naked, night, ochd, mol, 
hodhar, gonadh, gort, roth. 

(2) G., 0. Ir. u, ui. 

G., 0. Ir. muir, sea, W. m6r, Br. mor, from *mari. So dmim 
(*dros-men), guidhe, guil, guin, sguir, smidke, uidhe, uileann, 
uircean, gu, to, cii,-, fit-, fw- (for = *vor). 

(3) G. a, 0. Ir. o. 

G. cas, foot, 0. Ir. co«, W. coes, *cqxd. So amA, halg, call, faU, 
gart, garadh, calltuinn. So, too, compounds. With con as in 
cagnadh, cadal, cagar, caisg, as against coguis (0. Ir. concubus), 
with its u sound terminal. 

(4) Compensatory long vowels. 

G. dual, lock of hair, *doglo-. Got. tagl, Eng. tail. So 6Z 
(*potlo-), huain, (*bog-ni- or *bongni-), cluain, citan, hruan, 
srbn, comh-. 

I.E. a. 

(1) G. a, ai, 0. Ir. a, W. a. 

G., 0. Ir. can, sing, W. cana, Lat. can.o. So many words, 
such as abhainn, ad-, agh, air, altrum, anail, anarn, cac, 
damh, gad, mac, maide, Tnarc, nathair, salann, ifcc. 

(2) G. ft before rd, rn, m. 

See ^rd, bard, barr, cam, sgaird, cd,m. am, mam. 

(3) G. i. 

In two cases ojily : mac, g. mic ; sile, saliva, 0. Ir. saile. 


(4) G. U, ui. 

This happens in contact with liquids. The prep, air becomes 
ur-, uir-, uireashhuidh, urchar. So muigh from *magesi. 
Common in obhque cases : allt, g. uillt, ball, built, <fec. 

(5) G. ea, ei for e. 

G. seileaeh, willow, E. Ir. sail, W. helyg, Lat. salix. So 
ealtuinn, eile, eir- for air-, eilean, training, deigh, ice. 

(6) 6. oi. 

This change of I. E. a into Gaelic oi is due mostly to a liquid 
followed by a "small" vowel. 

G. oil, rear, E. Ir. ailim, Lat. alo. So oir for air-, coileach, 
goir, iroigh, coire, loinn, &c., and goid, oide. 

(7) Compensatory lengthenings in G. 

a. As a, ai : 

G. dail, meeting, 0. Ir. ddl, W. dadl, where -atlo- is the 
original combination, -agr- appears in naire, sar, ctr. 

b. As eu, ao, ia : 

It has been seen that ceud, hundred, corresponds to W. 
cant, Lat. centum. The Celtic, in these cases, is regarded 
as having been nt, nh, (*knto-n). See under n. 
An undoubted case of a landing by compensation into 
eu { = e) is deur, tear, 0. Ir. der, 0. W. dacr, 1. E. dakru. 
Prof. Strachan has extended this analogy to words like 
m.eur, breun, leine, sgeun, meanan. The case of deur 
seems rather to be an anomaly. 

LE. 5. 

This is the I.E. "indefinite" vowel, aijpearing in Celtic as a, 
in the Asiatic groups as i, and generally as a in Europe (Greek 
showing also e). Henry denotes it by a, a more convenient form 
than Brugmann's s. Some philologists refuse to recognise it. 

G. athair, father, 0. Ir. athir, I. E. pster-, Gr. Trar-qp, Skr. 

It is common in unaccented syllables, as G. anail, breath, 
W. anadl, *ansi-tla, Gr.^s.o'i. In the case of syllables with 
liquids it is difficult to decide whether we have to deal with a, s, 
or a liquid vowel ; as in G. ball, member, *bhal-no-, root bhsl, 
whence Gr. ^aA.Aos, Eng. bole. 

1. E. Long Vowels. 

I. E. ^ and u are so intimately bound with ei and eu (ou) 
that it is difficult to say often whether we have to deal with the 
simple vowel or the diphthong as the original. For i see li, sin, 
sgith, brxgh ; for u, see cm/, dhil (element), dun, cliu, much, muin, 
rim, ur. The W. in both cases (f, u) shows simple i. 


I. E. e appears ia Celtic as l, G. \ : as in G. fior, fir, true, 
0. Ir. fir, W. and Br. gudr, Lat. verus. So lion, mial, mios, righ, 
sith, stol, sior, tir, sriiomh. 

I. E, o and a appear both as a in the Celtic languages — 
Gadelic a, W. aw, Br. eu. For o, see Math, gnhih, lar, dan, snath. 
For d, see han, brathair, cnaimh, car, clar, ddtimh, faidh, gair,. 
maihair, shth, tamh.. 

I. E. Diphthongs. 

I. E. ei appears in G. in two forms — as ei and ia. Thus — 

a. G. ei, 0. Ir. ei, W. toy, Br. oe, oa. See feith, geill, mdith, 
reidh, s4id, smeid. 

h. G. ia, 0. Ir. ia. This is due to the influence of a succeed- 
ing broad vowel. See da, eiall, diat/iach, criathar, fiadh, 
flanuis, giall, iarunn, liagh, riadh, riar, sgiath, sliabh. 
Consider these — feuch, lean, gli, and, possibly, geadh. 

I. E. oi. This consistently appears in G. as ao long, 0. Ir., di, 
6i, later oe, ae, (6e, d'), W., Br. u. See caomh, claon, fraoch, 
gaoth, gaol, laogh, maoin, maoth, taobh. 

I. E. ai can with difficulty be differentiated from oi ; certainly 
not on Celtic ground, nor, indeed, outside Greek and Latin. The 
following are real cases : G. aois, caoch, santhair, taois. 

I. E. eu and ou are also confused together in the modern Celtic 
languages. They both appear as either G. ua or b. 

a. G. ua, 0. Ir. ua, W., Br. u. 

G. buaidh, victory, 0. Ir. buaid, W. bud, Gallo-British 
Boudicca, "Victoria." See also buachaill, duas, luath, 
ruadh, ruathar, truagh, tuath, uasal. 

b. G. b; as bdidheach from buaidh, trbcair from truagh, 

Ibchran, cos for cuas. 
I. E. au appears in G. as b or ua, much as do eu, ou. Thus — 
G. go, a lie, 0. Ir. go, gdu, W. gau, Br. gaou. Also bigh, virgin, 
from axigi-, fuachd, uaigneach. 

§ 4. I. E. Semi- Vowels and Consonant Vowels. 

The semi-vowels are denoted by Brugmanu as i and u, by 
Henry as y and w ; and these forms are used by them " not m'erely 
for intervocalic semi-vowels but also for the diphthongs which we 
have printed as ei, oi, ai, eu, ou, au, which Henry, for instance, 
prints as ey, ew, etc. In this work Fick is followed in the forms 
of the diphthongs, and also, where necessary, in his signs for the 
semi-vowels, viz., y and v, with/ and v as signs for the spirants. 

I. E. y, j, V. 
I. E. y and j disappear in Gadelic, but are preserved in the 
Brittonic as i. Thus loc, heal, 0. Ir. iccaim, W.jach, I.E. yahos, Gr. 


ci/cos, Skr. ydgas; see deigh and bg. For I. E. y, compare G. ebrna, 
for ed-ma, *jevo-, Gr. feta, spelt, Skr. ydva : also ewe/, jealousy, 
*jantv^, Gr. f^Aos, zeal, Skr. yatnd. 

I. E. i; is thus dealt with : — 

(1) Initial v : G., 0. Ir. /, W. gw, as in G. fait, hair, Ir. folt, W. 

gwalt ; also faidh, Lat. v(?ie«, feackd, fear, Lat. ■uir, fiadh, 
fichead, fine, fiodh, with succeeding consonant in ^a<A l*vlati-), 
fliuch, fraoch, fras, freumk, etc. 

(2) Intervocalic i). This disappears iu G. leaving the vowels to 

coalesce with varying results, thus : — 

a. -ivo- produces ed, as in ieb, *givo-s, Lat. vivus, or ia in 

hiadh (*bivoto-n), dian. 

b. -evo- produces eb, as in ceb, *skevo-, Eng. shower, deb, W. 

dywy, *devo-, Lat. fdmus, ebrna. Stokes gives cLiii as 
*Mevos, Thumeysen as /doves-. 

c. -ovi- gives nuadh, *novios, -ovo- in crb (*krovos), -ovn- in dg. 

d. -avi- in ogha (*pavios), dath (*david), -avo- in clb. 

e. -eivi- in gle, -eivo- in dia. 

(3) Post-consonantal v. 

a. After liquids it becomes bh. See garbh, marbh, searbk,. 

tarbh, dealbh, sealhh, meanbh, banhh. 

b. After explosives. It disappears save after d, (gv) : feadhbh, 

widow, 0. Ir. fedb, faobh, baohh. For gv, see g below. 

c. After s, it sometimes disappears, sometimes not. Thus 

piuthar is for *svesdr, 0. [r. siur, whereas in searbh 
(*svervo-s), solus (but follas), seinn, etc., it disappears. 

The Consonant Vowels. 

These are r, I, n, m ; f, I, n, in. The regular representation 
of r, I in G. is ri, li (mutated forms being rea, rei, lea, lei). See 
the follovdng regular forms : bris, britheamh, fri, lit ; also the 
modified forms — bleath, bleoghainn, breith, cleith, dreach, leamhann, 
leathan (?), sreath. 

The numerous Gaelic a forms of I. E. e roots containing 
liquids fall to be noticed here. Some of them Brugmann explains 
as glides before sonants, somewhat thus : G. mar, remain, 0. Ir. 
maraim, would be from mrra-, root rrur, Lat. mora ; so sgar from 
sker ; garbh, marbh. 

Add the following : — alt, carbad (Lat. corbis), barr, bhrd, cairt, 
garg, mall, dall, sgaird (Lat. muscerda), tart, tar ; fras, fiath, 
fraigh, graigh, braieh. With modified vowels in — coille (*caldet-),. 
doire, foil, goile, goirid, sgoilt. 

The long vowels f and I appear regularly as ra (?), la. See Ian 
(*pf^o-, Skr. pumas), slan, tlath, blath. Long f seems to appeal^ 
as dr in dddr, maireach, faireag (?). 


Vocalic n and m may be looked for in G. samhail, which 
Brugmann explains as smmlli-s, in tana, thin ; reversed in magh 
and nasg. 

Compensatory n plays a great part in G., appearing usually as 
-eu (ao). We have ceud, hundred, W. cant, deud, W. dant, tend, 
«ud, eug, eudann, eiginn, geug. The negative ■>}, appears before 
vowels as an, before c, t, and s, as eu, ei : eutrom, ^islean, &a. 
The most curious result arises from -ngm-, which ends in G. as 
eum^; see cewm, W. cam, leum, W. lam, and add tewm, W. tam, from 

Before the medials b, d, g, both n and m become in (ion), im 
■{iom), and original in retains its i (cL fionn). Thus we have im-, 
■iom- from mhi, Lat. amhi, also \m, ionga, imleag, ciomach. 

I. E. "r" and" l" Liquids. 

Gaelic r and I represent the I. E. liquids r and I. Initially we 
may select ramh, reachd, ruadh, rim, loch, laigh, labhair, leth ; 
after p lost — ro, rhth, lamh, ikn, lar. Medially r and I are 
" aspirated," but the sounds have no separate signs — dorus, tulach, 
geal, meil, eile, seileach, etc. Post-consonantal r and I appear in 
sruth, srath, etc., cluinn, fiiuch, slugadh, etc. In -ir, -tr, ^r, the 
combinations become -bhar, -thar, -dhar, while in -cr, -gr, -hi, -tl, 
-dl, -cl, -gl the respective explosives disappear with lengthening 
of the preceding vowel. For -si, see below {-It). 

Ante-consonantal r and I preserve the explosives after them — 
■ard, hard, ceart, mart, dearg, dearc, allt, calltuinn, gilh, halg, cealg, 
olc, etc. 

Gaelic -rr arises from -rs ; see harr, earr, carraig ; from the 
meeting of r with r, as in atharrach ; from rih, as in orra from 
ortha, Lat. orationem. Again -II comes from -si, as in uaill, coll, 
ciall, etc. ; especially from -In-, as in follas, hall, feall, etc, ; from 
-Id-, as in call, coille, and many others. 

I. E. " n" and " m" JVasals. 

I. E. n and m appear normally in G. as n and m, save that I. E. 
terminal m in neuter nouns, accusative cases, and genitives plural, 
became in Celtic n. (1) Initial n appears in nead, Eng. nest, 
neart, neul, nochd, naked, night, nathair, nuadh, nasg, na, not, etc. 
(2) After an initial mute, n appears in cndimh, cneadh, cnb, gnath, 
€tc. After s, in snath, smomh, snuadh, snigh, sneachd. After b it 
changes the 6 into m (mnatha for *bnds). (3) Intervocalic n is 
preserved — bean, Ian, maoin, dd/n, run, dun, sean, etc. (4). Pre- 
consonantal n is dealt with variously : 

a. Before the liquids, n is assimilated to m and I, and dis- 
appears before r. 


b. Before the labials, n becomes m in modern Gaelic, though 

words like inhhir show the old phonetics. Before t, c, 
the n disappears with lengthening of the previous vowel, 
as in ceud, first, hreug, c6ig. Before d and g, it is- 
preserved, as iu cumhang, fulaing, muing, seang,. 
but it assimilates d—fionn (*vindo-s), honn, inn-, binn. 
For -ngm, see under n and g. 

c. Before s, n disappears as before t and c. Compare mios,. 

feusag, gnos, sk>s. 

(5) Post-consonantal n disappears after I, leaving U (see under I),. 
but is preserved after r, as in cam, ebrna, tigheama, etc. 

a. After s, that is, -sn becomes -nn ; as in dronn for- 
*dros-no-, dorm, uinnsean, cannach, hruinne, etc. 

6. The mutes, t, d, c, g, p, disappear with compensatory 
lengthening of the previous vowel : -<ji-, as in eun, buan, 
iiin ; -dri^, as in bruan, smuxiin ; -en is doubtful — cf. ixm, 
also sgeun, breun, lebn ; -gn, as in feun, brbn, nan, srbn ; 
-pn, as in suain, clvmn, cuan. 

c. After b, that is, hn changes into mh-n, as in domhan 
(*dubno-), sleamhuinn. 

The G. combination -nn arises therefore from (1) Ji before n, 
(2) n before d, and (3) from sn ; or (4) it is a doubling of n in an 
unaccented syllable at the end of a word (fighinn, etc.), or, rarely,, 
of a one-syllable word like cinn, chdnn, linn. 

Initial m appears in Tnhos, muir, mil, maide, etc. Before the 
liquids r and I, the m becomes b, as in braich, brath, hrvigh, blath, 
hleath, bleoghainn. Intervocalic m is always aspirated — geimheal, 
amhuil, like, cruimh, amh, dawk, cnaimh, laimh, caomh. In com- 
binations with other consonants, various results occur : — 

(1) Pre-consonantal m. 

a. Before liquids, m is preserved in an aspirated form 
{geamh^adh, etc), but there are no certain ancient cases.. 
Of course, m before m, results in preserved m (cf. amxidan, 
comas, comain). 

h. Before s, m should disappear, but no certain Celtic cases 
seem to occur. In the historic language, m before s 
results in mp or p as usually pronounced, as in rompa 
for row, + so, that is, *rom-sho ; so iompaidh, umpa. 

c. Before the explosives. Original mb is now m, as in the 
prefix im-, iow,-, in imleag, torn. I. E. m before t and h 
{q) became n (as in cevd, breug), and disappeared with 
compensatory lengthening. Compare also dhdean^ 
eridinn. Prehistoric mg, wd fail ns ; in the present 
language both appear aspirated (mhgh, whdK). 


(2) Post-consonantal m. After the liquids r, I, and n, the wi is 
preserved. Whether an intermediate s is in some oases to be 
postulated is a matter of doubt (as in gairm, from *gar-s- 
men ? W. garm). See cuirm, (W. cwrw), gorm, seirm, deilm, 
calma, ainm, meamna, anmoch. 

After s, m becomes in the older language mm, now m ; druim 
comes from *dros-men. But s is very usual as an intermediate 
letter between a previous consonant and m : many roots appear 
with an additional s, which may originally have belonged to an -es 
neuter stem. We actually see such a development in a word like 
snaim, which in E. Ir. appears as miaidm (d. snaidmaimm), from a 
Celtic * snades-men. In any case, a word like rvmm postulates a 
Pre-Celtic *rovd-s-men. See also gruaim, seaman, riim, lom, trom. 

After the explosives the m is aspirated and the explosive dis- 
appears, as in the case of freumh (vrdmd) ; but seemingly the 
accented prefix ad- preserves the m : cf . amas, aTnail, aimsir. 

Preserved G. m, intervocalic or final, may arise from (1) m or 
n before m, (2) s before m (also -hsm, -tsm, -dsm, -csm, -gsm), (3) 
-ngvi or- ngTn, as in ceum, leum, beum, geum, or -ndm as in teum, 
(4) ng becoming mh as in im, tumadh, torn, etc., or (5) -mb (-mbh), 
as in im^, iom-. 

§ 5. Vowel Gradation oe Ablaut. 

The most characteristic roots of the I. E. languages are at least 
triple-barrelled, so to speak : they show three grades of vowels. 
The root pet, for instance, in Greek appears as pet, pot, pt 
(ireTo/iat, fly, Trordofiai,, flutter, Trrepov, wing). The first grade — 
e — may be called the " normal" grade, the second the " deflected" 
grade, and the last — pt — the "reduced" or "weak" grade. The 
reason for the reduced grade is evident ; the chief accent is on 
another syllable. Why e interchanges with o is not clear. The 
leading I. E. series of vowel gradations are six in number, as 
follows : — 

Normal. Deflected. Weak. 

1. e-series e o nil 

but ei oi i 

2. e-series e o s> 

3. a-series a o s 

4. o-series 605 

5. a-series a a, (a) 

6. o-series o (o) 

Corresponding to the e, 0, nil series are the two " strong" 
vowel grades e, o, as in sed, sit, sod, sed, sod, si-zd, found in Latin 
■sedeo (sed), G. suidhe {sod), G. svlh, peace {sed), Eng. soot {sod), 
Xat. sedi {si-zd). 


The e-series in full is as follows : — 

Normal. Deflected. Weak. 

e simple e o nil 

ei ei oi i 

eu eu ou u 

er (or el, en, em) er or r 

To all these correspond " reduced" long forms — to ei belongs i, to 
eu belongs u, and to the consonant- vowels correspond the longs f, I, 
n, m. We may also here add the triple ve, vo, u {vet, vot, ut, as in 
G. feitheamh, uine, uiridh). 

Some Gaelic examples will now be given. 

(1) The p-series. G. eadh, uidhe from *pedo-, *'podio- ; tigh, tugha 
from *tegos, *tngio-; geas, guidhe from ged, god; cleachd, 
cleas, clutch, etc. In ei we have the complete set rneit, moit, 
mit in meith, maoth, meata or miosa ; further cliathach, daon 
from klei, kloi ; fianuis, fis from veid, vid , gaoth, geamhradh 
from ghoi, ghi ; and others. The diphthongs eu, ou cannot 
be differentiated, but the short form of the root occurs, as in 
ruadh, roduidh from roud, rudd ; huail, huille from hhoud, 
bhud ; cluas, cluinn from kleu, klu ; nuadh, nodha (?). The 
liquids show the changes also : heir, breith from ber, br, and 
in the sense of speech we have also brath, judgment (bftu-). 
The root pel is especially rich in forms : iol {*pelu-), uile 
(*polio-), lion {*pleno-, Lat. plenus, from pie), Ian (either 
*pl6no, plo, Eng. flood, or * pl-no-, from pV), that is, root 
forms pel, pol, pi, pie, plo, pi, meaning " full." In n we have 
teann, tana (*tendo-, tnnavo-, according to Brugmann), and 
teud ; from gen we get the long forms gne in gn\omh and gno 
in gnath. In nem we have neamh, heaven, 0. Ir. nem, and 
namhaiJ, foe, from nom (Gr. vtafidui). 

{2) The e and other series. One of the best examples of the e 
series is sne, sno (sua), spin, which gives snlomh {*snemu-) and 
snath, thread (^sndtio-). From se come siol (*sglQ-) and, 
possibly, sd,th, transfix (soto-). The a- series is not differ- 
entiated in G. nor is the o- series ; but from a short we get, 
among others, the root dg, lead, in aghaidh, etc., and dg in 
agh, success, d,ghach, warlike. The diphthong ai has as its 
" reduced" grade I. The name Aoidk in Mackay represents 
0. Ir. Aed, aed, fire, Gr. atOb), I bum. 

§ 6. The Spieants. 

The I. E. spirants were j, v, s, and z. We have already dis- 
cussed j and V under the heading of semi- vowels, from which it is 


difficult to differentiate the consonantal 7' and v. Here we deal 
with s and z, and first with s. 

(1) Initial s. Before vowels and the liquids, I. E. s remains intact 

in Gadelic. In Brittonic s before vowels becomes h, before 
I, n, and m, it disappears, while before r-it or its resultant 
effect is preserved (see s,rv,th, srath, srbn). 

a. I. E. sv appears in Gadelic as s usually, more rarely as / 

and p or t; in W. the form is chw. See searbh, seal, sia, 
sihh, s^id, etc. The G. piuthar appears in Ir. as siur, 
fiur, from *svesor, while pill (*svelni-) gives fill and till -y 
compare also s^ist and t^is. 

b. I. E. sp (sph) is treated in Celtic much as sv. And spr 

appears as sr ; cf. srbn, straighlich. 

I. "El. St appears in Gadelic as t, as in tigh, fa, tighinn, taois. 
But str, stl, become sr, si, as in srath, sreothart, sreang, 
slios, slat, sloinn, slaid. Some hold that st may appear 
as simple s, which is the case in Welsh, but the instances 
adduced can be otherwise explained (cf. seirc, sd,ir). 

I. E. sq, sqh appear in Gaelic as sg, 0. Ir. sc, as in sgcbth, 
sgath, sguir, etc. The W. precedes the sg with a y as in 
ysgwyd, Ir. sgiath, G. sgiath, shield : I. E. sqv is in W. 
chw, as G. sgeul, W. chwedl, sgeith, W. chwydu. 

(2) Intervocalic s. This becomes h and disappears ; compare tagh. 

(^to-gus6), do-, ch\, etc. 

(3) Terminal s disappears altogether ; but in closely connected 

combinations of words its former existence is known from the 
so-called euphonic h, as in the article genitive feminine and 
nom. plural before vowels (na li-bighean = * sendds augeis), and 
it may be the origin in most cases of prothetic s. 

(4) Pre-consonantal s. A pre-historic case of -sr is not forth- 

coming, but ^irich comes from *ek-s-reg6. Before I, m, and n 
the s disappears, and the liquid is doubled (m of Gaelic being 
for older mm), as already shown under these letters. Medial 
sv appears as / in the older language (see seinn), and it is 
still seen in tabhann {*to-sven-), feabhas. 

Before the explosives, s is preserved before the tenues, which 
in the modern language become mediae. The combination 
-sp is not certain ; but -sc becomes -sg (see fasgadh, seasg, 
measg, etc.), st becomes s (older ss) simply, as in seas 
(^ = *sisto-), fois, fds, dos, etc. Before the medials s becomes 
z, which see for the results in Gaelic. 


(5) Post-consonantal s. After the liquid r the s is assimilated to 
the r, and the result is rr, as in barr, earr, etc. From -Is- 
seemingly s results, at least in the later language ; -ms, -ns 
become 5 ynth compensatory lengthening for the previous 
Towel. For msh = mp, see under m. 
The explosives combine with the s and disappear into 0. Ir. s-', 
now s, as in itasal (^ = *oups- or *ouks-), lits, leas {*led-so-), 
lios, as. out ( = eks), and many others. 

Gaelic preserved s intervocalic, therefore, arises from (1) st, as 
in seas ; (2) from -ms, -ns, as in mtos ; and (3) from -ps, -ts, -cs. 
Gaelic -st arises from this s by a sort of modern restoration of 
previous st, only, however, x may also become modern st (as in 
aisde, out of her). 

I. E. z. 

Even in I. £. this is assured only before the medial explosives. 
Thus G. neud, nest, is from I. E. nizdo-s ; so maide, brod, cead, 
gad, siid. Again -zg seems to have developed in G. into g; compare 
beag, biog, meag, griogag, eagal ( = ex-gal-). 

§ 7. The Explosives or Mutes. 

The I. E. explosives formed a possible sixteen in number 
between tenues, mediae and the double set of aspirates (ph, bh, tk, 
dh, kh, gh, qh, gh). The tenues aspirate were " rare and of no 
importance " in the resulting languages, save only in Sanskrit and 
Greek. The mediae aspirates are the predecessors of aspirates of 
the modem languages. But in the Celtic languages these mediae 
aspirates were merged into the mediae themselves, so that b and 
b/i appear in Celtic as b, d and dh as d, g and gh as g, and g and 
ffh as g. The Balto-Slavonic, in this matter, shares the peculiarity 
of the Celtic. 

All the explosives, when intervocalic, are " aspirated" in Gaelic 
— p to ph, b to bh { = v), t to th { = h), d to dh { = y), c to ch, g to 
gh { = y') ; the corresponding Welsh changes are the tenues to 
mediae, and the mediae to /, dd, and nii in the case of g. Inter- 
vocalic preserved explosives in Gaelic arise from a doubling of the 
explosive, the cause of which in many cases is obscure. The fol- 
lowing are the leading cases and causes of intervocalic G. mutes : 

(I) Doubling of the explosive in the course of inflection or word- 

a. Inflection. The participle passive in -te preserves the t or 
d of the root as t ; thus caith gives caite, bath (for bMh) 
gives bdite, radh gives raite, etc. 



b. Word-building. The prepositional prefixes which end or 
ended in a consonant preserve the succeeding explosive ; 
even vowel-ending prepositions like air {*are), aith- 
{*ati) do the same, if the accent is on the preposition. 
Thus — abair is for ad-ber, aitreabh is for ad-treb, aidich 
is for ad-dam, faic for ad-ces-, agair for ad-gar. In the 
way of affixes, we have ruiteach from rudr-t and ruicean 
from rud-c, creid from *cred-dhd ; compare the compounds 
boidonn, lao'cionn, and craicionn. 

(2) After sunk n or m. Thus devd comes from dijt, and so with 

ceud, tend; eeud, first, from * cento-, so sevd ; eug iiom. Tpko-, 

(3) After sunk spirant z. This is assured for zd, as in brod 

(*broz-do-, Norse hroddr), cead, gad, maide, nead ; but zg 
giving g is doubtful — eagal seems for *es-gal or * ex-gal-, 
beag for gvezgo-s (Lat. vescus), meag for mezgo-. 

(4) Cases corresponding to double explosives in other languages : 

cat and Lat. catta (borrowing ?), cax: and Gr. kukkt;. Compare 
also slugadh. 

(5) Doubtful cases. Many of these cases can be satisfactorily 

explained as due to suffixes immediately affixed to consonant- 
ending roots. Thus brat may be for grat-to-, trod for trud-do-, 
IOC for *yak-ko; breac for mrg-ko-. Even suffixes in -bho- and 
-go- are not unknown, and they might account for reub 
{*reib-bo-, *reib-bho-, Eng. reap, rip), slug for slug-go-, etc. Dr 
Whitley Stokes has given a different theory founded on the 
analogy of a Teutonic phonetical law, stated thus by Brug- 
mann : " bn, dn, gn became bb, dd, gg before the principal 
accent in primitive Teutonic, thence pp, tt, kh (by Grimm's 
law), which were further treated just the same as pp, tt, kk, 
which had arisen from pn, tn, qn, and from I. E. bhn, dhn, 
gkn, ghn. . . . 0. H. G. sluccko, slukko, glutton \^sluk-no-^, 
M. H. G. sluchen, gulp, have hiccup, allied to Gr. Xv^o, 
X.vyyavdo[jMi, I have hiccup." These last words are allied to 
G. slugadh, which Dr Stokes refers to a pre-Celtic *slag-n6-, 
the accent being on the suffix -no-. The weakness of this 
hypothesis lies in the fact that uniform results are not found 
from it. Thus breac, from mrg-n6-, should be breag, not breac, 
on the analogy of slug. 

I. E. p. 
Initial and intervocalic I. E. p disappears in Gaelic, as in 

athair, Lat. pater, eun for * pet-no-, eadh for pedo-, iasg against Lat. 

piscis, ibh against bibo (for pibo), Ian against Lat. plenus, Idr and 

Eng. floor, etc. For intervocalic p, see fo (^upo), for, teth, 

caora {* kaperax), saor (^sapiros), etc. 


Lat. and G. agree in the initial of the numeral five — quinque 
and cbig, though the I. E. was penqe. In feasgar the G. guttural- 
ises an original vesperos without Latin countenancing it. Initial sp 
appears as s ; see sealg, spleen, sonn, sliseag, sine. 

When p appears before the liquids and t, c, or s, it is not lost 
in G. ; it leaves its influence either in a new combination or in 
-compensatory lengthening. Thus suain is for supno-s, and see 
cluain, cuan. G. dias seems from *steip-s-d, W. twt/s, and itasaZ 
may have had an original form like vxf/rjXos, Eng. up. In seachd, 
Lat. septem, the p is gutturalised ; we may add here,* neachd, 

0. Ir. Tiecht, Lat. neptis, Eng. niece; cretichd, reaahd. Possibly 
■leac may be for lep-kd. 

G. intervocalic p is, of course, due to some combination. In 
leapa, genitive of ledbaidh, it arises from * leh-tha ; and we must 
explain similarly tap {*tabaidh becoming *tab-tha i ; so raip, streap. 

For t taking the place of p through an initial h compare the 
■derivations offered for tore, turlach, tuil, tlam, tlits for luths. 

LE. b, bh. 

These two become h in Gaelic and the other Celtic languages. 

1. E. b is rare in any language ; in G. it appears in ibhim {*pibd), 
treabh, domhain and driichd (* dhreub-tu-). 

(1) Initial I. E. bh, G. b. See beir, halg, ball, bd,n, blath, bloom, 

hragh, bruthainn, buaidh. 

(2) Intervocalic I. E. bh, G. bh ( = v), 0. Ir. b, W. / See abhainn, 

crabhach, dubh, gobhal. 

(3) Pre-consonantal bh or b. 

a. Before r it remains — abhra, gabhar, dobhar, Gaul, dubrum. 

b. Before I it disappears with compensatory lengthening — 

neul for neblo-s. 

c. Before n it becomes mh now — sleamhuinn is for *slibno-s, 

Eng. slippnry ; so domhain. These are I. E. 6. 

d. Before t, I. E. b becomes ch as in druchd. 

■(4) Post-consonantal 6, bh. It is preserved after the liquids r and 
I — carbad, cearb, earb, gilb, sgolh. After m it preserves the 
m, as in im-, iom- from mbi, ambi. After s it is preserved 
in eabar; after d in abair, lebb, faob, aobrann; perhaps after 
g in leabaidh, *leg-buti- (?). 

{b) Gaelic intervocalic b. In reub and gob we seem to have a 
suffix -bo-, *reib-bo-, gob-bo ; also cliob from clib-bo-, root qlg, 
Gr. KoXoySos, stumpy (?). Oftenest b is produced from a 
previous d, especially of the prefixes — as abair, abadh, faob, 
etc. (see the paragraph above). 


I.E. t. 

Initially this is Celtic t; intervocalic, it is aspirated, and 
otherwise it is yariously modified. 

(1) Initial t, G., 0. Ir., W. t. See, among many, timgh, tar, teth, 

teich, tais, tora, tlkih, tnilth, tri, treahh. 

(2) Intervocalic t, G. th ( = A), O. Ir. th (d), W. d. See athair, 

mathair, ith, roth, ceithir, letk, etc. Sometimes in non-accented 
syllables it appears as dh, as in biadh from *bivoto-s, and this 
is always the case with the infinitives in -atu- (glan-adh). 
Irregularly fdtidh for faith. 

(3) Pre-consonantal t not initial. Before r it is preserved, as in 

eriathar, hriathar, etc. Before I it disappears with com- 
pensatory lengthening — sgeul, W. chwedl, bl, beul, etc. ; so 
before n, as in eun. Before $ the t disappears and the f is 
preserved, as in miosa, ris, sets. Words like fios are from 
vid-s-tvr-, formerly explained as from vid-tv^. Before anotlier 
t, t is preserved in the resultant t of G., as in ite, etc. ; -td- 
seems to become -dd- ; -tc- becomes 0. Ir. cc, G. c, as in 
freiceadan; -tg- becomes gg, that is g, as in freagair. 

(4) Post-consonantal t. After r and I it is preserved, as in heart, ■ 

ceart, ceirtle, alt, fait ; after n and m it sinks to d, as in ceud, 
etc. As seen -ht becomes -chd, as in driichd, while -pt is in 
seachd. After c or g, the t sinks in G. to d, preserving the 
guttural as an aspirate : ochd, nochd, bochd, reachd. 0. Ir. 
has -cht here and W. th. 

(5) Gaelic intervocalic *. The « of a root is preserved when the 

suffix begins in *, as in caite, spent, in ite, 0. Ir. ette, *pet-tid, 
lit, *plt-tion^. The d of the prefixes preserves it, as in aitreabh, 
taitinn, ruiteach. The t of the following does not belong to 
the ultimate root : ciotach, * sqvi-tto-, Eng. skew, croit, root 
hur, lot, root lu. 

I. E. d, dh. 

This is a uniform Celtic d initial ; Gaelic dh between vowels 
and W. dd. 

(1) Initial d, dh. See deas, dearc, deich, druim, ditn, damh, etc., 

for d ; for dh, dubh, domhan, dearg, dorus, dall ; also dlighe, 

(2) Intervocalic d, dh. See jiodh, *vidu-, eadh, suidhe, fiadh, 

guidhe, etc. 

(3) Pre-consonantal d, dh non-initial. Before r, I, n, the d dis- 

appears with compensatory lengthening, as in d,ireamh 
(* ad-rim-), aros, arach, buail (*boud-lo-), but buille is for 
*bud-s-lio- ; smuain for smoud-no-. Before m it sometimes 


disappears, as in frewmh, *vrd-md, but with an accented 
prefix the d and m become m, as in aimsir, amal. With s it 
coalesces into s, as in musach, or in uisge for *uds-qio-, or fios 
for *vid-s-tv^. Before the explosives, with b it coalesces to bb, 
now 6, as in abair, etc. So with t, as in aitreabh ; with d, as 
in aidich ; with c, as in faic ; with g, as in agair. 

(4) Post-consonantal d, dh. The liquid r preserves a following d, 

as in ard, bard, sg&ird, ord, etc. It assimilates with I, as in 
coille, call, moll, mullach ; and with n, in ftonn, 0. Ir. ji?«(^, 
6o»re, 0. Ir. bond, binn. For zd, see next paragraph. The 
explosives before d are unusual, save f and t^, for which see 
next paragraph. 

(5) Intervocalic G. d. There are three sources at least for this 


a. The d from nt in ceud, tevd, bend, etc. 

6. The d arising from the spirant z before d, as in brod, 

"^brozdo-, cead, gad, maide, nead, druid. 
c. From -dd- as in creid, goid, rodaidh, trod, etc.; also aidich, 


I.E. "k" and"q." 

These appear in G. uniformly as c / but in the Brittonic 
languages q, iJE labialised, becomes p as in Greek. 

{1) Initial k. See cluinn, cit, ceud, hundred, cac, cridhe, caomh, 
Initial q simple. See caraid, W. cdr, cevd, first, W. cynt, coille, 

W. celli, COS, W. coes, coileach, W. ceiliog, etc. 
Initial q labialised, that is, qv : casd, W. pds, ciall, W. pWyll, 
ceithir, W. pedwar, ceann, W.peti, coire, W.pair, co,, 
cruimh, W. pryf. 
It seems clear that G. g at times respresents I. E. k, q, as W. 
has the latter. Compare G. geug with W. cainc, Skr. Qanku; 
but W. ysgainc shows the reason for the anomaly — an s 
initial has been dropped, and in dropping it the G. reduced 
c to g. Further compare garmainn, giomach. Cf . dias. 

i2) Intervocalic k, q. The G. is ch, W. g, b. Compare cruach, W. 
cr&g, fichead, deich, loch ; also each, W. ebol, seach, W. heb, 

(3) Pre-consonantal k, q. Before r, I, n, the c disappears with com- 
pensatory lengthening as in deur, Lat. dacrima, meur, dual, 
muineal, tdn ; and compare Prof. Strachan's derivations for 
meanan, breun, cd,in, leana. With s, the result in G. is s, 
0. Ir. ss, W. ch, as in uasal, W. uchel. Before explosives, 
cb, cd, eg do not appear ; ct becomes chd, for which see 
under t (4) ; for c-c, see paragraph (5) here. 


(4) Post-consonantal Tc, q. After r and I, the guttural appears as 

c, as in cearc, uircean, male, olc, falc, etc. After n (tn), it 
sinks to g, with a preceding long vowel, as in eug, breug, 
already discussed. After s, the c is preserved, but in G. it 
is written as g, as in Ttieasg, nasg, teasg, etc. After explo- 
sives, the t and d of the prefix or root preserves the c 
following, for which see under t and d pre-consonantal. 
For c or £r before c, see next paragraph. 

(5) Intervocalic Gaelic c. It may arise from -tk, -dh, -lek, -gk. 

From -tk in freiceadan (^frith-com-it-dn) ; -dk in faic, 
acarach, ruicean, acuinn ; -kk in muc, *mukkus, eac, 
craicionn, \oc, leacainn; from -gk in bac, hoc, hreac, cnocy 
gleac. The word ttioc, son, postulates a Gadelic makko-s as 
against the Ogmic maqvi (gen.) and W. mab ; it is difficult 
to account for the G. form. 

I.E. g, gh; g, gh. 

These consonants all, save in one case, appear in G. as g, 

aspirated to gh, and W. shows g and nil in similar circumstances. 

The exception is in the case of g, which, when labialised, becomes 

G. and W. b. But gh, whether labialised or not, becomes g in G. 

(1) Initial I. E. y : in guth, gin, gnath, geimheal, gb. I. E. gh is 

in geamhradh, gabh, gag, geal, white. I. E. g simple appears 
in geal, leech, goir, goile, gearan, guala, gradh ; I. E. gh in 
gar, grian, gaol, guidhe, geas, guin. Labialised g appears in 
bean, Eng. queen, bior, beb, bb, bra, quern, braghad. 

(2) Intervocalic Celtic g. See deigh, aghaidh, greigh, triuigh, 

bleoghainn, tigh, bragh, etc.. In the termination of words it 
appears often as ch : teach {*tegos), mach (^magos), imlich^ 
imthieh, e'irich, fuirich. Intervocalic g labialised does not 
seem to exist in modern G. 

(3) Pre-consonantal Celtic g. Here -gr, -gl, -gn become -r, -I, -n 

with vocalic lengthening, as feur, *vegro-, ar, nMr, fuar, al, 
fual, feun, *vegno-, srbn, uan, tain, brbn, etc. Before m, g is 
found in the combination ng-m, which results in m with a 
preceding long vowel, as in ceum, leum, geum. Before s it 
becomes x and modern s, W. ch, as in uasal, W. iu:hel, as for 
ex, OS, deer, W. ych, cas, lot, uiseag. Before explosives the g 
is variously preserved : -gb, -gd may be passed over ; -ct, -gt 
appear as chd, as in seachd, hliochd, smachd, nochd, sneachd, 
etc. ; -gk ends in -kk, now c, for which see post-consonantal k ; 
-gg appears as g, as in slug, hog, dag, lag, slige, smugaid. 
(4). Post-consonantal Celtic g. After r and I the g is preserved 
in G., but often in W. becomes y ; see dearg, fearg, searg, 
garg, lorg, balg, cealg, dealq, tulg. After n ordinary g is pre- 


served, as in cwmhang, long, muing, seang, fulaing. But 
labialised g became h, and then coalesced with the n into mm, 
now m, as in \m, butter, Lat. unguentum, turn, cam, torn, 
ciomach, and in modem times cum, keep, from *congv in 
conghhail. For ng-m see the foregoing paragraph. For sg 
see the next paragraph. After the explosives, the g is pre- 
served in the combinations -tg (freagair), -dg (agair) and -gg, 
which see below. 
(5) Intervocalic Gaelic g. It arises from -sg firstly, which in pre- 
Celtic times was -zg, as in heag, mogul, griogag, neag, eagal, 
etc., which see under I. E. z above. From the explosive 
combinations we have tg in freagair, * frith-gar-, eagna, eagar ; 
dg in agair, agus. The -gg must arise from a suffix in -go-, 
which was operative in early Gadelic, if we discard Dr Stokes' 
view already set forth. For this -gg see paragraph third 
Intervocalic g may arise from a lost n before c, as in breug, geug, 
eug, etc. The previous vowel is lengthened save in a few 
cases where the word — or sentence — accent has brought about 
a short syllable. Thus tliig has short i, and in G. leig is 
short. This is regularly the case with the results from the 
prefix con, confused with cos, as in cogais, Ir. concubus, 
cadal, cagar, cogadh, etc. 

§8. Accent. 

In Gaelic, only the stress accent exists, and it is placed always 
on the first syllable. The accent of the Old Gaelic was likewise 
on the first syllable, save in the case of the verb. Here in the 
compounded verbs the stress accent rested on, as a rule, the 
second syllable ; but the imperative placed the accent on the first 
syllable, and this also took place after the negative and interroga- 
tive particles and after the conjunctions gu'n and na'n (da 'n). 
Thus faic, see thou, is for f-aid-c, with accent on the preposition 
ad, for it is imperative ; the future chl stands for the old present 
at-cM, videt, where the accent is on the root ci. Again in cha 'n 
fhaca the negative brings the accent on the prefix ad, that is, 
f-ad-ca. When the accent is on the prefix, its ending consonant 
and the initial consonant of the root coalesce and result in a pre- 
served G. intervocalic consonant, but the root sufiers truncation : 
when the accent is on the root, these consonants are aspirated, and 
the root is preserved. The ten irregular verbs in G. present 
sufficient illustrations of this rule. The preposition con, when 
accented, was always con, when unaccented it was com (comh). In 
the unaccented syllables, long vowels become short (aireamh from 
*dd^m, anail for 0. Ir. andl), and in many cases change com- 


pletely their grade, as from small to broad {e.g. comhnadh, 0. Ir. 
congnam, from gtCiomh, and the compounds in -radh and -loch). 

Word-building consists of two parts — composition and deriva- 
tion. The first deals with the compounding of separate words ; 
the second deals with the suffixes (and prefixes) that make up the 
stem of a word from its root. 

(1) The compound may be two stems welded together : righ-theach, 

palace, *rigo-tegos, "king's house ;" righ-fhctidh, royal prophet 
— " king who is a prophet ;" cean-fhionn, white-headed, 
Penno-vindo-s ; ceithir-chasach, four-footed ; dubh-gklas, dark- 
blue ; crannchw, lot, " casting the lot." These are the six 
leading relationships brought out in compounds. In Celtic 
the first stem is nearly always in o-, as Teuto-bodiaci, G, sean- 
mhathair (but Catu-slSgi, MorudHnum, G. Muirgheal). Con- 
sider the following compounds : iodhlann, mialchu, dirckeard, 
brtarach, ceardach, clogad, bathach, eilthire, gncUh-fhocal, 
moirear, leth-chas, lethrtrom, etc. 
The following are common prefixes : athr-, re-, athr-ghlac, re- 
capture ; 6a»-, she-, bati-altrum, hantrach ; bith-, ever-, bith- 
bhed, bith-hhuan ; it-, iol-, many ; ion-, fit ; sir-, sior-, ever-, 
fir-, fwr-, very, saobh-, pseudo-. 
The following suffixes belong to this branch of word-building : — 
-lack, from *sl(mgo-, now sluagh ; seen in teaghlach, dbrlach, 

bglach, youth, etc. 
-radh, from *rSda, W. rwyd (see rdidh) ; seen in reabhradh, 

madraidh, dogs, bigridh, youth, maeraidh, sons, righre, 

kings, gniomharra, deeds. 
-mJior, -or, from m6r, great ; it makes adjectives from nouns, 

etc. : llonmhor, etc. 
-ail, -like ; from samhail, amhail : rloghail for r\ogh-amhail, 

-an, diminutive masculine, 0. Ir. dn, Ogmic -agnos, for *apo- 

gno-s, root gen, bear (Stokes) : as in fearan, truaghan, 

-ag, diminutive fem. in G., 0. Ir. -6c (masc. and fem.), from 

6c, 6g, young : seen in caileag, etc. 
-seach. This feminine termination has been explained by 

Stokes as from 0. Ir. es, a fem. form, with the adjectival 

addition *iqd, and this es he deduces from W. es, which 

comes from Lat. issa. 

(2) The compound may be one noun governing another in the 

genitive : mac-leisg, and all the personal names in mac, gille, 


■(3) Uninflected prefixes : 

o. Negative prefixes — I. E. n, G. an before vowels, aineol, 

ioTi-, in- before 6, d, g {iongantas), eu- (ao-) before *, c, s 

(aotrom for &-trom, * 
To this negative add also mi-, neo-, as- (eas-), di- {der- = 

b. Prefixes of quality : do- (do-char), and so- (so-char) ; and 

the intensive ro-. 

.{4) Old adverbial forms and all prepositions. These prepositions 

are often combined with one or two other prepositions. 

ad-, Lat. ad : faie =f-ad-ci ; hireamh ( = ad-Hm-), 

aith-, ad-, *ati-, re-, continually confused with the above 
prep. : abair (*ad-ber-), agair, aithreachas (*ati-rec-), etc. 
Compounded with to- in tagair, tapaidh, taitinn, taitheasg, 
taisg, etc. ; with fo- in fclg (fo-ad-gab). 

air, by, on; air-leag, eir-idinn, dvr-dheirc, oir-thir, vrchar, 
iirlar. Compounded with com in comhairle ; with to- in 
tairis, tairy, tearinn ; with di- in dearmad ; with mwi- 
in ioTnar-bhaigh, iomarehur. 

as, out, es- : as-eirigh, as-creideamh, eas-bhuidh, Si-rich, Com- 
pounded with air : uireasbhuidh ; with to-, teasairg ; 
with to-for- in tuairisgeul ; with to-fo-ar in ttiarasdal ; 
with to-fo- in tuasgail. 

eadar, between ; eadar-igaradh. 

iar, after; in *iarfaighim, no^w febraick / iarogha. 

in, in ; with to- in tional and comhthional. With a double 
nn in ionnsuidh. 

inn-, ionn^, to, Gaul, ande- : in jUmnogha ; with to- in tionn- 
sgainn, tionndadh (Zeuss). Confused with in, ind, above. 

im^, iom^, about : ioTnair, iomradh, imich, iompaidh (*imb-sK). 
Compounded with com in caochladh ; with to- in timchioll, 
tiomsach, tiomnadh. 

odr, ud-, out, Eng. out : obann, obaidh. Compounded with 
aith- in \obairt ; with di- in dixisg ; with fo in fdgair ; 
with to- in tobar, tog. 

con-, comhn, co- : coimhead, comaidh, caisg, eogadh. Com- 
pounded with im- in iomchorc ; with con in cogais (0. Ir. 
concubus) ; with to-aith- in teagasg, teagamh. 

di-, de, de : dimeas, dwghail, dwmhain, direach; also deach, 

do-, to : this is the unaccented form of to-, 
jfo, under : in foghnadh, foghlum, falach, fulaing. Com- 
pounded with to- in tbrachd, tuisleadh (to-fo-ess-), tuarasdal 
(to-fo-ar-as-), tuasgail (to-fo-as-). 


for, far, super : in forail, forradh, fardorus, farmad, furtachd. 

Compounded with to in tormach, tuairisgeul. 
fri-, ri, to, *vrt, Lat. versus ; it appears as frith, fris : in 

freagair, friiheil freiceadan {frith-com-). 
ro-, before : in robhas, rosg, rabhadh, radharc. Compounded 

in rug (ro-ud-). 
tar, across, tairm- : in teirig, toirmisg. 

Stem Suffixes. 

The following are the most important suffixes used in Gaelic 
for stem formation : — 

1. 0-, d-, as in cul (*adlo-), aitreabh, cos (*eoxd). 

2. tro-, tlo-, trd-, tld- : criathar, Jcrei-tro-, anail (*anartld), sgeul, 


3. jo-, jd-, ijo-, ijd- : eile, suidhe, (*sod-i-on). See no-, ro-, tjo-, sqio-. 

4. V0-, vd-, UVO-, uvd- : tarbh (*tar^o-), each {*ek-vo-), bed (bi-vo-). 

5. no-, nd-, nno-, eno-, ono- : Ian, sldn, daian, domhan, lethan 

(letano-s). It is secondary in iarunn ; cf. tighearna l*teg- 

6. mo-, md- : trom, lorn, caomh. 

7. ro-, rd-, rro-, etc. : sior, mdr, lar, dr, bodhar. Here comes the- 

Gaelic numeral stem -dro-n, as aonar, one person, cdignear, 
five persons ; it is allied to Lat. -drius, -drium, Gaelic -air, 
-eir, denoting agents or doers — cldrsair, harper, etc. 

8. tero-, ero- : in sinnsear, uachdar, eadar. 

9. lo-, Idr, llo-, etc. : coll (*cos-lo-), siol, neul, doll, giall. 

10. dhro-, dro-, dhlo-, dlo- : odhar, uallach. 

11. bho-, bhd- : earb, gob (* gob-bo-). 

12. to-, td-. This is the participial termination in most I. E. 

languages. In G. it is used for the past passive. Also in 
the adjectives nochd, bochd, gndth, etc. ; nouns dligheadh, 
dearmad, gort. 

13. tjo-, tjd- : Gr. d/i/S/jocrtos. This forms the passive participle in 

G. : briste, caite, etc. 

1 4. td- of abstract nouns : \obart, now \obairt. 

15. to- comparative. This appears in the ordinal numerals : 

deicheamh, 0. Ir. dechmad, for *dehnimeto-. 

1 6. ko-, led- : dg, young, juvn-ko-. 

17. qo-, qd-, qio-, dqo- ; suileach for * suli-qo-s ; cuimhneach, 

creidmheach. Especially the adjectives and nouns in -ach, 
as marcach, buadhach. Further, the form iche (-iqios) 
denoting agent ; maraiche, etc. 

18. sqo-, sqio- : as in measg, seasg, uisge. 

19. go-, gd : see muing, Danish mauke. 


20. Stems in i- : &ird, muir, maith, deigh. In ni-, t&in, cluain,. 

huain ; in mi-, cruimh, enaimh ; in li-, samkail, duil ; in ti-, 
faith, f^ith, breith, bleith, etc. — a form in ■which some 
infinitives appear. 

21. idii-, that is, Celtic tdt-, tils : heatha, life, *hit4s, g. *hi-tdt-os. 

22. Stems in u- : tiugh, fliuch, dub, loch. In nth, linn, 0. Ir. Un, 

Mnvr; in «ti- there are many — bith, iodh-, fios {*vid-s-tu-), 
guth, cruth ; especially reaehd, and its like in chd. Here 
come the infinitives in adh {-atvr). 
In G. -eas, as of abstract nouns, the form arises from <u- being 
added to an -es stem : aois, *aiv-es-tu- ; so dorus, follus. 

23. Stems in -w : eft, ara, vm, ionga. In -ien, there is 'Eire, 

'Eireann. The stems in tio are very common ; the oblique 
cases are in -tin^ ; see eiridinn, faotainn, etc. : common in 
infinitives. Similarly common is -men, -mon, in ainm, 
cuirm, druim, leum; and masculine in britheamh, ollamh, 

24. Stems in -r ; only the family names athair, m&thair, etc. 

25. Stems in -t, -nt : nochd, night; caraid, friend — a participial 


26. Stems in k or q : G. nathair, g. nathrach, so Ictir, lasair, 

cathair, etc. 

27. Neuter stems in -es : teach, leth, magh, gleann. 

28. Comparative stems in -jes, -is-, -jds : mJo, greater *md-j6s, sine, 

Skr. sarir-yas-. 

Two or three stems peculiar to Gaelic may be mentioned. 
Adjectives in -idh, 0. Ir. -de, as diadhaidh, come from an original 
-dio-. Endings like maireann, firionn have been correlated with 
the Lat. gerund, itself a much disputed form. The preserved d in 
words X^^flichead, moisture, 0. Ir. fliuchaidatu, has been variously 
referred to *-a»«M- or -ato-tUt ; possibly the latter is its origin. 

A. Declension. 



1. 0- 

stems. MaE 

ic. o-stem ball, n 



Old Irish. 
















ball n- 







dk bhall 

da ball 



da bhaU 

dib mballaib 





Old IriBh. 


Plur. Nom. 



balll (balloi) 



ball n- 









hallos (ballons) 





Neuter io-stem cridhe, heart. 

S. N., A. 


cride n- 












cride n- 


PI. N., A. 






cride n- 







chridheaohan chride 


2. <i-stems : all feminine, cas, 

a foot. 

S. Nom. 








. D. 



coxl (coxai) 



coiss n- 






Dual A. 

d^ chois 

di choiss 



dA, chois 

da choss 



d^ chois 

dib cossaib 


PI. ISf. 






coss n- 














3. i 

-stems. Feminine noun shil, eye. 

.S. Nom. 







sulos (stilous) 







siiil n- 







d^ shuil 

di shiiil 



da shiiil 

da siila 



Ak shuil 

dib sulib 


PI. N. 



suleis (sulejes) 



siile n- 

















:. It-stems. Mai 

aculine noun bith 

, world. 


Old Irish. 



. N. 














bith n- 







. N. 



bitois, bitoves 



bithe n- 

bition, bitovon 













5. Consonantal Stems. 


(a). Stem in r / athair, father. 

Sing. Nom. 














athir n- 






Dual N. 


da athair 

da athir 



d^ athair 

da athar 



d^ athair 

dib n-athrib 



, N. 

athraichean athir 



athraichean athre n- 



athraichean athrib 



athraichean athrea 

ateras {aterns} 


athraichean athrea 



Stem in men ; neut. ainm, ] 


S. K: 



ainm n- 




anma, anme 






PI. N. 


ainmeannan anmann 



ainmeanuan anmann n- 



ainmeannan anmannaib 



Stem in guttural e; fern, nathair, serpent. 

S. Nom. 














nathraig n- 

natracen (natrcn) 

al N., A. 

Ak nathair 

di nathraig 



Ak nathair 

da nathrach 



Ak nathair 

dib nathrachaib natracobin 

PI. N. 






nathrach n- 




Gaelic. Old Irish. Gradelic. 

D. nathraioheau natbrauhaib natracobis 

A. natbraichean uatbracba natracas 

V. natbraicbean uatbracba natracas 

(d). Neuter stem in -es ; 



Sing. N., A. 


teg, tech 










Dual N. 

dk tbigb 

d^ tbech 



dA, thigh 

da tbige 



Ak thigh 

dib tigib 


PI. N. 






tige n- 






6. Adjectives. 

Adjectives belonged (1) to the o- and the a- declensions, as 
*iiiarvos, *marv4, *marvon, now marbh, declined like the nouns 
•of 0- and a- declensions ; (2) i- declension, as maith, *inatis, 
*matis, *mati, the neuter nom. being the stem ; (3) u- declension, 
as *tigus, *tigus(?), *tigu, now tiugh ; and (4) consonantal adj., 
*tepens, etc. Comparison was in two ways — (1) caomh : 0. Ir. 
c6em, coemiu, coemem : *koimos, *koimj6s, *koimimos; (2) IviOth : 
0. Ir. Math, liiathither, Mathem : *loutos, *loutiteros, *loutimos. 

The numerals may be seen in the Dictionary in their Celtic 
form : *oinos, *dv4, *treis, etc. 

The pronouns are so phonetically gone astray that they cannot 
be restored. 

B. Conjugation. 

ctive " 

V^oice. Indicatr 

ve — Present. 

Verb heir, bear. 

S. 1. 

beridh mi 




beiridh tu 


. beresi 


beiridh e 







P. 1. 

beiridh sinn 




beiridh sibh 




beiridh iad 


berenti (beronti) 





Dependent Present. 

S. 1. 

bheir mi 




bheir tu 




bheir e 



P. 1. 

bheir sinn 




bheir sibh 




bheir iad 





Secondary Present or Subjunctive. 

S. 1. 


Old Irish, 
no berinn 

berin (?) 



no bertha 



bheireadh e 

no bered 


P. 1. 


no bermmis 

berimmiss (?) 


bheireadh sibh 

no berthe 



bheireadh iad 

no bertis 

berintiss (?) 


S. 1. 


P. 1. 



do ghabh 






ro gabus 
ro gabis 
ro gab 
ro gabsam 
ro gabsid 
ro gabsat 








S. 1. 






\ berthe 



beireadh e 



P. 1. 









beireadh iad 



Passive. Indicative — Present. 

S. 3. 

beirear e 



P. 3. 

beirear iad 



Secondary Present or Subjunctive. 

S. 3. 

bheirteadh e 

no berthe 

P. 3. 

bheirteadh iad 

no bertis 


Past Tense. 

S. 3. 

chanadh e 

ro chet 

cantos, "cantus" 

P. 3. 

chanadh iad 

ro cheta 

cantas (n.f.) 


S. 3. 

beirear e 



P. 3. 

beirear iad 









a, vocative particle, Ir. a, 0. Ir. a, a : AV., Corn., Br. a ; Lat. o ; 

Gr. Z. 
a, his, her, Ir., a, 0. Ir. a, di (accented), W. ei, Br. e, Celtic esjo, 

esjds ; Skr. gen. aspd, asyds. The gen. pi. is an, their, 0. Ir. 

a n-, Celtic esjnn (Stokes gives esan = Skr. fern. gen. pi. dsdnij. 
a, that (rel. pron.), Ir. a, 0. Ir. a, a n-, Celtic san, neuter of the 

article an, whose s is restored after ri, gu, and ann : ris^Mn 

( = ri san), anns a?j ( = ann san). 
a, out of, ex : see as. 
a, from, in the adverbs a nail, a nios, a nuas, a null ; Ir., 0. Ir. 

an-, as amias, &c. : Celtic afpjona, a derivative from I. E. 

apo, whence Lat. ab, Gr. a-Ko ; Ger. von, from, is the exact 

equivalent of the Celtic. The a before sios and .mas is due 

to analogy with a nios, a nuas. 
a, in, to, as in a bh^n, a bhos, a nis, a stigh, a steach, is the 

prep, an, in, into, q.v. 
a, as in a ris, &c., and before verbs, is the prep, do, q.v. 
a', the, at ; see an, the, and ag, at. 
ab, or ab ab, fie ! The Ir. ab ab, M. Ir. abb, is an interjection of 

defiance, obo, of wonder ; cf. Lat. babce, Gr. ^afiai Hence, 

doubtless, M'A.'s abab, dirt. 
aba, abbot, Ir. ab, 0. Ir. abb, W. abad; from Lat. abbas, abhatis, 

whence also Eng. abbot. Hence abaid, abbey. 
abadh, syllable, utterance ; E. Ir. apod, proclamation : ad-ba-, 

Celtic ba, speak ; Lat. fatur, fama, Eng. fame. 
abaich, ripe, Ir. abaidh, M. Ir. abaid, E. Ir. apaig, 0. Ir. apchugvd, 

autumnatio ; *adrbog-, Celtic root bug, as in bog, q.v. The 

W. addfed is from a root met. 



abaideal, colic (M'A.) : 

abair, say, so Ir., 0. Ir. epiur, Celtic dd-herS ; Lat. re-fero ; see 

root in beir. 
abalt, expert (M'A.) ; from Sc. apert 1 See aparr. 
t abar, confluence ; only in Pictish place names ; 0. Gaelic (B. of 

Deer) abhor, W. aher, 0. W. aper, Celtic ad-hero-, root her ; 

see heir. Modem Gaelic pronounces it obair (so in ITth 

cent.), which agrees with the 0. W. oper ; this suggests 

od-hero-, "out flow," as against the "to flow" of ad-hero-. 

The od is for ud, allied to Eng. out. 
abarach, bold ; see abair above. 
abardaii, dictionai-y (Shaw) ; from abair, q.v. 
abartach, talkative, bold ; from abair, q.v. 
jtbh, hand net ; from Norse hdfr, pock-net. Also tibh, q.v. 

Spelt less correctly ^mh and abhadh. 
abh, bark of dog ; an onomatopoetic word. 
abhainn, river, Ir. abhann (gen. abhann, now aibhne), 0. Ir. ahann, 

W. afon, Br. av,on, Gallo-Brit. Abona ; Lat. amnis {*ah-nis). 
abhacas, sport, irony ; see the following word, 
abhachd, humour, sport, Ir. adhhhachd : 
abhag, terrier, Ir. abhach ; from abk, q.v. 
abhagas, rumour, false suspicion : 
abhaist, custom, Manx oaysh, Ir. ahhest (O'K.), ahaise (O'B.), 

ad-i-beus? See beus, custom. Ascoli compares the 0. Ir. 

-abais of duahais, teter, and suabais, suavis. 
abharr, silly jest (M'A.): 
abharsair, Satan, Ir. aidhhherseoir, E. Ir. adbirseoir ; from Lat. 

adversarius (Eng. adversary). Also aibhistear. 
abhcaid, a jest ; see abhaclid. 
abhlan, wafer, so Ir., 0. Ir. ohla, g. oblann ; from Lat. oblationem, 

an oblation. 
abhra, eyelid; seefabhra. 

abhras, spinning, produce of distaff', Ir., M. Ir. abhras : 
abhsadh, the slackening of a sail ; from Norse hdlsa, clew up sail, 

from hdls, neck, allied to Lat. collum. Eng. hawser is also 

hence. Also allsadh. 
abhsporag, a cow's stomach, tripe (H.S.D.), allsporag, cow's 

throttle (M'A.) ; borrowed evidently from a Scandinavian 

compound of hdls, neck. Cf. abhsadh above. 
ablach, a mangled carcase, Ir. ablach, carcase : * dd-bal-ac-, from 

root bal, bel, die, I. E. gel, whence Eng. qiiell. Irish has 

abailt, death, 0. Ir. epeltu, atbail, perit, from the same root 

and prefix ; the first of them appears in our Gaelic dictionaries 

through Shaw. From Gaelic comes Scotch ablach. 
abran, an oar-patch on a boat's gunwale ; see aparan. 


Abraon, April, so Ir. ; founded on Lat. Aprilis (Eng. April). 
abstol, apostle, Ir. ahsdal, 0. Ir. apstal, W. apostol ; from Lat. 

apostolus, whence Eng. apostle. 
acaid, a pain, stitch ; *dd-conti- ; see urchoid. 
acain, sigh, complaint, E. Ir. acedine, W. achvyyn ; dd + caoin ; see 

caoin, weep, 
acair, anchor, Ir. ancaire, 0. Ir. ingor, W. angor ; from Lat. 

ancora, whence Eng. anchor. For Gaelic, cf. Norse ahkeri. 
acair, acre, Ir. aera ; from Eng. acre ; Lat. ager. 
acarach, gentle ; W. achar, affectionate ; dd-car- ; see car, friendly. 
acaran, lumber : 

aoartha, profit, so Ir. ; see ocar, interest. 

acastair, axle-tree ; borrowed word from So. ax-tree of like mean- 
ing — ^Eng. axle, &c. 
ach, but, Ir. cMhd, 0. G. (B. of Deer) a^t, 0. Ir. act, acht, * elcstos 

possibly, from eks = ex ; cf. Gr. Jktos, without. For the 

change of vowel, cf. as, from elcs. The Welsh for "but" is 

eithr, from ekster ; Lat. exter-. 
ach, interjection of objection and impatience ; founded on above 

with leaning upon och, q.v. 
achadh, a field, so Ir., 0. G. achad, 0. Ir. ached (locative 1), 

campulus (Adamnan), *acoto- ; Lat. acies, acwim, field. 
achain, prayer ; dialectic for ackwinge, q.v. 
acharradh, dwarf, sprite : 

achd, statute, so Ir., M. Ir. acht ; from Lat. actum, Eng. act. 
achd, manner, condition, Ir. acM; same as above. There may be 

a native aktu- {*ag-tu-, *pag-tu- ?) underlying some meanings 

of the word, especially in Irish. 
acUaid, chase, pursuit, so Ir. (O'B, Sh.) : 
aehlais, arm-pit, Ir. ascall, M. Ir. oc/isal, W. cesail. The 

divergence from regular philologic equivalence here proves 

borroTsdng — from the Lat. axilla ; Norse oxl, Ger. achsel, 

Sc. oxter. 
achlan, lamentation (M'L.) ; for och-lan 1 from och. 
achmhasan, a rebuke, Ir. achmhus&n, E. Ir. athchomsdn ; cf. aithis 

for root. 
achuinge, supplication ; also athchuinge, so Ir., E. Ir. athchuingid; 

ath + cuinge ; 0. Ir. cuintgi-m, peto, con-tek- ; Eng. thig. See 

acras, hunger, Ir. ocnts, E. Ir. accorus, occorus : * ad-co-restu-, 

possibly the root pres of Lat. premo. 
acuinn, acfhuinn, apparatus, accoutrements, Ir. acfuinn, E. Ir. 

accmaing, means, apparatus : ad-cumang, 0. Ir. cumang, 

potentia ; see further under cumhachd. 
ad, hat, M. Ir. at, W. het ; from Eng. hat, N. hattr. 


ad-, adh-, inseparable prefix, in force and origin the same as Lat. 

ad. It is to be separated, though with difficulty, from the 

ad- arising from aith- or athr, q.v. 
adag, shock of corn, Ir. adag ; cf. Sc. hat, hot, hut, "to put up 

grain in the field, a small stack built in the field ;" M. E. 

hutte, heap. 
adag, a haddock ; from the English, 
adamant, adamant, so Ir. ; from the English. 
adha, ae, liver, Ir. aeghe, g. ae, 0. Ir. 6a, ae, W afu, Br. avu, 

root av. 
adhan, proverb (M'A.) ; rather aghan, root agh, Lat. ajo, adagio, 

adage ; Skr. ~ah, say. 
adhal, flesh hook (Sh.), so Ir. : 
adhaltrach, adulterous, Ir. adhaltranach, E. Ir. adaltrach ; from 

Lat. adulter, whence Eng. adulterous. 
adharc, horn, so Ir., 0. Ir. adarc : ad-arc ; root arq, defend, as in 

teasairg, q.v. ; Lat. arceo, &c. 
adhart, pillow, so Ir., E. Ir. adart : adrart ; art, stone ? See 

adhart, aghart, "progress" (Diet.). This is a ghost-word, made 

from the adverbial phrase air adhart, which in M. Ir. is 

araird, forward, bring forward ; in 0. Ir. arairt, prorsum. 

Hence it is air + ourd, q.v. 
adhastar, halter, Manx eistyr, Ir. aghastor, M. Ir. adastar ; cf. W. 

eddestl, steed. 
adhbhal, vast, awful, so Ir., O. Ir. adbul : *ad-bol- ; I. E. root 

bhel, swell, as in Eng. bloom, &c. Zimmer compares it with 

Skr. bala, strength. 
adhlac, burial, Ir. adhlacadh, 0. Ir. adnacul, sepulcrum : ad-nank- 

otlo {*ad-nagtlo-, Zim.) ; root verb nankd, I bring ; Lat. 

nanciscor ; further I. E. nenk, enk, as in thig, q.v. 
adhna, an advocate (Macd.) : H.S.D. cfs. Heb. adhon, sustentator. 
ag, at, with inf. only ; see aig. 
ag, agadh, refusal, doubt ; E. Ir. ac, refusal, 0. Ir. ace, no ! 

W. acorn, to deny. It is onomatopoetic ? See next. 
agadh, hesitancy in speech, Br. hak, hakal ; cf. Skr. ac, speak 

indistinctly. See foregoing word, 
agair, plead, so Ir., 0. Ir. acre (n.), from ad-gar- ; root gar, cry ; 

see goir. 
agalladh, conversation, Ir. agallamh, 0. Ir. acaldam, for ad-gldd-, 

0. Ir. ad-glddur, I converse ; for root, see glaodh. 
agh, a hind, Ir. agh, 0. Ir. ag, W. ewig {*agiko-), Celtic agos- ; 

Skr. ajds, buck ; Lit. ozys, goat. 
jlgh, happiness, luck, Manx aigh, Ir. dgh ; root ag-, bring ; see next, 
aghach, warlike, so Ir., E. Ir. dgach, ag, war, *dgu- ; Skr. djis, 

contest; Gr. dytov, Eng. antagonist. 


aghaib, essay (M'A.) ; see oidheirp. 

aghaidh, face, so Ir., 0. Ir. aged, *agitd ; I.E. root ag, lead. It is 
usually referred to the root oq, Lat. oculus, &c., but the 
phonetics are unsatisfactory. 

aghann, pan, so Ir., 0. Ir. aigen, Celtic agind ; Skr. aga, water jar ; 
Gr. ay 7 OS, a vessel. 

agus, and, so Ir., 0. Ir. (wu,i, ocvs, B. of Deer acus, 0. W. ax, Br. 
hag ; allied is fagus, near, 0. Ir. ocus, W. agos, Br. hogoz : 
* aggostVr, ad-gos- ; root ges, gos, carry ; Lat. gero, aggestu-s, 
mound (Zimnier). Stokes refers it to the root angh, choke, 
narrow ; Celtic aggiist-, from pre-Celtic aghnustu- (Lat. 
angustus), with accent on syllable after the root — gn with 
the accent on the following vowel being supposed, as in 
Teutonic, to produce gg. The derivation from root onh, enk, 
as in ikig, is not tenable in view of the Welsh. 

aibheis, sea, the deep ; Ir. aibheis, sea, abyss ; E. Ir. aiMis, sea. 
This Stokes refers to a Celtic abensi-s, abhent-ti-s ; root abh, 
as in abhainn. But cf. 0. Ir. obis, from Lat. ahyssus : W. 
affwys, bottomless pit. 

aibheis, boasting ; aibhsich, exaggerate ; Ir. aibhseach, boasting : 
from the foregoing ? Another form of aibhsich is aillsich. 

aibhist, an old ruLti (Stew.) : 

aibhistear, the Devil ; another form of abharsair, q.v. 

aibhse, spectre, so Ir. ; see taihhse. 

aibidil, alphabet, Ir. aibghitir, 0. Ir. abbgitir, from L. Lat. 
abgetorium, abecedarium, the a, b, c, d, or alphabet. A 
dialectic form, aibirsidh, comes from the old learning system, 
beginning " A per se," a by itself = a, Eng. apersie. 

aice, proximity, Ir. aice ; see taic. 

alee, a lobster's hole : 

aicheadh, deny, Ir. aithcheo, contradicting, M. Ir. aithceSd : *ati- 
cotid-{T), "go back on;" cf. 0. Ir. atchuaid, exposui, which 
Stokes refers to the root of chaidh, went, q.v. 

aicheamhail, reprisal ; cf . Ir. athghabh&il ; ath + gabhail. 

faicme, race, Ir., 0. Ir. aicme, W. ckch, pedigree, *aM-, from ak, 
edge ; Lat. acies 1 Stokes cfs. Skr. anhi, lap, but this 
would give G. ac- (a) and a W. anc. 

aidheam, joyous carol : 

aidich, confess, Ir. admhuighim, 0. Ir. addaimim, W. addef : 
ad-dam- ; root dam ; Lat. domo, Eng. tame. 

aifrionn, mass, so Ir., E. Ir. oifrend, W. offeren ; from Lat. 
offerendwm (Eng. offer). 

aig, at, Ir. ag, 0. Ir. oc ; for root, see agus. 

aigeach, young or entire horse ; also oigeach = bg + each, q.v. 

aigeann, the deep, Ir. digeun, E. Ir. oician, W. eigion : from Lat. 
oceanus, Eng. ocean. There is also a by-form aigeal. 


aigeannach, spirited, E. Ir. aignech ; see aigneadh. 

aiffhear, mirth, Manx aigher ; *ati-gar- ; see gairdeachas for root. 

Yet Ir. aiereach, merry, aerial, from ai^r, air, from Lat. aer, 

makes the matter doubtful, 
ai^lean, ear-ring, tassel ; cf. Sc. aiglet, tagged point, jewel in 

one's cap ; eglie, needlework, from Fr. aiguille, needle ; Lat. 

aigne, aigneadh, mind, so Ir., 0. Ir. aicned : dd-gn-eto-, root gnd, 

know, Gr. yiyvwa-Kw, Eng. know. Stokes refers it to the root 

of aicme, as he gives it. Ascoli makes the root cen, as in 

cineal. The Gaelic g is against any root with c. 
ail, will ; better Mil, q.v. 
ail, aileadh, ailt, a mark, impression : 
t ail, rock, Ir. and 0. Ir. ail, *alek-, allied to Ger. fels ; see further 

under mactalla. 
ailbheag, ring ; see failbhe. 
allbhinn, flint, precipice ; from ail, rock. 
aile, air, scent, E. Ir. ad, ahel ; W., C, Br. awel, wind ; cf. Gr. 

aeAAa, storm ; * avel-, root ave, ve, wind ; Lat. au-ra, Gr. ar^p, 

Eng. air. 
aileag, hiccup, Ir. fail ; cf. Lat. halo, breathe, Eng. in-hale. 
ailean, a green : *ag-li- ? Cf. Lat. ager. 
ailear, porch : 
ailis, blemish, reproach : 
aill, desire, so Ir., 0. Ir. ail, W. evn/ll, Br. ioul, Celtic avillo-; 

root av, desire, Lat. aveo, Eng. avidity. 
aille, beauty, E. Ir. aide, for Alnde ; see dlainn. 
ailleas, MIgheas, will, desire ; Ir. dilgheas, E. Ir. ailges, dilgidim, 

I desire ; from ail and geas, request, q.v. 
ailleagan, root of the ear, hole of the ear ; also faillean, q.v. 
Mlleagan, darling, so Ir. ; from aille, q.v. 
aillean, elecampane : cf. Gr. eAcviov, Lat. inula. 
allleant, shy, delicate ; M. Ir. ail (O'Cl.), shamefaced. 
ailleort, high-rocked ; from aill, rock ; see mactalla. 
aillse, diminutive creature, fairy, Ir. aillse : 
aillse, cancer, Ir. aillis, 0. Ir. ailsin, cancerem : 
aillseag, caterpillar ; from above. 
ailm, the letter A, elm ; Ir. ailm, palm (fir ?) tree, letter A ; 

borrowed from Lat. ulrmcs, Norse dlmr, Eng. elm. 
ailt, stately, high ; Ir. ailt, Lat. alius. 
aim-, aimh-, privative prefix ; see am-, amh-. See its use in 

aimhleas ( = am-leai), hurt, aimhrea, confusion, for am-reidh, 

«Ssc. The vowel in the root is " small," and hence affects the 

a of am. 


almheal, grief, Ir. aithmkeal, repentance ; aith + mdala, grief, 

E. Ir. me'la, sorrow, reproach ; *meblo-, a shorter form of 0. Ir. 

mebul, dedecus ; Gr. [i^fi<f)OfiaL. 
aimhfheoil, ainfheoil, proud flesh ; from aimh- and feoil, q.v. 
aimlisg, confusion, mischief : 
aimrid, barren, so Ir. ; am-ber-ent-, " uon-producing ; " root ber of 

beir ? 
aimsichte, bold (Arms.) ; am-meas-ichte. " un-mannerly 1" See 

aimsir, time, so Ir., 0. Ir. amser, W. amser, Br. amzer, possibly a 

Celtic ammesserd ; either a compound of am, time {ammen- 

drd, from sir, long ?), or amb-mensura, root mens , measure, 

Lat. mensus, Eng. measure. Ascoli and Stokes give the 

Celtic as dd-messera, from ad-mensura. 
aimsith, missing of aim, mischance : am-mw-ith, Gaelic root mis 

of eirmis, q.v. 
ain, heat (Diet.), light (H. M'Lean), 0. Ir. dne, fulgor, from dn, 

splendidus, latter a Celtic dno-s ; Got. fdn, fire (from pdn) ; 

Pruss. panno. Stokes suggests rather * agno-s, allied to Lat. 

Ic/nis, Skr. affni, fire. 
ain-, privative prefix ; see an-. 
ainbhtheach, stormy, M. Ir. ainbthech, * an-feth-ech, Gaelic root 

feth, breeze, from vet, Eng. weather, Lat. ventus, &c. See 

ainbi, ainbith, odd, unusual : an-hith, " un- world-like." See bith. 
aincheas, doubt, M. Ir. ainches, E. Ir. ances, dubium : 
ainchis, a curse, rage, Ir. aingeis, E. Ir. aingcess, duces, curse, 

anguish; an-\-geas, q.v., or Lat. angustia ? 
aineamh, flaw, so Ir., E. Ir. anim, W. anaf, blemish, 0. Br. 

anamon, mendfe ; Gr. ovofiau, blame. 
ainean, a liver ; see adha. 

aineartaich, yawning (aineartaich, M'A.) ; see dinich below. 
aineas, passion, fury ; an-theas, from teas, heat. 
aingeal, angel, so Ir., 0. Ir. angel, W. angel, Br. ael ; from Lat. 

angelus, whence also the English. 
aingeal, light, fire, Ir. aingeal (Lh., O'B.), further ong, fire, 

hearth ; Lit. angiis, coal, Skr. angdra, glowing coal ; I. E. 

ongli, ongSl ; allied is I. E. ognis, fire, Lat. ignis. See 

Fick * 14. Skeat derives Sc. ingle from the Gaelic. Also 

ainneal, a common fire. 
aingealachd, numbness : ang-eal-ach-, root ang, choke (Lat. 

ango) ? 
aingealtas, perversity, malignity; from. the following. 
aingidh, wicked, Ir. aingidhe, malicious, 0. Ir. andgid, angid, 

nequam, wicked, andach, sin ; * an-dg-id, root deg of deagh, 

good,- q.v. 


iinich, panting, also aonach ; root an-, long form of an, breath 

(see anaiV); Skr. dnana, mouth ("breather"). 
ainid, vexing : 

ainis, anise ; from the English. 
ainm, name, Ir. and 0. Ir. ainm, pi. anmann, B. of Deer anim, W. 

enw, Br. hanv, *anmen-; Gr. ovofia ; Pruss. emmens, Ch. SI. 

im§ ; root ono, allied to no in Lat. nomen, Eng. name. 
ainmhide, a rash fool ; see binid. 
ainmhidh, beast, brute, Ir. ainmhidhe, M. I. ainmide, * anem-itio-s, 

*anem-, life, soul ; Lat. animal, &c. Ir. is also ainmhinte, 

" animans." 
ainmig, rare ; an-minig, q.v. 
ainneamh, rare ; see annamh. 
ainneart, force ; ain-, excess (see an-), and neart. 
ainnighte, tame, from ainneadh, patience (Sh.) ; possibly from 

an-dam, root dam, tame. 
ainnir, virgin, E. Ir. ander, W. anner, heifer, M. Br. annoer (do.), 

*anderd ; cf. Gr. avd-qpos, blooming, dOdpLot, virgins (Hes.), 

ainnis, ainniseach, needy : an + dlth, want ? 
air, on, upon. This prep, represents three Irish ones : 

(a) air = 0. Ir. ar, air, ante, propter, W. ar, er, Br. er, Gaul, are-, 
Celtic ari, arei ; Gr. Trapd, irapai, by, before ; Lat. prae ; Eng. 
fore, for. This prep, aspirates in Irish, and in Gaelic idioms 
it still does so, e.g. air chionn. 

(b) air = 0. Ir./or, " super," 0. W. and 0. Br. gv/rr, Br. voar, oar, 
Gaul, ver- ; Gr. I'Trep ; Lat. s-uper ; Eng. over. This prep, 
did not aspirate ; it ended originally iu r in Gaelic ; as an 
inseparable prefix (vero-, viro- in Gaul.) it aspirated, as in the 
modem form of old names like Fergus, now Fearghuis or 
Fear'uis (gen. case). 

(c) air = 0. Ir. iar n-, after, pre-Celtic eperon ; Skr. apardm, 
afterwards, aparena, after ; Got. afar, after, Eng. a/-ter. 
Further come Gr. otti-, behind, eTrt, to, Lat. ob-, op-. See iar. 
This is the prep, that is used with the inf. to represent a 
perfect or past participle in Gaelic — Tha mi air bvaladh : " I 
have struck." 

airbhinneach, honourable ; air + beann ? 

aire, distress, so Ir., 0. Ir. aircur, pressura ; cf. Lat. parous, 

4irc, the Ark, Ir. aire ; from Lat. area. 
aircill, to watch, listen, Ir. aircill ; see fairciU. 
aircleach, a cripple ; *airc-lach, from aire, q.v. 
aird, point (of the compass), Ir. dird, E. Ir. aird; Gr. cipSis, a 

point. Hence So. airt. 


&irde, height, Ir. &irde, E. Ir. arde ; see ard. 

ibirdeil, ingenious : 

aire, heed, Ir., 0. Ir. aire. Old Brit. Areanos, native watchers who 

gave intimation to the Romans (Ammianus), pre-Celtic parjd, 

par, seek ; Gr. irdpa. ; trial, Lat. ex-perior, Eng. experiment. 
iireach, keeper of cattle. There is confusion in Gaelic between 

aireach and 0. Ir. aire{ch), lord ; the b6-aire, cow-lord, was 

the free tenant of ancient Ireland. For 0. Ir. aire, see 

airidh. G. aireach owes its long vowel to a confusion with 

araich, rear. See airidh for root. 
aireamli, number, so Ir., 0. Ir. dram, W. eirif, *ad-Hm-, Celtic 

rtmd, number ; Ag. S. rim, number, Eng. rhyme ; Gr. 

dpt6[ws, number, 
t airfid, music, harmony ; see oirfid. 
airgiod, silver, so Ir., 0. Ir. arget, W. ariant, Br. arc'hant, Gaul. 

Argento-, Argento-coxus (a Caledonian prince) ; Lat. argentum ; 

Gr. apyvpos. Eng. argent is from the Lat. 
airidh, hill pasture, sheiling (airghe, in Lh. for Gaelic) ; cf. E. Ir. 

airge, dirge, place where cows are, dairy, herd of cattle ; E. Ir. 

airgech, herdswoman (of Brigit) ; Ir. airghe, pi. dirighe (O'B.), 

a herd of cattle ; airgheach, one who has many herds ; *ar- 

egia ; Lat. armenMmi ? But see araich, rear. 
airidh, worthy, Ir. airigh (Ulster), airigh, nobleman (O'B.), 0. Ir. 

aire{ch), primas, lord ; Skr. drya, good, a lord ; drya, Aryan, 

dryahxn, honourable man. 
airilleach, a sleepy person ; from \aireal, bed, M. Ir. airel (O'C.) : 
airleag, lend, Ir. airligim, 0. Ir. airliciud, lending ; from leig, let, 

which is allied to Eng. loan, Got. leihvan, Ger. leUien. See Leig. 
airleas, pledge, earnest, arles ; from Sc. arles, older erles, which, 

through 0. French, comes from Lat. *arrhula, dim. of arrha, 

pledge. Eng. earnest, whence W. ernes, is probably from the 

same origin. See edrlas. 
airleig, a strait : 
airmis, hit ; see eirmis. 
&irne, a sloe, so Ir., M. Ir. ami, sloes, W. eirin, plums, Br. irinenn 

sloe, Celtic arjanio- (Stokes) ; Skr. arani, tinder-stick 

" premiia spinosa," araiika forest. 
airneach, miirrain in cattle : 
airneis, furniture ; Ir. dirneis, cattle, goods, &c., M. Ir. aimis, 

tools, furniture. The word can hardly be separated from tlic 

Romance arnese, accoutrements, armour, whence Eug. harness, 

armour for man or horse. The word is originally of Brittonic 

origin (Br. harnez, armour), from *eisarno-, iron ; see iarunn. 
airtein, a pebble, so Ir., E. Ir. arteini (pi.), 0. Ir. art ; possibly 

Gaul, arto- (Arto-briga), Artemia, name of a rock. 



airtneal, airsneal, weariness : 

ais, back, backwards ; so Ir., E. Ir. aiss, daraaiss, backwards ; Gaelic 
air ais. The forms ais, rithisd (ris), thairis, seem compounds 
from the root «<a, sto, stand 3 ci.fois, hhos, ros ; ais maybe 
for ati-sta- or ati-sti-. Ascoli refers ais to an unaccented form 
of eis, track, which is used after tar and di {di a ^is, post 
eum ; see d^is) for " after, post," but not for " back," as is 
air ais, with verbs of rest or motion. 

aisead, delivery (obstetrical), E. Ir. asait, vb. ad-saiter, is delivered; 
*ad-sizd-; Lat. sldo, assldere ; a reduplication of the root 
sed, of suidhe, q.v. 

aiseag, a ferry, Ir. aiseog (Fol.) : 

aiseal, axle ; it seems borrowed from Eng. axle, Norse iixull, but 
the W. echel, Br. ahel, *aksila, makes its native origin 
possible, despite the absence of the word in Irish. 

aiseal, jollity (Sh., Arms.) ; see aisteach. 

aisean, rib, Ir., E. Ir. asna, W. eisen, asen. Cor. asm; cf. Lat. 
assula, splinter, asser, beam (Stokes). Formerly it was 
referred to the same origin as Lat. os, ossis, bone, Gr. oa-reov, 
but the root vowel and meaning are both unfavourable to 
this etymology. 

aisearan, weanling (Argyle) ; from ais ? 

aisg, a request (Sh.), E. Ir. ascid ; *ad-skv-, root seq-, as in sg 

aisgeir, a ridge of high mountains, Ir. eisdr, aisgeir (Lh. for 
latter) ; *ad-sker- (?), as in Eng. sherry, G. sgeir, q.v. 

aisig, restore, so Ir., E. Ir. assec ; possibly = * as-ic, " out-bring," 
ic = enh ; see thig, come. 

aisir, aisridh, passage, path ; see astar. 

aisith, strife ; as-sith, as-, privative, and sith, q.v. 

aisling, a vision, dream, so Ir., 0. Ir. aislinge ; possibly *ex-ling-ia, 
" a jump out of one-seU, ec-stasy," the root being leng of 
leum, q.v. Nigra suggested the root sil or sell of seall, see, 
q.v. ; he divided the word as as-sil-inge, Stokes as ad-sell-angia 
(Beitrage, Vol. VIII.). 

aisneis, rehearsing, tattle, E. Ir. same, 0. Ir. disndis ; aisnedim, I 
relate, as-ind~Jiad-im, 0. Ir. in-fiadim, I relate ; fiad = veid, 
know ; see innis. 

aisteach, a diverting fellow, Ir. aisdeach, witty : 

ait, glad, Ir., E. Ir. ait, 0. Ir. ait, euge ! adverbium optantis : 

aite, a place, Ir., E. Ir. dit. Possibly pre-Celtic pod-ti-, root pod, 
ped, Lat. oppidum, Gr. TreSov, ground, Skr. paddm, place ; as 
in eadh, q.v. Stokes has referred dit to the root that appears 
in Ger. ort, place, Norse oddr, 0. Eng. ord, point, Teutonic 
md; I. E. mdh- ; but this in Gaelic would give i«Z or od. 


iiteag, a shy girl ; see fditeas. 

aiteal, breeze, ray, small portion. In the sense of " ray," cf. Gr. 
oKTts, ray ; in the sense of " quantulum," it may be divided 
as ad-tel, 0. Br. attal, an equivalent, root tel, weight, money ; 
see tuarasdal. 

aiteam, a people, a tribe (Arms.) : 

aiteamh, a thawj *aitli-ta-m, W. toddi, melt; Lat. tabes; Gr. 
TijK<o, melt ; Eng. thaw. The Ir. word is tionadh (0. Ir. 
tinaid, evanescit), Manx tennue, the root of which is ten, Lat. 
tener, Eng. thin. 

aith-, " re-" ; see ath-. 

aitheamh, fathom, 0. W. cUent, filum ; *{p)etem.d ; Eng. faOiom ; 
I. E. joei, extend, Lat. pateo, <kc. 

aithinne, fire-brand, Jr., O. Ir. aithinne : * aith-te'n-io- ? Root of 
teine ? The root and, kindle, as in 0. Ir. anducl, accendere, 
adandad, lighting up, is also possible, * aith-and-io- being the 
form in that case. 

aithis, a reproach, affront, so Ir., O. Ir. athiss ; *ati-^id-tu- ; Got. 
idveit, Eng. tiidt ; root vid, wit, know. 

aithlis, a disgrace ; cf. lean in leas-mhac. 

aithne, knowledge, so Ir., 0. Ir., aithgne, W. adwaen : ati-gn-io- for 
Ir. ; I. E., gen, gna, gno, to know ; Lat. cognosco ; Gr. ■yvyvwrKm ; 
Eng. hiww. 

aithne, command, Ir., 0. Ir. aithne, depositum, command; immdnim, 
delego, assign ; W. adne, custody ; the root seems to be an 
or an, judging from the verbal forms, though these scarcely 
agree with the noun forms. See tiomnadh further. 

aithreach, repentant, so Ir., 0. Ir. aitlirech, Corn, edrech, repent- 
ance, Br. azrec (do.), * ati-{p)reko-, *ati-(p)rekid ; root pt'ek, 
Lat. precor, Ger. fragen, ask, &c. Ascoli makes the root reg, 
come (see rach). 

aithris, tell, so Ir., *ati-ris, E. Ir. ris, a story, *rt-ti-, rat, ret, 
Ger. rede, speech. Got. rathjo, speak, Lat. ratio. 

aitidh, damp : 

aitionn, juniper, Ir. aiteann, 0. Ir. aitenn, W. aith, eithin. Cor. 
eythinen, 0. Br. ethin (gl. rusco), *, I. E. root ok, sharp, 
Lat. acldus, Eng. acid, edge, Gr. aicpos, extreme, &c. The 
nearest words are Lit. dkstinas, sting, Ch. SI. ostinu. Also 

aitreabh, a building, Ir. aitreibh, E. Ir. aittreh, W. adref, home- 
wards, Gaul. Atrebates ; *aclrtreh-, the Celtic root treb con-es- 
ponding to Lat. tribus, Eng. thorpe. 

al, brood, Ir. dl, W. ael, al : *{p)aglo- ; cf. Lat. pi-<ypdgo, Eng, 
propagate. Hence Claire, brood mare, 


alach, nails : *al-lach, al- from {p)agl-, Lat. paiiis, stake ; root 

pag, pag, fasten, whence Gr. n-iyyi/v/it, Lat. pango, fix, Eng. 

alachag. alachuin; see ealachainn. 

drlainn, beautiful, Jr. dluin, 0. Ir. dlaind ; * ad-lainn ; see loinn. 
all-, over ; see tkall. 
allaban, wandering : 

allail, noble, M. Ir. all, aill, *al-no-s, root al, as in Lat. alius. 
alladh, fame (either good or bad), Ir. alladh, excellency, fame, 

E. Ir. allud ; see above. 
allaidh, fierce, wild, Ir. allta, 0. Ir. allaid ; possibly from all-, 

over, the idea being "foreign, barbarous, fierce;" cf. W. 

nllaidd of like meanings, from W. all, other. See next, 
allmharach, a foreigner, foreign, fierce ; Ir. allmharach, foreigner, 

transmarine ; E. Ir. albmaraxh. From all-, beyond, and 

miiir, sea, " transmarine" (K. Meyer), 
allsadh, a jerk, svispending, leaning to one side ; see ahlisadh. 
allsmuain, a float, great buoy : 
allsporag, cow's throttle (M'A.) ; see ahhtporng. 
allt, a stream, Ir. alt, height, (topographically) glen-side or cliff, 

0. Ir. alt, shore, cliff, 0. W. allt, cliff. Cor. ah, Br. aot, shore ; 

all allied to Lat. alius. The Gaelic form and meaning are 

l^ossibly of Pictish origin. 
aim, alum ; from the English. 
alp, ingraft, join closely together : 
alt, joint, Ir., E. Ir. alt, * {p)aUo-s ; root pel, whence Eng. fold, 

Norse, faldr, Ger. falz, groove ; Gr. -TrAotrtos, doubled, for 

altach, a grace (at food), Ir. altugluidh, 0. Ir. attlugud, rendering 

thanks, atludmr bude, I give thanks: *ad-tluk6r, root, tluq; 

Lit. tulkas, interpreter ; Lat. loquor for tloquor. 
altair, altar, Ir., 0. Ir. alttir, W. allor. Cor. altor, Br. auter ; from 

Lat. altare, altar, " high place." 
altram, fostering, Ir. altrom, 0. Ir. altram, W. alltraw, sponsor ; 

root al, nourish, whence Lat. alo. Got. alan, grow, Eng. old. 
Jim, time, Ir. am, pi. amarerea, E. Ir. am, *ammen-,iTom *at-s-men-, 

root at. Got. apn, year; possibly Lat. annus (at-s-no-). 
am-, privative prefix ; this is the labialised form of an-, q.v. ; and 

being labialised, it is also aspirated into amh-. The forms 

before " small " vowels in the subsequent syllable are aim-, 

amach, vulture, so Ir. : 
amadan, fool, Ir. amaddn : am-^ment-, "non-minded," Celtic root 

ment (dearmad, farmad, &c.), mind ; Lat. mens, menti-s, Eng. 

mind, &c. The shorter root men is found in meanmna. 


amail, mischief ; E. Ir. admillim, I destroy : ad + mill, q.y. 

amail, hindrance : ad + mall, q.v. 

amal, swingle-tree ; *ad-mol ; mol, a beam, especially " a mill 

shaft," E. Ir. mol : 
amar, channel, mill lead ; E. Ir. ammor, ammlmr, a trough, 

* amb-or- ; Gaul, amies, rivos, rivers, Ambris, river name ; 
Lat. imber ; Gr. oyu,yS/oos„ rain ; Skr. ambu, water. Zimmer 
considers the Ir. borrowed from Ag. S. dmber, amphora, Ger. 
eimer ; but the Gaelic meaning is distinctly against his 
theory. A borrowing from Lat. amphora is liable to the same 

amarlaich, blustering (M'A.) : 

amas, hitting, 0. Ir. ammvs, an aim: *ad-mes-; see eirmu. 

amasguidh, aimsgith, profane, impure; * ad-mesc-id-, "mixed;" 
see measg. 

amh, raw, Ir. amh, E. Ir. om, W. of ; root om, dm, whence Gr. 
w/xos ; ■ Got. amsa ; Skr. arasaa. 

a mhain, only, Ir. amhdin, E. Ir. amdin ; cf . 0. Ir. nammd ( W. 
namyn, \ = na-n-md, "lit non sit major" (?). The main 
root is mA or mb, more, with the negative, but the exact 
explanation is not easy ; "no more than" (?). 

amhainn, river ; better abliainn, q.v. 

amharc, looking, seeing, so Ir. : 

amhaltach, vexing ; see aimlveil. 

amhartan, luck, Ir. amhantur, abhantur ; from Fr. aventure, Eng. 

amharus, suspicion, so Ir., 0. Ir. crazajVess, iufidelitas, am + mw.'!, 
the latter meaning "faith;" 0. Ir. iresa = nir-e.w, and ''''ens is 
from *sistd, standing, root std, stand, reduplicated ; cf. Lat. 
sisto, itc. The whole word, were it formed at once, would 
look like *am^(p)are-sistu, or *am-are-sutd. 

amhas, amhusg, wild man, beast-man ; Ir. amhas, a wild man, 
madman ; E. Ir. amos, amsach, a mercenary soldier, servant. 
Conchobar's amsaig, or mercenaries, in the E. Ir. saga of 
Deirdre, appear misunderstood as our amhusgan, monsters ; 
there is probably a reminiscence of the Norse " bear-sarks." 
Borrowed from Gaul. Lat. ambactus ( = servus, Festus), through 

* ambaxus ; Csesar says of the Gaulish princes : " Circum sc 
ambactos clientesque habent." The roots are ambi- (see mti) 
and ag, go, lead (see aghaidh). Hence many words, as Eng. 
ambassador, Ger. amt, official position, &c. 

Amhghar, affliction, Ir. amhgar ; am- (not) -I- gar ; cf . 0. Ir. ingir, 
tristitia, from gdire, risus. See gciir, laughter, for root. 

amhlair, fool, boor, Ir. amlMir, 0. Ir. amlahar, mute ; from am- 
(not) and labhair, speak, q.v. Of. suilbhir. 


amhlaisg, bad beer, taplash : 

amhluadh, confusion : 

amhran, song, Ir. amhrdn, abhrdn, M. Ir. ambrdn, Manx, arrane ; 
see bran. 

amhuil, like, as, Ir. amhlmdh, 0. Ir. amail, amal, 0. W. amal, 
W. mal, Br. evel; from a Celtic samali-, which appears in 
samhail, q.v. 

amhuilt, a trick, deceit (H.S.D. imhuilt) : 

^mhuinn, oven, Ir. 6igheann ; borrowed from Eng. oven. 

amlach, curled, amlag, a curl, M. Ir. amlach; from the prep. 
ambi-, as in mu, q.v. 

amraidh, cupboard, Ir. amri (O'B.), W. almari; all borrowed 
from Eng. (Gaelic from Sc. aumrie ?) amhry and M. E. almarie, 
from 0. |fr. almarie, from Lat. armarium, place of tools or 
arms, from arma. 

an, a', the, Ir. an, 0. Ir. in (mas. and fem.), a n- (neut.) ; a t- 
appears before vowels in the nom. masc. (an t-athair), and it 
is part of the article stem; a Celtic sendo-s (m.), sendd (f.), 
sa7i (n.). Sendo-s is composed of two pronominal roots, 
dividing into sen-do- ; sen, judging by the neuter san, is a 
fixed neuter nom. or ace. from the Celtic root se (I. E. sjo, 
beside so-), allied to Ag. S. se, the, sed, now she. The -do- of 
sendo-s has been referred by Thurneysen and Brugmann to 
the pron. root to- (Eng. thort, Gr. to) ; it is suggested that tn- 
may have degenerated into do- before it was stuck to the 
fixed form sen. Sen-to- could not, on any principle otherwise, 
whether of accentviation or what not, produce the historical 
forms. It is best to revert to the older etymology, and 
refer do- to the pronominal root appearing in the Latin fixed 
cases (enclitic) -dam, -dem (qui-cZawi, i-dem, i&c), the Gr. Se, 
-8c (as in o-Se, this), Ch. SI. da, he. The difference, then, 
between Gr. o-Se and Gaelic sendo-s is this : the Gr. inflects 
the first element (o = so) and keeps the Se fixed, whereas 
Gaelic reverses the matter by fixing the sen and inflecting the 
do- ; otherwise the roots are the same ultimately, and used 
for almost similar purposes. 
an, in, Ir. a n- (eclipsing), 0. Ir. i, i n-, W. yn, Br. en ■ Lat. in ; 
Gr. Iv ; Eng. in, &c. Generally it appears in the longer form 
ann, or even as ann an ; see ann. 
an, interrogative particle, Ir. an, 0. Ir. in ; Lat. an ; Got. an. 
an-, negative prefix, Ir. an-, O. Ir. an-, in- ; W., Cor., Br. an- ; 
Celtic an, I. E. n-, Lat. in-, Gr. a-, av-, Eng. un-, Skr. a-, an-, 
(fee. It appears before labials and liquids (save n) as am-, 
aspirated to amh- ; with consequent " small" vowels, it 
becomes ain-, aim-, aimh-. Before g, it becomes ion-, as in 


iongantas. Before c, t, s, the an- becomes evr and the t and c 
become medials (as in beud, hrcug, fe'osag). See also next 
ana-, negative prefix, 0. Ir. an-, sometimes aspirating ; G. 
anacreidimh, disbelief, 0. Ir. ancretem, but ainfhior, luitrue ; 
M. Ir. ainfhir. This suggests a Celtic anas- for the first, and 
ana- for the second, extensions of the previous an- ; cognate 
are Gr. avis, avev, without ; Ger. ohne, Got. inu, without. 
ana-, an-, ain-, prefix of excess ; Ir. an-, ain-, M. Ir. an- ; Ir. 
aspirates where possible (not t, d, g), Gaelic does so rarely. 
Allied are Gr. ava, up. Got. ana, Eng. on. Hence ana-barr, 
excess ; ain-neart, violence ; ain-teas, excessive heat, &c. 
anabas, dregs, refuse : 
anabhibrach, centipede, whitlow : 
anacail, defend, save ; Ir. anacail, protection, E. Ir. anacul (do.). 

This Ascoli refers to the same origin as adnacul ; see adhlac. 
anacair, sickness, affliction, so Ir. See acarach. 
anail, breath, Ir. and 0. Ir. anal, W. anadl, anal, Cor. anal, Br. 
alan, Celtic anatld ; root an, breathe. Got. anan, to breathe, 
Skr. anila, wind. See anam also. 
anainn, eaves, top of house wall : 

anam, soul, so Ir., 0. Ir. anim (d. anmin). Cor. enef, M. Br. eneff, 
Br. ene, Celtic animon- (Stokes) ; Lat. animus, anima; Gr. 
avefjioi, wind, 
anart, linen, Ir., E. Ir. anairt, 0. Ir. annart *an-arto-; root pan, 
pan ; Lat. pannvs, cloth ; Gr. tttjvos, thread on the bobbin ; 
Got. fana, cloth, Ag. S. fana, small flag, Eng. vane, fane. 
anart, pride : 

anasta, stormy : * anrfadh-asta ; see anfadh, storm, 
an drasta, now ; for an-trdth-sa, " the time here," q.v. 
t anfadh, storm ; proper G. is onfhadh, q.v. 
anfhann, weak, Ir. anbhfann, M. Ir. anbfann, anhand ; an+fann, 

" excessive faint." Seefann. 
anlamh, annlamh, misfortune ; an- (not) + lamh ; see uUamh for 

ann, there, Ir., 0. Ir. and, *anda (Stokes) ; Cyprian Gr. avSa 
( = avrt], this, she) ; Lit. dndai^ newly, ans, ana, ille, ilia ; 
Ch. SI. onH, that; Skr. ana, this (he), 
ann, ann an, in, Ir. ann, E. Ir. ind, 0. Ir. ind-ium (in me), Celtic 
endo (Stokes) ; Lat. endo, indu, into, in ; Gr. tVSov, within, 
iv&oOtv ; Eng. into. The roots are en (see an), in, and do 
(see do), to. In ann an, the two prejjositions ann and an 
are used. The form anns is used before the article and 
relative ; the -s properly belongs to the article ; anns an, 
in the, is for ann san. 


t annaid, annoid, a church, M. Ir. anndit, 0. Ir. andodit, mother- 
church. Stokes refers it to L, Lat. antitas, for antiquitas, 
"ancient church." In Scottish place-names it appears as 
Annet, Clach na h-Annaid, (fee. 

aunaladh, era, calendar, Ir. analacli, chronicle ; from Lat. annalia. 

aunamh, rare, M. Ir. annam, E. Ir. andam ; * arirdam.-, " non- 
tame ;" root dam, home, (fee. ; Eng. domestic, tame. Hence 
annas, rarity. 

annlamh, vexation, (fee ; see anlamh. 

annlan, condiment, E. Ir. amdand, W. enllyn ; possibly an + leann. 

annrach, anrach, wanderer, stranger ; either from *ann-retlirach, 
root reth, run (see Yuith, faondra), or from * arwrath-ach, 
" unfortunate," root rath, luck, q.v. 

annrath, distress, Ir. anrath ; an + rath ; see rath, luck. The 
E. Ir. andro appears to be of a different origin. 

annsa, dearer, better liked, so Ir., M. Ir. andsa, preferable : 

ao-, privative prefix ; for eu-, that is, for an- (not), before c and t. 
See an-. 

aobhach, joyous ; see aoihhinn. 

aobhar, cause, Ir. adhhhar, 0. Ir. adbar, *ad-hero-n; root her, I.E. 
bher, whence Lat. fero, Eng. bear, (fee. 

aobrann, ankle, 0. Ir. odbrann, W. uffarn : *od-bronn, *ud-hrunn-, 
"out-bulge;" Mc?- = Eng. out, and brunn-, see brU, belly. 
Stokes {Academy, June, 1892) makes odr to be 'for -pod, foot, 
Gr. Ttov'i, TToSS's, Eng. foot, (fee. 

aodach, clothes, Ir. etcdach, 0. Ir. etach, *ant-a-c-os ; root pan, as in 
anart, q.v. Cf. Lit. pinti, plait, twine, Ch. SI. p§ti, wind, 
Lat. pannus, (fee. Strachan cfs. Alb. ent, int, weave, Gr. 
a.TTOjiaL, weave. 

aodann, face, Ir. eadan, 0. Ir. etan, Celtic antano- (Stokes) ; Lat. 
ante ; Gr. avrl, against ; Eng. and ; Skr. dnti, opposite. 

aodraman, bladder, Ir. eadtromdn ; see aotrom. 

aog, death ; see eiig. 

aogas, aogasg, face, appearance, M. Ir. ecosg (O'Cl.), 0. Ir. ecosc, 
habitus, expression, *in-cosc ; see casg, check. " Cf. 0. Ir. 
irhcho-dg, siguificat. 

aoghaire, shepherd, so Ir., M. Ir. aegaire, 0. Ir. augaire, *oiji-gar- ; 
for ovi-, sheep, see oisg. The -gar- is allied to Gr. dydpui, 
dyopd, meeting place, market. 

aoibh, civil look, cheerful face, Ir. aoibh, pleasant, E. Ir. deb, 0. Ir. 
diph, beauty, appearance, *aibd (Thurneysen), mien, look, 
Prov. Er. aib, good manners. Ascoli refers it to the root of 
eiblieall (q.v.), a live coal, the underlying idea being "shining, 
sheen." This would agree as to the original force with 
taitinn, please, taitneach, pleasant. 


aoibhinn, pleasant, joyful, so Ir., E. Ir. dibind, Aihind. See above 
word for root. 

aoigh, guest, Ir. aoidhe, pi. acndheadha, 0. Ir. 6egi, pi. 6egid, 
* (p)oig-it ; cf . the Teutonic *faig-ip-, -whence Norse feigr, 
doomed to die, Ag. S. fdege, doomed, Eng. fey (Schriider). 
Stokes gives the Celtic as (p)oik-it, poik, whence Eng. foe 
(cf. Lat. hostis, hospes) ; but the Gaelic gh of aoigh is against 
this otherwise satisfactory derivation. As against Schrader's 
etymology, might be put a reference to the form found in 
Gr. otxo/tat, go, Lit. eiga, going, further root ei, go ; the idea 
being " journey-taker." Commonly misspelt aoidh. 

aoine, fast, Di-haoine, Friday, Ir. aoine, Friday, 0. Ir. oine, fast, 
Br. iun ; from Lat. jejunium, a fast, fast-day, Eng. jejune. 

aoineadh, a steep brae with rocks, Manx eaynee, steep place : 

aoir, a satire, Ir. aor, E. Ir. der, 0. Ir. dir. Ascoli refers this word 
and 0. Ir. tathdir, reprehensio, to tdir, q.v. 

aoir, sheet or bolt-rope of a sail : 

aoirean, farmer, herd ; see aoghaire. 

aois, age, Ir. aois, 0. Ir. dss, dis, 6is, W. oes, *aivest'Ur- ; Lat. 
mvuTn, cetas, Eng. age ; Gr. ales, aid, always ; Eng. aye. 

aol, lime, Ir. aol, 0. Ir. del : 

aolach, dung, Ir. aoileaeh, 0. Ir. ailedu, stercora, W. add-ail, 
eluvies. Ascoli compares 0. Ir. dil, probrum, but this word is 
probably cognate with Got. agls, aglus, difficult, shameful, and 
may not be allied to aolach. 

aolais, indolence : 

aolmann, ointment ; founded on the Eng. ointment 1 

aom, incline, Ir. aomadh, inclining, attracting : 

aon, one, Ir. aon, 0. Ir. din, den ; W., Cor., Br. un ; Lat. unus 
( = oinos) ; Got. ains, Eng. one. 

aonach, moor, market place, Ir. aonach, fair, assembly, 0. Ir. 
dinach, denach, fair, *oiji-acos, from aon, one, the idea being 
" uniting, re-union." Some have compared the Lat. agonium, 
fair, but it would scarcely suit the Gaelic phonetics 

aonach, panting ; see dinich. 

aonagail, aonairt, aoineagan, wallowing ; see uainneart. 

aonais, want ; see iimais. 

aorabh, bodily or mental constitution : 

aoradh, worship, Ir. adhradh, 0. Ir. adrad ; from Lat. adoratio, 
Eng. adoration. 

aotrom, light, Ir. dadtrom, 0. Ir. itromm ; * an + tram, " non- 
heavy." See trom. 

ap, ape, Ir. ap, W. ab ; from Eng. ape. 

aparan, apron ; from the Eng. 

aparr, expert ; from Sc. apert, from 0. Fr. aparte, military skill, 
from Lat. aperio, open, Eng. aperient, expert, &c. 


aparsaig;, knapsack ; from Eng. haversack. 

ar, ar n-, our, so Ir. and 0. Ir., *{s)ar<m; this form may have 

arisen from unaccented ns-aron, like Got. uns-ar {us of Eng. 

and ar), Ger. unser, Eng. owr (Thurneysen). Stokes refers it 

to a Celtic {n)osl/ron, allied to Lat. nostrum. See further at 

ar, seems ; ar learn, it seems to me ; E. Ir. indar limm : 
hi, plough, E. Ir. ar, W. ar, ploughed land ; Lat. arc ; Lit. ariii ; 

Got. arjan, Eng. ear, plough. 
ar, battle, slaughter, Ir. and 0. Ir. dr, W. aer, *agro- ; root ag, 

drive ; Gr. ay pa, chase ; see agh. 
^ra, kidney, Ir. dra(nn), O. Ir. dru, g. dran, W, aren, * nfron- ; 

Lat. nefrones ; Gr. ve^po's ; Ger. nieren. Stokes refers dra to 

ad-rSn, the ren being the same as Lat. ren. 
arabhaig, strife ; cf. 0. Ir. irbdg, arhag, * air-bag-, Norse hdgr, 

4rach, rearing ; see airidh, shealing. It is possible to refer this 

word to ^ad-reg-, reg being the root which appears in &rich. 
^rachas, insurance, so Ir., E. Ir. drach, bail, contract, * ad-rig-, 

root rig, bind, which see in cuihhreach. 
^radh, a ladder, Ir. aradh, E. Ir. drad : 
araiceil, valiant, important, Ir. drach, strength, drachdach, 

puissant, *ad-reg-, root reg, rule, direct. 
^raidh, certain, some, Ir. dirighe, M. Ir. diridJte, *ad-rei- ; cf. W. 

rhai, rhyw, some, certain, which Khys compares to Got. 

fraiv, seed. 
aran, bread, Ir., M. Ir. ardn ; root ar, Gr. apros. See next. 
arbhar, corn, so Ir., E. Ir. arbar ; 0. Ir. arbe, frumentum ; Lat. 

arvuvi, field. Also Gaul, arinca, " frumenti genus Gallicum" 

(Pliny), Gr. a/oaicos, vetch, Skr. arakas, a plant. 
arbhartaich, dispossess; *ar-bert-; ar for ex-r6? 
arc, fungus on decayed wood, cork, arcan, cork, stopple, Ir. 

arcan, cork (Lh.) : 
archuisg, experiment (Sh.) : 
arcuinn, cow's udder : 

4rd, high, Ir., E. Ir. drd, Gaul. Ardvenna ; Lat. arduus ; Gr. 6p66i. 
ard-dorus, lintel, Ir. ardorus. fardorus ; drd- here is a piece of 

folk etymology, the real word being ar, air, upon. See air 

and dorus. 
arfuntaich, disinherit ; *ar-fonn-. See arbhartaich. 
argarrach, a claimant; * air + gar ; see goir. 
argumaid, argument, Ir. argumeint, 0. Ir. argumint ; from Lat. 

d.rlas, chimney, E. Ir. forles, roof light ; air + leus, q.v. 
arm, weapon, Ir., 0. Ir. arm, W. arf ; from Lat. arma, whence 

Eng. arms. 


armadh, working wool in oil, the oil for working wool : 

^rmuiin, a hero, Ir. armann, an officer, E. Ir. armand, from an 

oblique case of Norse dniia&r (g. drmanns), harmost, steward. 
aroch, hamlet, dwelling : 
aros, a dwelling, Ir. drus, M. Ir. aros, W. araws, aros ; *ad-roslu- ; 

Eng. rest is allied to rostu-. 
arpag, a harpy ; from Lat, harpyia, Eng. harpy. 
arraban, distress : *ar-reub-? 
arrabhalach, treacherous fellow ; see farhhalach. 
arrachar, rowing, steering (Arm.) : * ar-reg-, root reg, direct, 
arrachd, spectre, Ir., E. Ir. arracht ; *ar-rig- ; see riochd for root. 

Ir. has also arrack, contour, spectre. 
arrachogaidh, the first hound that gets wind of, or comes up to 

the deer (Sh.) : 
arraghaideach, careless (Sh.) : 
arraideach, erratic ; from the Eng. ? 

arraing, a stitch, convulsions, so Ir.; *ar-vreng-'i 'Eng. wrench, &c 
anal, foolish pride : 
arronta, bold; %ee farranta. 
arrusg, awkwardness, indecency, arusg (M'A.) : 
arsa, quoth, Ir. ar, E. Ir. ar. The s of the Gaelic really belongs 

to the pronoun se or si, said he, said she, " ar se, ar si." Of. 

M.G., "ar san tres ughdar glic" — said the third wise author 

{san being the full art. ; now ars' an). The E. Ir. forms bar 

and for, inquit, point to the root sver, say, Eng. swear, 

arsaidh, old, Ir. drsaidh, 0. Ir. arsid : * ar-sta- ; sta, stand ? 
arsnaig, arsenic ; from the Eng. 
arspag, large species of sea-gull, larus major : 
artan, a stone ; see airtein. 
artlaich, baffle ; see fairtlich. 

^ruinn, a forest ; *ag-ro-ni-, root ag, Gr. ay pa, the chase, 
as, a, out of, from, Ir. as, 0. Ir. ass, a, W. a, oc, Br. a, ag, Gaul. 

ex- ; Lat. ex ; Gr. e^, &c. As- is also used as a privative 

asaid, delivery ; see aisead. 

asair, the lierb " asara bacca ;'' borrowed from Latin name, 
asair, harness, shoemaker, Ir. asaire, shoemaker, assain, greaves, 

&c., 0. Ir. assa, soccus ; Gr. -ira^, sandal (Hes.), Lat. baxea ; 

root pdg, fit, Gr. ir-qyvvfii, (Stokes). 
asal, an ass, so Ir., M. Ir. assal, W. asyn, Cor. asen. G. and Ir. 

are borrowed from Lat. assellus, the W. and Corn, from Lat. 

asbhuain, stubble ; *as-buain, " out-reaping," q.v. 
ascaoin, unkind ; as-, privative, and caoin, q.v. 


ascart, tow, Ir. asgartach, M. Ir. eseart, W. earth, Br. skarz, 

*ex-sha/rto-, *skarto-, dividing, root sker, separate; Gr. a-K^p, 

dung ; Eng. sham ; (fee. 
asgaidh, present, boon, E. Ir. ascad ; for root, see taisg. 
asgailt, a retreat, shelter; seefasgadh, sgail: *ad-scath-. 
asgall, bosom, armpit, so Ir., Br. askle, W. asgre, bosom. The 

same as achlais (q.v.) by metathesis of the s. 
asgan, a grig, merry creature, dwarf (Arm.). See aisteach. 
asgnadh, ascending, so Ir. ; *ad-sqendd ; Lat. scarido, &c. 
aslach, request, Ir., 0. Ir. aslach, persuasio, adsliy, persuades ; for 

root, see slighe, way. 
aslonnach, prone to tell (Arm.), E. Ir. asluindim, I request; *ad- 

sloinn, q.v. 
asp, an asp, W. asp ; from the Eng. 
asran, a forlorn object, Ir. asrannach, astrannach, a stranger: from 

astail, a dwelling ; see fasdail. 
astail, a contemptible fellow (M'A.) : 
astar, a journey, Ir. asdar, astar, E. Ir. astvr : 
^suing, isuinn, ^suig, apparatus, weapon ; see asair (?). 
at, swell, Ir. at, 0. Ir. aft, *{p)at-to-, root pat, extend, as in 

aitheamh, q.v, Stokes gives Celtic as azdo- (Got. asts, twig, 

&c.) ; but this would be in Q&eXve'ad. 
t atach, request, B. of Deer attdc, E. Ir. atach, 0. Ir. ateoch, I 

pray, *ad-tek- ; Eng. thig. 
ataig, atuinn, a palisade, stake : 
atamach, fondling, caressing (M'A.) : 
ath, next, again ; see ath-. 

ath, flinch ; from ath-, back. Hence athach, modest, 
ath-, aith, re-, so Ir., 0. Ir. ath-, aith-, ad-, *ati, W. ad-, Br. at-, 

az- ; Gaul, ate ; Lat. at, but, at- {atavus) ; Lit. at-, ata-, back, 

Slav, otu ; Skr. ati, over. Stokes divides Celtic ati- into two, 

meaning respectively "over" and "re-;" but this seems 

ath, a ford, Ir., 0. Ir. ath, *jdtiu- ; Skr. yd, to go ; Lit. j6ti, ride 

4th, a kiln, Ir. dith, W. odyn. Stokes refers this to a pre-Celtic 

apati-, apatino-, parallel to Eng. oven. Got. auhns, Gr. Ittvos. 

Bezzenberger suggests the Zend dtar, fire, as related. 
athach, a giant, Ir. fathach, alhach ; root, pat, extend ? 
t athach, a breeze, Ir., 0. Ir. athach ; Gr. arfw-s, vapour, Eng. 

atmosphere ; Ger. atem, breath ; &c. 
athainne, embers, so Ir. ; *at/ir-teine (?). See aithinne. 
athailt, a scar ; ath-ail ; see ail, mark. 


athair, father, so Jr., 0. Ir. athir ; Lat. pater ; Gr. Tcar-qp ; Skr. 

pitdr- ; Eng. father. 
athair-neimli, serpent, Br. aer, azr ; for nathair-neimh, q.v. 
athair-thalmhaiun, yarrow, milfoil, Ir. and M. Ir. athair talmhuin ; 

"pater-telluris !" Also earr-thalmhainn, which suggests 

borrowing from Eng. yarrow. 
athais, leisure ; ath +fois, q.v. 
athar, sky, air, Ir. ai^tir, air, sky, 0. Ir. aer, aier, W. awyr ; from 

Lat. aer, whence Eng. air. 
atharla, heifer ; possibly aih-ar-Laogh, " ex-calf." 
atharnach, second crop ; *ath-ar-nach, root ar, plough. 
atharrach, alteration, Ir. atharrach, 0. Ir aitherreeh, Br. adarre, 

afresh, arre, * ati-ar-reg-, root reg of eirich. Stokes analyses 

it into ati-ex-regd, that is, ath-dirich. 

ba ! part of a lullaby ; onomatopoetic. Cf. Eng. baby, Ger. bube, 

ba, bath, foolish, Fernaig MS. bah : " deadly ;" root bd-, kill ; see 

bas. Cf. Lat. fatuus. 
babag, tassle ; see pab. 

babhsganta, baosganta, cowardly ; see bodhbh. 
belibhun, bulwark, enclosure for cattle, Ir. bdbhun, whence Eng. 

bavm, M. Ir. bddhiin (Annals of Loch Ce, 1199) ; from bo and 

dim, q.v. 
bac, hindrance, Ir. bac, M. Ir. bacaim (vb.). See next word, 
bac, a crook, Ir. bac, 0. Ir. bacc, W. bach, Br. bac'h, Celtic bakko-s ; 

*bag-ko-, Norse bak, Eng. back. Hence bacach, lame, E. Ir. 

bacach, W. bachog, crooked. 
bacag, a fall, tripping ; from bac, q.v. 

bacaid, ash holder, backet ; from So. backet, from Fr. baqtiet. 
bacastair, baker, bacaladh, oven, Ir. bacail, baker ; all from the 

Eng. bake, baxter. 
bacan, stake, hinge, Ir. and E. Ir. bacdn From bac. 
bach, drunkenness, Ir. bach ; from Lat. Bacchus. 
bachall, shepherd's crook, crozier, Ir. bachul, 0. Ir. bacliall, W. 

bagl, crutch ; from Lat. baculum, staff ; Gr. /SaKTrjpid, Eng. 

bachar, acorn, " Molucca bean," Ir. bachar ; borrowed from or 

allied to Lat. baccar, Gr. /Sa/cKa/sis, nard. 
bachlag, a shoot, a curl, Ir. bachldg ; from bachall (Thumeysen). 
bachoid, the boss of a shield, Ir. bocoide, bosses of shields ; from 

L. Lat. buccatus, Lat. biKca, cheek. See bucaid. 


bad, a cluster, thicket ; cf. Br. bot, bod, bunch of grapes, thicket ; 

common in Breton and Scotch place names ; probably a 

Pictish word. Cf. Eng. bud, earlier hodde. 
badhal, a wandering, bMharan ; possibly from the root ba, go, as 

in bothar, q.v. H.S.D. suggests ba + dol. 
bag, a bag ; from the Eng. 
bagaid, a cluster, troop, W. bagad, Br. bagod; from Lat. bacca 

(Thumeysen, Emault). 
bagaire, a glutton ; from hag in the sense of " belly." 
bagair, threaten, so Ir., E. Ir. bacwr, a threat. The W. bygwl, a 

threat, &c., is scarcely allied, for it comes from bwg, a spectre, 

bogie, whence possibly the English words bogie, boggle, &c. 

G. bagair may be allied with the root underlying Aac ; pos- 
sibly bag-gar-, " cry back." 
b^gh, a bay, Ir. bddh ; from Eng. bay, Romance baja. 
baghan, a stomach (baoghan, with ao short) : 
baibeil, lying, given to fables ; from Eng. babble. 
baideal, tower, battlement, ensign, baidealach, bannered ; from 

M. Eng. battle, battlement, which is of the same origin as 

baidh, love, Ir. bdidhe, M. Ir. bdid, bdde, * bddi-s (Stokes). Cf. 

Grr. KJiioTLov, friendly (Hes.), for (fxodiov ; root hha : blw, whence 

Gr. <^(os, man. 
baidreag, a ragged garment ; see paidreag. 
baidse, musician's fee ; from the Eng. batch ? 
baigeir, a beggar ; from Eng. 

bail, thrift, Ir. bail, success, careful collection, M. Ir. bail, good- 
ness ; I. E. root bhel, swell, increase. See huil, bile. Hence 

bailbheag, a corn poppy ; also beilbheag, mealbhag, meilbheag. 
bailc, a ridge, beam, W. bale ; from Eng. balk. 
bailc, seasonable rain, showers : 
bailceach, strong, a strong man, E. Ir. bale, strong, W. balch, 

superbus, Br. baldh; Lat. fulcio, support, Eng. fulci~imi 

(Stokes). Likely a Celtic bal-ho-, root hal, as in bail. 
baile, town, township, Ir., E. Ir. baile, * balio-s, a pre-Celtic 

bhv-alio-, root bhvr, be ; Gr. (fxakeos, a lair ; Norse b6l, a 

" bally," further Eng. build, booth. 
baileach, excessive ; see bail. Also baileach. 
b^ilisdeir, babbler, founded on Eng. Scandinavian balderdash. 
baillidh, a magistrate, bailie ; from Sc. bailzie (Eng. bailiff), Fr. 

baineasag, a ferret, Ir. baineasdg ; ban + neas, " white weasel," q.v. 
baillidh, madness, fury, Ir. bdinidhe ; see ba. 
bainisg, a little old woman ; from ban, bean, q.v. 


bainne, milk, Ir., M. Ir. bairme ; also boinne, milk (Sutherland- 
shire), a drop, Ir., M. Ir., hainne, milk, 0. Ir. banne, drop. Cor., 
Br. banne, gutta; root bha; O.Slav, banja, bath ; ^ng. bath, &c. 

biir, a game, goal, Ir. bdire, hurling match, goal, M. Ir. bdire : 
* bag-ro-, root bag-, strive ; see arabhaig. 

baircinn, side timbers of a house (Sh.) : 

fbairgMn, bread, cake, Ir. hairghean, E. Ir. bargen, W., Cor., and 
Br. bar a, panis, * bar go- ; li&t. ferctum, oblation cake ; Ag. S. 
byrgan, to taste, Norse hergja, taste. 

bd,irich, lowing ; root of b6, cow. Cf. bidrich. 

bd,irig, bestow : 

b^irleigeadh, b&imeigeadh, warning, summons ; from the Eng. 

bMrlinn, rolling wave, billow ; bhir-linn, from t b4ir, wave, bor- 
rowed from Norse bdra, wave, billow. For linne, see that 

bMrneach, a limpet, Ir. bdimeach (FoL), W. brenig. Cor. brennic ; 
from M. Eng. bemehke, now barnacle, from Med. Lat. bernaca. 
Stokes takes bdimech from barenn, rock, as Gr. AeTras, limpet, 
is allied to XcTras, rock. 

bairneachd, judgment (Sh.), Jr., W., Br. bam ; root ber in brath, 

bairseag, a scold (Sh.), Ir. bairseach, M. Ir. bairsecha, foolish 
talk,' bara, wrath, W. bar, wrath. Stokes refers bara to the 
same origin as Lat. ferio, I strike, Norse berja, smite, &c. 

baisceall, a wild person (Sh.) ; root in ba, foolish ? 

baiseach, a heavy shower, Ir. bdisdeach, rain, bais, water; cf. 0. Ir. 
baithis, baptism, which may be borrowed from, Lat. baptisma 
(Windisch). The root here is bad, of bath, drown. 

baist, baptise, Ir. baisd, 0. Ir. baitsim ; from Lat. baptizo, which 
is from Gr. fiairTL^u), dip. 

baiteal, a battle ; from Eng. battle. 

balach, clown, lad, Ir. balach, clown, churl ; cf. Skr. bdlakas, a 
little boy, from bdla, yoimg. But cf . W. bala, budding, root bhel. 

balaiste, ballast ; from the Eng. 

balbh, dumb, so Ir., E. Ir. balb ; borrowed from Lat. balbus. 

bale, ridge, &c. ; see bailc. 

balcach, splay-footed (H.S.D.). Cf. Gr. ^oAkos, bandy-legged (?). 

balg, belly, bag, Ir. bolg, 0. Ir. bole, W. bol, boly, belly, Cor. bol, 
Gaulish bulga (Festus), sacculus ; Got. balgs, wine-skin, 
Norse belgr, skin, bellows, Eng. belly. 

balgair, a fox : 

balgum, mouthful, M. G. bolgama (pi.), Ir. blogam ; from balg. Cf. 
0. Ir. bole uisce, a bubble. 

ball, a member, Ir., 0. Ir. ball ; Gr. ^aAAds, Eng. phallus ; root 
bhel, swell. 


ball, a spot, Ir., M. Ir. hall, white-spotted on forehead (of a horse), 
Br. bal (do.) The Gaelic suggests a stem bal-no-, Celtic root 
hal, white, Gr. <^aA.os, shining, <j)dXapos (phalaros), white- 
spotted (of animals) ; I. E. bhel : hhale, shine ; whence Eug. 
bale-faB. Stokes says the Irish ball seems allied to the 
Romance balla, a ball, Eng. bale and ball (?). Hence ballach, 

ball, a ball ; from Eng. 

balla, wall, Ir. balla (Four Masters) ; from M. Eng. bailly, an 
outer castle wall, now in Old Bailey, from. Med. Lat. ballium. 

ballaire, a cormorant ; from hall, spot. 

ballan, a vessel, tub, Ir. balldn, E. Ir. ballan. Stokes cfs. Noree 
bolli, bowl, Eng. bowl, and says that the Gaelic is probably 

ballart, boasting, clamour ; probably from Norse hallra, strepere, 
baldrast, make a clatter (Eng. balderdash), Ger. poltem. 

b£i,n, white, Ir., 0. Ir. h6n ; I. E. root hhd, shine ; Gr. <l>av6s (a 
long), bright ; Skr. bhdnil, light ; further away is Eng. bale 

ban-, bana-, she-, female- ; see bean. 

banachdach, vaccination : 

banair, sheep fold ; see rather mainnir. 

banais, a wedding, wedding feast, Ir. bainfheis, wedding feast ; 
from ban +f^isd ? 

banarach, dairymaid ; from ban- and aireach. 

t banbh, a pig, Ir. banbh, E. Ir. banb, W. banw, Br. banv, hano, 
*banvo-s. The word appears as Banba, a name for Ireland, 
and, in Scotland, as Banff. M'L. & D. gives the further 
meaning of " land unploughed for a year." 

banc, a bank ; from the Eng. 

binchuir, squeamishness at sea (H.S.D., which derives it from 
bhn and cuir). 

bangadh, a binding, promise (Sh., H.S.D.), Ir. hangadh. H.S.D. 
suggests Lat. pango, whence it may have come. 

bangaid, a banquet, christening feast ; from Eng. banquet. 

bann, a belt, band ; from Eng. ftarerf. It also means a " hinge." 
Dialectic spann. 

bannag, a Christmas cake ; from the Sc. bannncJc. See honnach. 

banqag, corn-fan ; from Lat. vannws, Eng. fan. 

bannal, a troop, gang, Ir. banna ; from Eng. band. Also pannail. 

bantrach, a widow, E. Ir. hantrehthach, landlady : ban + trebthack, 
farmer, from treb in treabhadh, aitreabh. 

baobh, a wicked woman, witch, Ir. badhbh, hoodie crow, a fairy, a 
scold, E. Ir. badb, crow, demon, Badba, the Ir. war-goddess, 
W. hod, kite, Gaul. JBodv-, Bodvo-gnatus, W. Bodnod ; Norse 


bo&, g. bo&var, war, Ag. S. beadu, g. beadwe, *badwa- (Rhys). 

In Stokes' Diet, the Skr. bddhate, oppress, Lit. bddas, famine, 

are alone given. Also baogh. 
baodhaiste, ill usage from the weather : 
baoghal, danger, so Ir., 0. Ir., baigul, baegul ; cf. Lit. bai-me, fear, 

bai-gus, shy, Skr. bhayate, fear. 
baoghan, a calf, anything jolly : 
baogfram, a flighty emotion (Dialectic) ; founded on baogadh, a 

dialectic form of biog, q.v. 
baoileag, blaeberry ; cf. Eng. ftiiberry, Dan. biiUehmr. 
baoireadh, foolish talk ; founded on baotliaire, fool, from baoth, q.v. 
t baois, lust, so Jr., E. Ir. baes, *baisso- (Stokes) : compared by 

Bezzenberger to Gr. (paiSpos, shining, and by Strachan to the 

root gheidh, desire. Lit. geidu, desire, Ch. SI. zi.da, expetere, 

Goth, gaidw, a want. Possibly allied to Lat. foedus, foul. 
baois, madness, so Ir., E. Ir. bdis ; see baoth. 
baoisg, shine forth ; see boillsg. 
baoiteag, a small white maggot ; see boiteag. 
baol, nearness of doing anything (M'A.) : 
baoth, foolish, so Ir., O. Ir. bdith, baeth ; root bai, fear, as in baoglial 

Cor. bad, Br. bad, stupidity, are not allied, nor is Goth, bauths, 

dumb, as some suggest. Hence baothair, fool. 
bara, a barrow, Ir. bara, E. Ir. bara ; from M. Eng. barowe, Eng. 

barail, opinion, Ir. baramhuil, M. Ir. baramail : bar + samhail ; 

for bar-, see bairneachd, brdtk. 
baraill, a barrel, Ir. bdirille, E. Ir. barille, W. haril ; from M. E. 

barel, from 0. Fr. baril. 
baraisd, barraisd, borage ; Ir. barraist ; from the Eng. borage. 
bar an, a baron, Ir. bariin, W. barwn ; from the Eng. 
barant, surety, warrant, Ir., M. Ir. bardnta, W. gwarant ; from 

M. Eng. warant, now warrant. 
barbair, a barber, Ir. bearrb6ir (Fol.)j W. barfwr : from the Eng. 
barbarra, barbarous, Ir. barbartha ; from Lat. barbarus, Eng. 

bar-bhrigein, silver-weed (Arm.) ; also brisgean (from brisg) : 
barbrag, tangle tops, barberry ; from Eng. barberry. In Lewis, 

the former is called bragaire. 
bd.rc, a bark, boat, Ir. bdrc, E. Ir. bare, W. barg, Br. bare. These 

words are all ultimately from the Late Latin barca, whence, 

through Fr., comes Eng. barL 
bare, rush (as water), Ir. bdrcaim, break out ; cf. M. Ir. bare, 

multitude ; Lat. farcio, cram, frequens, numerous. 
bird, a poet, Ir. bdrd, E. Ir. bard, W. bardd, Br. barz, Gaul. 

bardos, * bardo-s ; Gr. 4>pa.('a (cjipaS-), speak (Eng. phrase). 



b^rd, dyke, inclosure, meadow, Ir. hdrd, a guard, garrison ; from 

Eng. ward. 
bargan, a bargain, W. hargen ; from the Eng. bargain. 
birlag, a rag, tatter-demalion ; cf . Ir. barlin, sbeet, for braith-lin, 

b^rluadh, a term in pipe music ; from Eng. bar + G. luath. 
b^rnaig, a summons ; from the Eng. warning. 
barpa, barrow, cairn (H.S.D., a Skye word). Cape Wrath is 

Am Parph in Gaelic ; froip Norse Hvarf, a turning, rounding, 

Eng. wharf. 
bto, top, Ir. bdrr, 0. Ir. barr, W., Cor. bar, Br. barr, * barso- ; 

Norse barr, pine needles, Ag. S. byrst, Eng. bristle, burr ; Lat. 

fastiguim (for farstigium), top ; Skr. bhrshti, a point. Hence 

barrachd, overplus. 
barra, a spike, bar, Ir. bdrra, W. bar, nail, ifec. ; all from the Eng. 

barra-giig, potato bloom. See gucag. 
barramhaise, a cornice (A. M'D.) ; barr + maise. Also barr- 

maisich, to ornament (M'A.). 
bas, palm of the hand, Ir., 0. Ir. bos, bass, boss, Br. boz, * bostd ; 

Gr. d-yocrTos. 
bis, death, Ir., 0. Ir. bas ; Celtic root bd, ba, hit, slay, whence 

Gaul. Lat. batuere (Eng. battle, &c.) ; Ag. S. beadu, war. 
basaidh, a basin ; from Sc. hassie, Eng. basin. 
bascaid, a basket, Ir. basgaod, W. basged ; from the Eng. basket. 
basdal, noise, gaiety ; from Eng. bustle ? 
basdard, a bastard, so Ir. and M. Ir., W. basdardd ; all from the 

Eng. bastard. 
basgaire, mourning, Ir. bascarrach, lamentation, clapping with 

the hands, M. Ir. basgaire ; bas + gaire, " palm-noise ; " for 

gaire, see goir. Also basiaich. 
basganta, melodious : 
basg-luath, vermilion ; from the obsolete adj. basg, red, E. Ir. 

base, and luath, ashes, q.v. Stokes cfs. base to Lat. bacea 

(for bat-ca), berry. 
bat, bata, a stick, Ir. bata; from M. Eng. batte, stick, now bat, 

which comes from 0. Fr. batte, from Gaul. Lat. battuere, as 

under bas, q.v. The Br. baz seems borrowed from the Fr., 

though it may be native. 
bata, a boat, Ir. bad, M. Ir. b&t, W. bdd ; all from Ag. S. hdt, Eng. 

boat, Norse bdtr (Stokes). K. Meyer takes Ir. and G. from the 

batail, a fight ; see baiteal. 
b&th, drown, Ir. bdthaim, 0. Ir. bddiid (inf.), W. boddi, Br. beuzi ; 

I. E. ffddh, sink, Gr. ^advs, deep, -^Sya, sink, Skr. gdhds, the 



bathaich, a byre, Ir. hothigh, W. heudy ; bd+tigh, "cow house." 

bathais, forehead, Ir. baithis, pate, E. Ir. baithes, crown of the 
forehead ; * bat-esti-, from bat, I. E. bhd, shine, Gr. c^atris, 
appearance, phase. See ban further. Lat. fades, face, 
appearance, may be allied, though the latest authorities 
connect it with facio, make. 

bathar, wares ; from the Eng. wares. 

t beabiar, beaver, Ir. beabliar (Lh.), Cor. befer, Br. bieuzr, Gaul. 
Bibrax ; Lat. fiber ; Eng. beaver, Ag. S. beofor. Gaelic and 
Ir. are doubtful. 

beach, a bee, so Ir., 0. Ir. bech, W. begegyr, drone, *hiko-s ; a root 
bi- appears in Eng. bee, Ag. S. be6 { = *bija). Gar. biene 
{ = *bi-nja). Lit. bitis. Stokes makes the Celtic stem beko-s, 
but does not compare it with any other language. 

beachd, opinion, notice, Ir. beacht, certain, E. Ir. becht, bechtaim, I 
certify : 

beadaidh, impudent, fastidious, Ir. beadaidh, beadaidh, sweet- 
mouthed, scof&ng : 

beadradh, fondling, caressing, beadarrach, pampered : 

beag, little, Ir. beag, 0. Ir. becc, W. bach, Cor. bechan, Br. bic'han, 
bian, *bezgo- ; Lat. vescus (= gvesgus) ? Some have connected 
it with Gr. iiiKpoi, Dor. Gr. /jllkko's, and Dr Cameron suggested 
Lat. irix, scarcely. 

beairt, engine, loom ; see beart. 

beairtean, shrouds, rigging ; see beart. 

bealach, a pass, Ir. bealach, pass, road, E. Ir. belach ; cf. Skr. 
bila, gap, mouth. See bile. 

bealaidh, broom, Ir. beallyi (Lh. Gomp. Voc.) ; cf. Br. balan, 
M. Br. balazn, O. Fr. balain ; also Fr. balai, a broom. This 
might be referred to the common root bhel, bloom (prolific as 
a root, like the corresponding root of broom, as in W. balannu, 
to bud), but the W. for " broom" is banadl, Cor. banathel, 
which M. Ernault has compared with Lat. genista, broom 
(root gen, beget ?). The Br. might be a metathesis of W. 
banadl (cf. Br. alan v. anait). It is possible that Gaelic is 
borrowed from the Pictish ; the word does not appear in the 
Ir. Dictionaries, save in Lh.'s Lat. Celt, part, which perhaps 
proves nothing. 

bealbhan-ruadh, a species of hawk (Sh., O'R.) ; for bealbhan, cf. 
t bealbhach, a bit, from beul, mouth ? 

bealltuinn. May-day, Ir. bdalteine, E. Ir. beltene, belltaine, * belo- 
te{p)nid (Stokes), " bright-fire," where belo- is allied to Eng. 
bale ("bale-fire"), Ag. S. bael, Lit. baltas, white. The Gaul, 
god-names Belenos and Belisama are also hence, and Shake- 
speare's Cym-beline. Two needfires were lighted on Beltane 


among the Gael, between which they drove their cattle for 
purification and luck ; hence the proverb : " Eadar da theine 
Bhealltuinn" — Between two Beltane fires. 

bean, wife, so Ir., 0. Ir. ben, W. bun, benyw. Cor. benen, sponsa, 
Celtic bend, g. bnds, pi. n. bnds ; Gr. yw^, Boeot. Gr. ^ava. ; 
Got. gino, Eng. queen, Sc. qveyn ; Skr. grm. 

bean, touch, Ir. beanaim, beat, touch, appertain to, 0. Ir. benim, 
pulso, ferio, Br. bena, to cut, M. Br. benaff, hit ; *bina, root 
bin, bi (0. Ir. ro bi, percussit, bithe, perculsus), from I. E. bhi, 
bhei, hit ; Ch. SI. bija, Uti, strike ; 0. H. G. What, axe ; Gr. 
<j)i.Tp6i, log. Further is root bheid, split, Eng. bite. Usually 
bean has been referred to I. E. ghen ghon, hit, slay ; Gr. <f)ev-, 
slay, €ire<jivov, slew, (jiovo^, slaughter, Oeivw, strike ; Skr. han, 
hit ; but ffh = G. b is doubtful. 

beann, top, horn, peak, Ir. beann, 0. Ir. benn, pinna, W. ban, 
height, peak, M. Br. ban, also benny, horn, pipe (music), 
Gaul, canto-bennicus mons, " white peak" mount ; proto-Gaelic 
bennd ; root gen-, gn-, as in Eng. knoll, Sc. knowe. In Scotch 
Gaelic, the oblique form beinn has usurped the place of 
beann, save in the gen. pi. 

beannachd, blessing, so Ir., 0. Ir. bendaeht, W. bendith ; from Lat. 
benedictio, whence Eng. benediction. 

beannag, a skirt, corner, coif, Ir. beann6g ; from beann. 

beantag, a corn-fan ; see bannag. 

bearach, dog-fish (M'A.) : 

bearachd, judgment (Sh., O'R.) ; root bera, bra, as in brath, q.-«. 

bearbhain, vervain ; from Eng. vervain, I^at. verbena. 

beam, a breach, cleft, Ir. beama, E. Ir. bema ; I. E. bher, cut, 
bore ; Lat. forare, bore ; Gr. 4>°-po% a plough, <j>apb}, split ; 
Arm. beran, mouth ; Ch. SI. bar, clip ; Eng. bore. 

beirr, shear, Ir. bearraim, 0. Ir. berraim, 0. W. byrr, short. Cor. 
ber, Br. berr, short, *berso- ; Gr. <j>dpcroi, any piece cut off ; root 
bhera, as in beam. 

bearraideach, flighty, nimble ; from bearr ? 

heart, a deed, Ir beth-t, load, action, E. Ir. bert, bundle, birth ; Gr. 
<f>6pTos, burden ; root, bher, in beir, q.v. Also beairt, engine, 
loom. It is used in many compounds in the sense of "gear," 
as in cais-bheart, foot-gear, shoes ; ceann-bheart, head-gear, 
helmet, &c. 

beartach, rich ; from beart. 

beatha, life, so Ir., 0. Ir. bethu, g. bethad, Celtic stem bitdf-, 
divided into bi-tdt ; see bith (i.e., bi-tu-) for root. It is usual 
for philologists to represent the stem of beatha as bivotdt, that 
is, bi'vo-tdt-, the bi-vo- part being the same as the stem bivo 
of beb. While the root bi is common to both beatha and beb, 


the former does not contain -vo- ; it is the O. Ir. noni. beothu 

i^hi-tAs) that has set philologists wrong. Hence G. and Ir. 

beathach, animal, 
beic, a curtesy ; from Sc. heck, curtesy, a dialectic use of Eng. 

heck, beckon. Hence beiceis, bobbing, &o. (M'A.). 
beil, grind ; a very common form of meil, q.v. 
beil, is ; see hheil. 

beilbheag, corn-poppy ; see mealhhag. Also bailbheag. 
b^ileach, a muzzle, Ir. beulmhach, a bridle bit ; from heul. 
beilleach, blubber-lipped, b6ileach (H.S.D.) ; from heul. The 

first form suggests a stem hel-nac-. Cf. b^ilean, a prating 

mouth. Also m^illeach. 
beilleag, outer coating of birch, rind ; also meilleag, q.v. 
beince, a bench ; from Sc. bink ; Eng. bench. Cf. Ir. heinse, W. 

mainc, Br. menk. 
beinn, hill, ben ; oblique form of beann (f.n.), used as a fern, nom., 

for beann sounds masculine beside ceann, &c. See beann. 
beinneal, binding of a sheaf of corn, bundle ; from Sc. hindle, a 

cord of straw or other for binding, Eng. bundle ; from bind. 
beir, catch, bring forth, Ir. beirim, 0. Ir. berim, W. cymmeryd, to 

take, accept, Br. kemeret ( = com-her-) ; I. E. hher, whence 

Lat. fero, Gr. ^e/jco, Eng. bear, Skr. bharami. 
beirm, barm, yeast ; from Sc. harm (pronounced herm), Eng. harm ; 

Lat. fermentum. 
beist, a beast, Ir. blast, peist, 0. Ir. heist, W. hwystfil ; from Lat. 

bestia (Eng. beast). Also blast, 
beith, birch, so Ir., 0. Ir. bethe, W. bedw. Br. bezitenn, Celtic betvd ; 

Lat. betula, Fr. boule. 
beithir, a serpent, any wild beast, monster, a huge skate, 

Ir. beithir, wild beast, bear, E. Ir. beithir, g. hethrach. In 

the sense of " bear," the word is, doubtless, borrowed ; but 

there seems a genuine Celtic word betrix behind the other 

meanings, and the beithir or beithir heimneack is famed in 

myth. Cf. Lat. hestia, for bet-tia ? 
beitir, neat, clean (M'F.) : 
bed, living, Ir., 0. Ir. beb, W. byw, Br. beu, *hivo-s ; Lat. vtims, 

living, vita ; Gr. jStoros, a living ; Eng. quick ; Skr. jivd, 

living : I. E. gei-, gi^, live. See also heatha, hith. 
beoir, beer, Ir. beor ; from Ag. S. he6r, Norse bjorr (Eng. beer). 
beolach, ashes with hot embers (M'A.) ; from heb + luathach, 

"live-ashes." Another bedlach, lively youth, hero, stands 

for beb-lach ; for -loch, see bglach. 
beuban, anything mangled : 
beuc, roar, Ir. bdic, O. Ir. becdm, W. beichio, haich, *beikki6; Cor. 

begy, Br. begiai, squeal, baeguel, bleat, *baiki6 (Stokes). The 


difficulty of the vowels as between G. and W. {6 should give 
wy) suggests comparison with creuchd, W. craiih, *crempt- 
(Straohan). Thus bew, haich suggests henh-ko-, further 
gnh-ho-, root gem, Lat. gemo, &c. The same result can be 
derived from the root geng- of geum, q.v. 
beud, mischief, hui-t, Ir. head, E. Ir. het, * bento-n ; allied to Eng. 

beul, mouth, so Ir., 0. Ir. b^l, *bet-lo-, I. E. get-, whence Eng. 
quoth, Got. qithan. The idea is the " speaker." Some con- 
nect W. gwefi { = vo-bel), but this is probably *vo-byl, hyl, 
edge (Ernault). 

beulaobh, front, E. Ir. ar-bekiib, 0. Ir. belib ; dat. pi. of beul ; also 
mixed with this is the 0. Ir. ace. pi. heulu. 

beum, a stroke, cut, taunt, Ir. and O. Ir. b4im, nom. pi. bemen, 
blow, from the root beng, hong, which appears in buain; cf. ceum 
from ceng-men, leum from leng-men. This agrees with Cor. 
bom, blow. Some suggest beid-men or heids-men, root hheid, 
Eng. bite, which suits G. best as to meaning. The favourite 
derivation has been *ben-s-men, root ben of bean. 

beur, beurra, beurtha, sharp, pointed, clear ; cf. Ir. Marriha, 
clipped, from bearr ; from berr-tio-s, with i regressive into 
berr, giving beirr. 

beurla, EngHsh, language, Ir. heurla, speech, language, especially 
English ; 0. Ir. belre ; bel + re, hel, mouth, and the abstract 
termination -re (as in luihhre, buidhre, &c.). 

beus, conduct, habit, so Ir., 0. Ir. b4s, Br. boaz, *beissvr, *beid-tu-, 
root beid, I. E. bheidh, Gr. vret^w, persuade, Lat. fides, English 
faith. Others derive it from bhend, bind, giving bhend-tu- as 
the oldest stem. Windisch suggests connection with Got. 
bansts, barn, Skr. bhdsa, cowstall. The Breton oa seems 
against these derivations. 

bha, bhi, was, Ir. do bhdmar, we were {bhd-), do bhi, was, M. Ir. 
ro b6i, was, O. Ir. bbi, bdi, bdi, a perfect tense, *hove{t), for 
behove ; Skr. babhuva ; Gr. iretj^v-Ke ; I. E. root bheu, to be, as 
in Lat. fui, was (an aorist form), Eng. be. 

bhd,n, a bMn, down ; by eclipsis for a{n) bh-fan, " into declivity," 
from fdn, a declivity, Ir., 0. Ir. fdn, prochve, W. gwaen, a 
plain, planities montana, *vag-no-, root vag, bow, &c., Lat. 
vagor, wander, Ger. wackeln, wobble. Ir. has also fdn, a 
wandering, which comes near the Lat. sense. In Suther- 
landshire, the adj. fin, prone, is still used. 

bheil, is, Ir. fuil, bh-fuil, 0. Ir. fail, fel, fil, root vel {vat), wish, 
prevail, Lat. volo, valeo, Eng. will. 

bho, 0, from, Ir. 6, ua, 0. Ir. 6, ua, *ava ; Lat. au-hro, " away"- 
take ; Oh. SI. u- ; Skr. ava, from. 


bhos, a bhos, on this side ; from the eclipsed form a{n) blirfos, " in 
station," in rest, Ir. abhus, 0. Ir. i foss, here, 0. Ir. foss, 
remaining, staying, rest. See fois, rest, for root. 

bhur, bhur n-, your, Ir. bhar n-, 0. Ir. bar n-, far n-, *svaron 
(Stokes), * s-ves-ro-n. For sves-, see sibh. Cf . for form Got. 
izvara, Lat. nostrum (nos-<ero-, where -tero- is a fuller com- 
parative form than Celtic -(e)ro-, -ro- of sves-ro-n, svaron). 

bi, bi, be, Ir. bi, be thou, 0. Ir. biu, sum, bi, be thou, 0. W. hit, 
sit, bivyf, sim, M. Br. bezaff. Proto-Celtic b/iv-ijd, for 0. Ir. 
biu, I am ; Lat. Jio ; Eng. be ; I. E. root bheu, be. See bha. 
Stokes diifers from other authorities in referring bite, M, to 
Celtic beid, root bei, bi, live, as in bith, beatha, Lat. vivo, &c. 

biadh, food, so Ir., 0. Ir. biad, *bivoto-n, whence W. bywyd, vita. 
Cor. bibit, cibus, Br. hoed, food. Bivoto-n is a derivative from 
hivo- of heb, living, q.v. 

bian, a hide, Ir., E. Ir hian, *heino-; root bhei^, as in Eng. bite, 
Lat. findo. For force, cf. Gr. Sepfia, skin, from der, split, 
Eng. tear. Cf., for root, bean, hit. 

biasgach, niggardly ; from biast. In some parts biast is applied 
to a niggardly person. H.S.D. refers it to biadh + sgathach, 
catching at morsels. 

biast, a beast, worthless person ; see heist. The word biast, 
abuse, is a metaphoric use of biast. 

biatach, a raven (Sh.) ; cf. biatach, biadhtach, a provider, farmer, 
from biadh. 

biatas, betony, beet, Ir. hiatuis, W. betys ; from Lat. betis, beta, 
Eng. beet. Also biotais. 

biathainne, earth-worm, hook-bait, biathaidh (Dialectic) ; from 
biadh. Cf. Lat. esca, bait, for ed-sca, ed = eat. The word 
biathadh in many places means "to entice." 

biatsadh, provisions for a journey, viaticum ; formed from biadh, 
with, possibly, a leaning on viaticum. 

bicas, viscount (Arm.). Founded on the Eng., and badly spelt by 
Armstrong : either biceas or biocas. 

biceir, a wooden dish ; from Sc. bicker, Eng. beaher. Also bigeir, 

bid, a very small portion, a nip, a chirp. In the sense of " small 
portion," the word is from the Sc. hite, bit, Eng. bite, hit. In 
the sense of "chirj), a small sound," O'R. has an Ir. word 
bid, " song of birds." See biog. Hence bidein, diminutive 
person or thing. Cf. W. Lidan, of like force. 

bideag, a bit, bittie ; from Sc. hittock, dim. of Eng. bit. 

bidean, a fence (Stew.), bid (Sh.), Ir. bid, bidedn (O'K.), W. bid, 
quickset hedge, hidan, a twig ; * bid-do-, root bheid, split 1 

bidhis, a vice, screw, so Ir. ; from Eng. vice. 


bidse, a bitch ; from the English. 

bil, bile, edge, lip, Ir. Ml, mouth, E. Ir. Ul, bile, W. hyl, *biU-, 

bilio-. Eoot bhi, bhei, split ; cf. Skr. bila, a hole, mouth of a 

vessel, &c. 
bileag, bile, a leaf, blade, Ir. billedg, biledg, *bilid, I. E. root bhela, 

bhale, bMe, bhlo, as in blhth ; Lat. folium ; Gr. <j)vX.Xov, a 

leaf; further, Eng. blade. 
bilearach, bileanach, sea-grass, sweet-grass ; from bile. 
bileid, a billet ; from the Eng. 
bilistear, a mean, sorry fellow, a glutton, Ir., E. Ir. bille, mean, 

paltry. In the Heb. it means " rancid butter" (H.S.D.). 
binid, cheese rennet, bag that holds the rennet, stomach, Ir. 

binid, 0. Ir. binit, rennet ; *binfn,ti-, " biter," root of bean ? 
binn, melodious, so Ir., 0. Ir. bind, *bendi; Skr. bhandate, joyful, 

bhand, receive loud praise, bhanddna, shouting (Stokes, who 

adds Lat. fides, Ija-e). The idea may, however, be " high," 

root of beann, peak, binneach, high-headed. See next also. 
binn, sentence, verdict ; *bendi-, *benni- ; cf. E. Ir. atboind, 

proclaims, *bonn6, I ban. Cf. Skr. bhan, speak, Eng. ban. 

It is clear that Gaelic has an ablaut in e:o connected with 

the root bha, speak. 
binndich, curdle ; from binid, q.v. 
binnein, pinnacle ; from beann, q.v. 
bioball, pioball, Bible, Ir. biohla, W. bebil ; from Lat. biblia, 

Eng. bible. 
biod, pointed top ; root in biodag, hidean. 
biodag, a dagger, Ir. bideog (O'E.), mioddg, W. bidog, O. Br. bitat, 

resicaret, *biddo-, bidrdo-, Celtic root bid, beid, I. E. bhid, 

bheid, Lat. findo, Eng. bite, Skr. bhid, split. Hence Eng. 

bodkin, possibly. 
biog, biog, a start, Ir. biodhg, E. Ir. bedg, 0. Ir. du-bidcet, 

jaculantur, *bizgo-, root bis-, gis, root gi- of bed. Consider 

biogail, lively, quick. 
biog, biog, chirp ; onomatopoetic ; cf . Lat. pipe, chirp, Eng. pipe ; 

also Eng. cheep. Also bid, q.v. 
biogarra, churlish ; " cheepish," from btog, cheep, 
biolagach, melodious (M'F.) ; from thiol, violin ; from Eng. viol, 

Fr. viole, violin, 
biolaire, water-cresses, Ir. Molar, E. Ir. biror, W. berwr. Cor., Br. 

beler, *beruro-, Lat. berula (Marcellus), Fr. berle, Sp. berro. 

Possibly allied to the root of Celtic bervS, seethe, 0. Ir. tipra, 

well, G. lobar, Eng. burn. Cf. Ger. brunnen kresse, water- 
cress, i.e., " well" cress. The dictionaries and old glossaries 

(Cormac, &c.) give Mr, bior, as water or weU. 
Ijiolar, dainty, spruce (Sh.) ; for bior-ar, from bior, " sharp 1" 


biolasgach, prattling, so Ir. (Lh., O'B.) ; from Ul, lip. 

bior, stake, spit, Ir. bior, 0. Ir. bir, W. her, Cor., Br. ber, Celtic 

heru- ; Lat. veni, ; Gr. fiapveq, trees (Hes.) ; Lit. gire, forest. 

Hence biorach, sharp. 
biorach, a heifer, colt, Ir. biorach, cow-calf : 
bioras, water-lily ; same origin as biolar, q.v. 
biorg, gush, twitch, tingle ; from the roots of biolar {bior-) and 

biorraid, a helmet, cap, Ir. birreud, cap ; from Eng. biretta, from 

Late Lat. birretum. 
biorsadh, a keen impatience : " goading ;" from bior. 
biorsamaid, a balance ; from Sc. bismar, Norse bismari. 
biota, a chum, vessel ; from Norse bytta, a pail, tub, Ag. S. bytt, 

Latin buttis, Eng. butt. 
biotailt, victuals, E.Ir. bitdill, W. bitel, M. Br. bitaiU; from 0. Fr. 

vitaille, from Lat. victtialia. Eng. victuals is from the French, 
bir linn, a galley, bark, M. Ir. beirling ; formed from the Norse 

byrtSingr, a ship of burthen, from byrfSr, burden, vb. bera, 

Eng. bear. The Sc. bierling, birlinn is from the Gaelic. 
birtich, stir up ; from bior, goad, 
biseach, luck ; see piseach. 
bith, the world, existence, Ir., 0. Ir. bith, W. byd, Br. bed, Gaul. 

bitvr, *bitv^s; root hi, hei, live, I. E. gei, gi, whence Lat. 

vivo, Eng. be, &c. Hence beatha, bed, biadh, q.v. 
bith, being (inf. of bi, be), Ir., E. Ir. beith, 0. Ir. buith. The 0. Ir. 

is from the root bhu (Eng. be, Lat, fui) = *huti-s, Gr. cjiva-K. 

The forms bith and beith, if derived from bhu, have been 

influenced by bith, world, existence ; but it is possible that 

they are of the same root gi as bith. Stokes, in his treatise 

on the Neo-Geltic Verb Substantive, takes Idth and beith from 

the root ga, go, Gr. /Joo-ts (Eng. base), a root to which he 

still refers the 0. Ir. aorist bd, fui (see bu). 
bith, resin, gum, birdlime, Ir. high, 0. Ir. bi, pix, adj. bide, *geis-, 

a longer form of gis-, the root of giuthas, tir (Schrader.) 

Otherwise we must regard it as borrowed from Lat. pix, picis, 

whence W. pyg, Eng. pitch, against which b and i (i long) 

bith, quiet (Arm.) : 
bith-, prefix denoting "ever-," Ir., 0. Ir. hith^, W. byth-; from 

bith, world, 
biuc, difficult utterance : 

bifithas, fame, biuthaidh, hero ; see fiu, fiubliaidh. 
blabaran, stammerer, Ir. hlahardn ; from the Eng. blabber, speak 

inarticulately. It is of onomatopoetic origin. Cf. Eng. 




bladair, a wide mouth, a flatterer, Ir. hladaire, flatterer ; from 
the Eng. blatterer, bletherer, blusterer, blatter, prate ; from 
Lat. hlaterare, prate. Also blad, a wide mouth (M'F.). 

bladh, fame, Ir. blddh, E. Ir. blad ; root blad-, blat-, speak, as in 
Lat. blatero, babble, Norse blaSr, nonsense, Sc. blether. See 
bladair. Cf. glaodh, shout. Hence bladhair, expressive, a 

bladhail, strong, from bladh, pith, W. blawdd, active ; *bldd- ; 
root bid-, swell, bloom, as in blath, q.v. 

bladhm, a boast, &c. ; see blaomadh. 

blad-sbronacli, blad-spigach, flat-nosed, flat-footed ; blad- is from 
Eng. flat. 

blaisbheum, blasphemy ; from Lut. J)laspkemia, Eng. blasphemy. 

blanndaidh, rotten, stale ; from Norse bldnda, whey " blend." 

blanndar, flattery, dissimulation, so Ir. ; from Lat. blandiri, 
vSc. blander, Eng. blandish. 

t blaodh, a shout, noise, Ir. blaodh, M. Ir. blaeded, W. bloedd. 
Hence blaodhag, noisy girl, blaoghan, calf's cry, &c. 

blaomadh, loud talking, Ir. blaodhmanaeh, noisy person; from 
*blaid-s-men ; see blaodh. 

t blaosg, a shell, Ir. Uaosc, M. Ir. blaesc, testa, W. blisg ; see 

blar, a field, battle, peat-moss ; from blar, spotted, the idea being 
a " spot." See next word. 

blar, having a white face, or white spot on the face (of an animal) ; 
*bld-ro-s, root bid-, from I. E. bhale, shine, bhd ; Gr. (f)aXap6s 
(second a long), having a white patch (on the head, as on a 
dog's head). Cf. Dutch blaar, a white spot on the forehead 
(whence Fr. hlaireau, badger), M. Dutch, blaer, bald. See 
for roots bealltuinn, ban. Welsh has blawr, grey, iron-grey, 
which seems allied. 

bias, taste, Ir. bias, 0. Ir. mlas, W. bids, Br. bias, *mlasto- ; Czech 
mlsati, lick, be sweet-toothed, Russ. molsatf, suck (Bezzen- 
berger). Ultimately the root seems to be mel, as in meli-, 
honey, G. mil, and even meil, grind. Hence Fr. blase? 

bl4th, bloom, blossom, Ir., E. Ir. bldt/t, W. blawd, blodau, Cor. 
hlodon, M. Br. hleuzenn, *hldto-n; I. E. root bhela :bhlo, 
blossom forth ; Lat. flos, flower ; Eng. bloom, &c. 

blath, warm, kind, Ir., E. Ir. bldith, soft, smooth, mldith, *mldti-; 
root mela, mid, to grind. The original idea is " ground soft." 
Cf. W. blawd, meal. 

blathach, buttermilk, Ir., M. Ir. bldthach ; mld-tac-, root mel, mid, 
as in Math. The idea is " pounded, soured." Cf. braich, 
from mrac-, " soured," and Eng. malt, " soured," from melt. 
Hence Sc. bladach. 


bleachdair, a soothing, flattering fellow, Ir. bleachdaire, flatterer, 

cow-milker; a metaphoric use of the last word, "cow milker;" 

from bliochd, milk, q.v. 
bleagh, milk (vb.), Ir. blighim ; see hleoghainn. 
bleaghan, a dibble for digging up shell-fish, a worthless tool; 

possibly from Norse hlats, Eng. blade. 
bleid, impertinence, solicitation, Ir. bleid, cajolery, impertinence. 

This seems another word formed on the word bladair, blad, 

just like Eng. blatant, blate (talk, prate). 
bleidelr, coward ; from Norse bleycTi, cowardice, and Sc. blate ('?). 
bleith, grind, Ir. bleithim, E. Ir. bleith, inf. to 0. Ir. me.lini, I 

grind, W. malu, Br. malaff; root mel, grind, liat. molu, Eng. 

meal, &c. , 

bleoghainn, milking, E. Ir. blegon, inf. to bligim, for mligim ; Lat. 

mulgeo ; Gr. a-fji.kkyu> ; Eng. milk ; Lit. mdlzu. 
bliadhna, year, Ir. bliadhain, 0. Ir. hliadain, W. blydd, blwyddyn, 

Br. bloaz, blizen, *bleidni-, *bleido- ; I. E. ghleidh, whence 

Eng. glide: " labuntur anni" (Stokes). It is doubtful if 

I. E. gh becomes Celtic b. 
blialum, jargon ; from the Sc. blellum. 
blian, the flank, groin, Ir. blein, E. Ir. ble'n, 0. Ir. melen, for mleen, 

*jnlakno- ; Gr. /xaAaKos, soft (Strachan, Stokes). The mean- 
ing, if not the phonetics, is not quite satisfactory, 
blian, lean, insipid, blianach, lean flesh ; cf. W. blin, tired, 0. Br. 

Minion, inertes. These may be referred to *gleghno-, Lit. 

gleznus, tender, weak, Gr. pXrjxpo^, languid. See, however, 

the derivation suggested for blian, above. For the Brittonic 

words, Stokes has suggested the stem bleno- ; Skr. gl&na, 

bligh, milk ; see bleagh. 
bliochan, yellow marsh, asphodel, Ir. bliochan ; from * blioeh = 

*mjelgos-, milk. For phonetics, cf. teach, from tegos-. 
bliocM, milk, Ir. bleachd, E. Ir. blicht, W. blith, "'mlctvr, root 

melg, mUk. See bleogliainn. 
blionadh, basking (Islands) : " softening?" See blian. 
bliosan, artichoke (Sh., O'B.), Ir. bliosdn : *blig-s-an-, "milk- 

curdler?" Its florets were used for curdling. 
blob, blubber-lipped (Sh.) ; from Eng. blub, puffed, protruding, 

blubber, <fec. 
blocan, a little block, blog, block (Dialectic), Ir. bloc, blocdn ; from 

Eng. block. 
bloigh, fragment, half, Ir. blogh, bl6gh, fragment, E. Ir. blog, pre- 

Celtic bhlog ; Eng. block, further away Eng. balk, Gr. 

<f>a.Xay^. Stokes refers it to the root of Eng. plttck, 


bloin'gein, any plant with crisped leaves, Ir. Udineagean ; G. and 

Ir. bloinigean garraidh is " spinage." Cameron refers the 

■word to hlonag, fat. 
blomas, ostentation (Sh.), Ir. blomas ; see bladhm. Ir. blamaire, 

means "boaster." 
blonag, fat, Ir. Monog, bluinic, M. Ir. blonac, W. bloneg, Br. bloneh, 

*bl6n-, *blen-, root bhle, bhel, swell ; a very proMc root, 
t blosg, sound a horn, Ir. blosgaidhim, resound, sound a horn, 

M. Ir. blosc, voice. Cf. Gr. i^XoutPo's., din ( = <^A.oo--yos), Lit. 

bldzgu, roar. 
b6, a cow, Ir., 0. Ir. b6, W. buw. 0. Br. bou-, *bov-s; I. E. gdus, 

whence Lat. bos, Gr. j3ov?, Eng. cow, Skr. go. 
boban, bobug, a term of affection for a boy ; cf. M. Ir. boban, calf, 

bdban, from bd. Eng. babe, earlier boban, of uncertain origin, 

may be compared, 
boban, a bobbin ; from the Eng. bobbin. 
bobhstair, bolster ; from Sc. bowster, Eng. bolster. 
boo, a buck, Ir. boc, he-goat, 0. Ir. bocc, W. bwch, Cor. boch, Br. 

boue^h, *buhko-s ; Skr. bukka, goat. These may be analysed 

into bug-ko-, root bug, Zend bUza, buck. Arm. biic, lamb, Eng. 

buck, Ger. bock. 
boc, swell, Ir. bdcain ; cf. W. boch, cheek, from Lat. bucca, puffed 

cheek (Eng. debouch, rebuke). 
bdcan, hobgoblin, Ir. bocdn, E. Ir. boccdnach. With these are 

connected W. bwg (l)wci. Cor. bucca, borrowed from M. E. ?), 

Eng. bug, bugbear, bogie; the relationship is not clear (Murray). 

For Gadelic a stem btikko-, from bug-ko-, would do, allied 

possibly to Norse ptiki, a Puck, Ag. S. puca, larbula. 
bochail, proud, nimble ; cf. the interjection tboch, Ir. boch, 

heyday ! "0 festum diem." 
bochd, poor, so Ir., 0. Ir. bocht ; *bog-to-, a participle from the vb. 

(Irish) bongaim, break, reap, Celtic bongo, break ; Skr. bhanj, 

break, Lit. banga, breaker (wave). See buain. 
bocsa, a box, so Ir., pronounced in Ir. bosca also, W. bocys ; from 

Eng. box. Hence bocsaid, a thump, Eng. box. 
bodach, an old man, a carle, Ir. bodach, a rustic, carle; *bodd-aco-, 

"penitus," from bod, mentula, M. G. bod (D. of Lismore 

passim), M. Ir. bod, bot, *boddo-, *bozdo-; Gr. xdcr^ij, mentula. 

Stokes suggests the alternative form butto-s, Gr. /Svttos, vulva, 

but the G. d is against this. He also suggests that bodach 

is formed on the 0. Fr. botte, a clod. 
bodha, a rock over which waves break ; from Norse botfi, a breaker, 

over sunken rocks especially. 
bodhag, a sea-lark ; 


bodhaig, body, corpus ; from the Sc. bouk, body, trunk, Norse 

Imkr, trunk, Ger. hauch, belly. The G. word has been compared 

by Fick with Eng. body, Ag. S. bodig, and Murray says it is 

thence derived, but the d would scarcely disappear and leave 

the soft g ending now so hard. 
bodhan, ham, breech, breast : * boud-dno, * boud, bhud- ; cf . Eng. 

butt, buttock. 
bodhar, deaf, so Ir., 0. Ir. bodar, W. byddar, ^or. bodkar, Br. 

bouzar ; Skr. badhird. 
bodhbli, bobh, a fright (Perthshire), E. Ir. bodba, dangerous, 

* bodv-io-s ; from bodvo- in baobh, q.v. 
bog, soft, Ir. bog, 0. Ir. bocc, Br. bouh, 0. Br. 6mc, putris ; *buggo-, 

*b'ug-go-; I. E. bkvg, bend, Skr. bhugna, bent, Got. bmgan, 

Eng. bow, from Ag. S. boga. 
bogha, a bow, so Ir., M. Ir. boga ; from Ag. S. boga, Eng. bow. 

For root, see under bog. 
bogus, a timber moth, bug ; from Eng. bzcg. 
boicineach, small-pox ; root in bucaid, q.v. 
boicionn, a goat skin, skin; *boc-cionn, "buck-skin;" the word 

feionn is in 0. Ir. cenni, soamae, W. cen, skin. Cor. cennen, 

Br. kenn-, pellis ; Eng. skinn, Norse skinn. 
bold, vow, Ir. moid, M. Ir. m6it, * monti-, root mon, men, think. 

A borrowing from, or leaning on, Lat. voium seems possible 

in view of the Gaelic form. 
bcidheach, pretty; for buaidheach, "having virtues/' from buaidh, 

boidheam, flattery (H.S.D.) : 
boigear, puffin, ducker ; also budhaigir, q.v. 
boil, boile, madness, Ir. buile, E. Ir. baile : 
boilich, tall talk, boasting ; cf. Eng. bawl, cry like cows {b6). 
boillsg, gleam ; * bolg-s-cio- ; Lat. fulgeo, shine, Eng. effulgent. 
boineid, a bonnet, Ir. boineud ; from Eng. bonnet. 
boinne, a drop, Ir. bain (d. pi. bainnibh), 0. Ir. banne. Cor., Br. 

banne; Celt, bannjd (Stokes). See bainne. Hence boinneanta, 

healthy, well-built, 
boirche, a buiFalo (Sh., Lh.), so Ir. ; perhaps allied to Lat. ferus, 

Eng. bear. 
boireal, a small auger (M'F.) ; founded on Eng. bore. 
boirichs, rising ground, back (M'D.) ; same root as Ger. berg, 

mountain, Eng. ice-ier^. 
boirionn, female, feminine, Ir. boinionn ; * bani-, from the word 

bean, ban, q.v. Hence boirionnach, a female, which is masc. 

in gender, having been originally neuter. 
bois, the palm ; see bas. 
bpigeid, a belt, budget ; from the Enghsh. 


boisg, gleam ; see hoillsg. 

boiteadh, boiled food for horses (H.S.D.) : 

boiteag', a maggot ; see botus. 

boitean, a bundle of hay or straw ; for boiteal, from Sc. buttle, 

Eng. bottle, bundle of hay, from 0. Fr. botte. 
boitidh, the call to a pig, boit, a taste for (Dialectic) : 
bol, a bowl ; from the English. 
boladh, smell, so Ir., 0. Ir. bolad, *bulato-; Lit. bu'ls, dusty air 

(Bezzenberger). Stokes has compared Lit. bulls, buttock, 

Skr. buli, vulva. 
bolanta, excellent ; root bol, as in adhbhxil, q.v. 
boUa, a boll ; from Sc, Eng. boll. Hence also bolla, a buoy, 
bolt, a welt, Ir. balta, welt, border ; from the Lat. balteus, girdle, 

Eng. belt. Cf. Eng. welt, W. gwald. 
boma, a bomb ; from the English. 
bonn, foundation, so Ir., 0. Ir. bond ; Lat. fundvs ; Skr. budhnd ; 

Eng. bottom,. 
bonn, a coin, so Ir. ; possibly from Lat. pondo. 
bonnach, cake, bannock, Ir. bonnbg. This word, like the Sc. 

hannoch, appears to be founded on Lat. panicum, panis, bread, 
borb, fierce, so Ir., 0. Ir. borp ; allied to, or, more probably, 

borrowed from, Lat. barbams. 
borbhan, a purling sound ; *borvo-, a stem identical with bervo-, 

seethe, Fr. Bourbon, Lat. ferveo, &c. Hence borbhanacli, 

base, deep. 
b6rc, sprout, swell ; see bare. 
bdrd, a table, Ir., M. Ir., bord, W. hwrdd ; from Ag. S., Norse 

bdrlum, a strip of arable land (Hebrides) ; a frequent place name ; 

from M. Eng. bordland, mensal land, especially the royal 

castle lands in the Highlands, 
bbrlum,. a sudden flux or vomiting : 
tborr, knob, pride, greatness, great, Ir., E. Ir. borr, *borso-, bhorso-; 

Lat. fastus (for farstus), pride ; 0. H. G. parrunga, superbia ; 

alUed to barr, q.v. Hence borrach, a haughty man, a pro- 
truding bank, a mountain grass. 
bdsd, a boast, Ir. b6sd (O'E.), W., Cor. bost ; all from Eng. beast, 

itself of unknown origin. 
bdsdan, a little box, Br. bouist ; the G. is from early Sc. boyst, 

M. Eng. boiste, from 0. Fr. boiste, Med. Lat. bwoida (bossida), 

which is the Gr. Trii^tSa. Hence also Eng. box, G. bocsa. 
bosgaire, applause (Sh.) ; bas+gaire, q.v., "palm-noise." 
bot, a mound, river bank : 
b6t, a boot ; from M. E. bote, Eng. boot. Also bdtuinn, from Sc, 

booting, Fr. bottine, half boot, 


botaidh, a wooden vessel (size, half anker) ; formed from M. E. 

butte, Eng. butt, Fr. botte. 
both, perturbation, a plash ; see bodhbh. 
both, bothan, a hut, bothie, Ir., M. Ir. both&n, both, W. bod, 

residence, Gor. bod, bos, *buto- ; Lit. bhtas, house ; Eng. booth, 

Norse btitS, Ger. bude ; root bhu, be. Hence Eng. bothie. 
bothar, a lane, street (A. M'D.), Ir. bothar (Con.), b6thar, E. Ir. 

bdthar, *bdtro-, *bd-tro-, root bd, go; Gr. e-yS^/v, went, ^aiv(o, 

go ; Skr. gd, go ; Eng. path. 
botrumaid, a slattern (MT.) ; see biUrais. 
botul, a bottle, Ir. buideul, W. potel ; from Eng. bottle. 
botus, a beUy-worm ; from M. E. bottes, pi. of bot, bott, of like 

meaning ; So. batts. Origin unknown (Murray). 
bra, brsLth, a quern, Ir. br6, g. br6n, E. Ir. brb, g. broon, mill-stone, 

*brevon^, *bravon^; Skr. grdvav^; Lit. girnos ; Eng. quern. 
brabhd-chasach, bow-legged : 
brabhdadh, bravado, idle talk, brabhtalachd, haughtiness 

(A. M'D.) ; from Eng. bravado ? 
bracach, grayish, braclach, brake : see words in broc-ach, -loch. 
brachag, a pustule ; from brach, rot (vb.) ; see braich, malt. 

Also brachan, putrefaction, 
bradach, thievish, braid, theft, Ir. bradach, thievish, roguish, 

E. Ir. broit, g. braite : *mraddo-, allied to brath, betray ? 

Scarcely from br-ont-, root bher, carry, Lat. fur, &c. 
bradan, salmon, Ir. brad&n, E. Ir. bratan. Of. Lit. bradh, water, 

Ch. SI. brozda, wade through, 
bradan, a ridgy tumour on the surface of the body (H.S.D.) ; 

metaphorically from above word 1 
bradhadair, a blazing fire, kindling of a fire (Hebrides). Possibly 

braghadair, from bragh, q.v. Cf. braghadaich, crackling. 
bragaireachd, vain boasting, Ir. bragdireachd, from bragaire, 

boaster ; from the Eng. brag. 
bragh, an explosion, peal, 0. Ir. braigim, pedo ; Lat. fragor, crash, 

fra^rare, Eng. fragrant. See bram. 
braghad, neck, throat, Ir. brdighid, 0. Ir. brdge, g. brdgat, W. 

breuant, O. Br. brehant, *brdgnt- ; Eng. craw, Ger. kragcn, 

coUar, M. H. G. krage, neck ; Gr. /S/adyxos, windpipe, Eng. 

bronchitis. Bezzenberger (Stokes' Diet.), refers it to the root 

of Norse ba/rki, weazand, Gr. <j>dpvy^, Eng. pharynx. Brdtghad 

is really the gen. of brdighe. 
bragsaidh, braxy ; from Sc, Eng. braxy. 
braich, malt, so Ir., E. Ir. mraich, W., Cor. brag, Br. bragezi, 

germinate, Gaul, brace (Plin.), genus f arris : *mraki ; Lit. 

merkti, macerate, md/rka, flax-hole for steeping ; Lat. marcere, 

fade, marcidus, decayed, rotten. From W. bragod, comes 

Eng. bragget. 


braid, theft ; see bradach., horse-collar ; see braigluleaeh. 

br^ighde, captives, pledges, Ir. hrdigke, pi. brdighde, E. Ir. braga, 

g. bragat, hostage, prisoner, braig, a chain ; Gr. fBpoxos, 

noose ; Eng. crank, Ger. hringel ; I. E. gregh, possibly allied 

to I. E. gregh, neck, as in bragJiad. Hence braighdeanas, 

captivity, also dialectic braigh, hostage, pledge. 
briighdeach, horse-collar, M. Ir. hraigdeeh, older brdigtech ; from 

br&ghad. Also br^id. 
br^ighe, upper part (of places) : this is the nom. case of braghad, 

which also appears in place names, as Bra'id-Albainn, Braid- 

braile, a heavy rain (Sh.) : 

brailis, wort of ale, Ir. braithlis, M. Ir. hraichlis, from braich. 
braim, bram, crepitus ventris, Ir. broim, 0. Ir. braigim, pedo, W., 

Cor., Br. bram, *bragsmen-, root brag, I. E. bhrag ; Lat. 

fragor, crash, fragrare, &c. Hence bramaire, a noisy fellow. 
braisleach, full-formed, bulky man, M. Ir. bras, great, W., Cor., 

Br. bras, grossus, *brasso- ; Lat. grossus, Fr. gros, bulky, 
braist, a brooch ; from the Eng. 

braithlin, linen sheet, so Ir. : *brath + tin ; but brath 1 
braman, misadventure, the Devil ; also dialectic broman. M. Ir. 

bromdn means a " boor," bromdnach, impertinent. The root 

seems to be breg, brog, brag of breun, braim. 
bramasag, a clott-burr, the prickly head of a thistle (H.S.D.) : 
t bran, a raven, Ir., 0. Ir. bran, W. brdn, crow, Br. bran, crow : 

*brand, for gvrand, with which cf. 0. Slav. gavranU, raven, 

but not vrana (do.), as is usually done. The further root is 

gra, gera, cry, whence Eng. crane, Gr. yepavos, crane, W. and 

Cor. garan. Used much in personal and river names. 
bran, bran, Ir., W. bran, Br. brenn ; G., Ir., and W. are from Eng. 

bran, from 0. Fr. bren, bran, whence Br. 
brang, a slip of wood in the head-stall of a horse's halter, resting 

on the jaw ; horse's collar ; brangas, a pillory ; from the Sc. 

branks, a head pillory (for tongue and mouth), a bridle with 

two wooden side pieces, brank, to bridle ; allied to Ger. 

pranger, pillory, Du. prang, fetter. 
branndaidh, brandy ; from Eng. brandy, that is, " brand or burnt 

branndair, a gridiron ; from Sc. brander, from brand, bum, ifcc. 
biaodhlach, brawling, braoileadh, loud noise, Ir. brabilleadh, 

rattling ; a borrowed word, seemingly from Sc, Eng. brawl, 

confused with Sc. brulye, Eng. broil. 
braoileag, a whortleberry, Ir. broilebg, breilebg. Sc. brawling, 

brylochs, comes from the Gaelic. 


braoisg, a grin, Ir. braos : 

braolaid, raving, dreaming ; from breathal ? 

braon, a drop, rain, so Ir., 0. Ir. brnen ; cf. Eng. brine. The 
attempt to connect it with Gr. ^pex'^^ or with Lat. rigare, 
Eng. rain, is unsatisfactory. 

braouan, praonan, an earth-nut, bunium flexuosum. Perhaps 
from braon, a drop — " a bead, nut." 

bras, brais, active, rash, Ir. bras, E. Ir. bras, W. brys, haste : 
*brsto-, I. E. gredh-, as in greas, q.v. ? See also brisg, active. 

brasailt, a panegyric (M'A.) : " magnifying," from 1 6ms (O'Cl.), 
great, Lat. grossus. See braisleach. 

brat, a mantle, Ir. brat, 0. Ir. bratt, W. brethyn, woollen cloth, Br. 
broz, petticoat, *bratto-, *brat-to-. For root brat, brant, see 
br^id. Ag. S. bratt, pallium, is borrowed from the Celtic. 
Hence bratach, flag. 

bratag, the furry or grass caterpillar, Ir. bratog : "the mantled 
one," from brat. Cf. caterpillar = " downy cat," by derivation. 

brath, information, betrayal, Ir. brath, E. Ir. brath, treason, and 
mrath also, W. brad, treachery. Cor. bras, Br. barat, 0. Br. 
brat, *mrato-; Gr. afiaprdvo} (-/ia/ar-), sin, miss, rfjijipoTov (past 
tense). Cf. mearachd. 

br^th, judgment, gu brath, for ever (pron. gu brack) " till Judg- 
ment," so Ir., 0. Ir. brdth, judgment, W. brawd, M. Br. breut, 
Gaul, bratu-, *brdtu- ; *brd, *bera, judge, decide, from I. E. 
bher, in the sense of " say," as in abair. The Ir. bam, judge, 
and W. bam, judgment, are hence, and may be compared 
to Cxr. <^/3^v, <^pev£s, soul, phrenology. Hence also breath or 
breith {*brt-), q.v. The sense " conflagration" given in the 
Diet, is due to "Druidic" theorisings, and is imaginary. 

brathair, brother, Ir. brdthair, 0. Ir. brdthir, W. brawd, pi. brodyr, 
Cor. broder, pi. bredereth, Br. breur, breuzr, pi. breudeur, 
*brdtir ; Lat. frdter ; Eng. brother ; Skr. bkrdta ; &c. 

breab, a kick, Ir. preab, M. Ir. prebach, kicking ; perhaps from the 
root form of the following word. 

breaban, a patch of leather, Ir. preabdn, parcel, piece, patch ; 
from, or allied to, 0. Fr. bribe, a piece of bread, alms, Sp. 
briba, alms ; also 0. Fr. bribeur, mendicant, briberesse, female 
vagabondage and harloting ; cf. Ir. preabdg, a wenching jade 
(O'B.). Eng. bribe is from the French. 

breac, speckled, so Ir., E. Ir. brecc, W. brych, Br. brec'h, small-pox, 
*mr&ko-s, *mrg-ko-, root mrg ; Lit. mdrgas, speckled, pied; 
Gr. apapva-a-bi, twinkle. There is an 0. Ir. mrecht, W. brith, 
of like meaning and origin, viz., mrk-to, from mrg-to-. Hence 
breac, small-pox, W. brech, and breac, trout, W. brithyll. 



breacag, a paucake, W. brechdan, slice of bread and butter, 

brg-ho-, brg, as in hairghin, bread ? See nej^t. 
breaciidan, custard (Lh.), M. Ir. brechtdn, W. brithog ; from 

mrg-to-, Ir. brecht, W. brith, motley, mixed. See under breac. 
br6agh, fine, Ir. bredgh, M. Ir. breagha (O'CL), *breigavo-s, root 

breig, brig as in brigh, q.v. ? 
t breall, knob, glans mentulse, D. of Lismore bret/l, Ir. breall, 

brs-lo-, root bers, bors, as in G. bm-r, bdrr, Eng. bristle. Hence 

brilleanach, lewd, q.v. 
breaman, tail of sheep or goat, podex ; cf. Ir. breim, by-form of 

braim, q.v. 
breamas, mischief, mishap, the Devil ; an e vowel form of braman? 
breanan, dunghill (Sh.) ; from breun, q.v. 
breath, row, layer : *brtd, a slice, root bher of beam. 
breath, judgment, so Ir., 0. Ir breth, *brtd, Gaul, yeigo-bretus, 

*brto-s. For root, see brath. Spelt also breith. 
breathas, frenzy (M'A.) ; see breisleach. 
br6id, a kerchief, so Ir., E. Ir. breit, *bren,ti-, roots brent, brat ; 

Skr. granth, tie, knot, grathndti ; Ger. kranz, garland, Eng. 

crants (Rhys). The Skr. being allied to Gr. ypovOos, fist, 

seems against this derivation (Stokes), not to mention the 

difficulty of Gr. 6 and Skr. th corresponding to Celtic t. 

Possibly from root bhera, cut, Gr. c^a/oos, cloth (Windisch). 
breisleach, confusion, delirium, nightmare, Ir. breisleach (O'R., 

Fol.), breaghaslach (Lh.), from breith-, *bret, *bhre-t ; bhre, 

mind, as in Gr. 4'prji', mind ? 
breith, bearing, birth, so Ir. and E. Ir., *brt{-s ; Skr. bhrti- ; Eng. 

birth ; ifec. : root bher, bear ; see beir. 
breitheal, confusion of mind ; from breith-, as in breisleach. Also 

breathal aud preathal. 
breitheanas, judgment, Ir. breitheamhnus, E. Ir. brithemnas ; from 

briiliem, a judge, stem britlieman, to which is added the 

abstract termination -as ( = ostii-). From britheamh, q.v. 
breo, breoth, rot, putrefy : 

breochaid, any tender or fragile thing (M'A.) ; from breo. 
bredcladh, clumsy patching, bredclaid, sickly person : breodh + 

clad ( = cail of \)\i.&chail). See bredite. 
bre6ite, infirm, Ir. bredite, breodhaim, 1 enfeeble (Keat.), *brivod- ; 

cf. W. briw, break, *br%vo-, possibly allied to Lat. frivolus. 
breolaid, dotage, delirium ; cf. breitheal, &c. 
breug, briag, a lie, Ir. breug, breag, 0. Ir. brec, *brenkd ; Skr. 

bhramga, loss, deviation, 
breun, putrid, so Ir., E. Ir. bre'n, W. braen, Br. brein ; *bregno-, 

*bragno-, foul, from root, breg, brag of braim. Strachan takes 

it from *m,rak-no- ; Lat. marcidus, rancid, as in braich, q.v. 


briathar, a word, so Ir. and 0. Ir., *hretr& (0. Ir. is fern. ; G. is 
mas., by analogy ?), *brg, ablaut to brd- of hrhth, q.v. Bezzen- 
berger would refer it to 0. H. G. ehweran, sigh (see gerain) 
and even to 0. H. G. chrdjan, Eng. crow. 

brib, a bribe, Ir. brib ; from the Eng. 

bricein-, a prefix to certain animal names ; from hreac. 

tbrideach, a dwarf (Arm., Sh.), Ir. hrideach (Lh., O'B.). See 
Mdeag, little woman. Shaw also gives it the meaning of 
" bride," which is due to Eng. influences. 

brideag, a little woman, Ir. brideag, a figure of St. Bridget made 
on the Saint's eve by maidens for divination purposes. See 
Brighid in the list of Proper Names. Shaw s'ives bridag, 
part of the jaw, which H.S.D. reproduces as brideag. 

brideun, a little bird, sea-piet (M'A. for latter meaning) : seem- 
ingly formed on the analogj^ of the two foregoing words. 

brig, a heap (H.S.D., M'A.) : " brig mh6ine," a pile of peats : cf. 
Norse brik, square tablet, piece, Eng. brick. 

brigh, pith, power, Ir. brigh, 0. Ir. brig, W. bri, dignity, rank. 
Cor. bry, Br. bri, respect, *brigd, *brtgo- ; Gr. /3pi = ftpiapos, 
strong, mighty, jipl'i^'q (' long), strength, anger ; Skr. jri, 
overpower, jrayas, extent ; an I. E. gri-, grl-, grei-. Bezzen- 
berger suggests Ger. Jcrieg, war, striving : * greigh ? This 
may be from the root bi4 above. 

brilleanach, lewd, brioUair, brioUan, from breall, q.v. 

brimin bodaich, a shabby carle ; for breimein, a side form of 
braman ; root breg, brag ? But cf. Norse brimill, phoca 
fetida mas. 

briobadh, bribing ; see brib, which also has the spelling briob. 

briodal, lovers' language, caressing, flattery ; also brionndal 
caressing, brionnal, flattery ; possibly from brionn, a lie, 
dream (Ir.), as in brionglaid, q.v. M. Ir. brinneall means a 
beautiful young maid or a matron. 

briog, thrust, Ir. priocam ; from the Eng. prick. 

briogach, mean-spirited : 

brioghas, fervour of passion ; cf. W. bryvnis, bryw, vigorous. 

briogais, breeches, Ir. brigis ; from the Eng. breeks, breeches. 

brioUag, an illusion (Sh.) ; Ir. brionn, dream, revery. The G. 
seems for brion-lag. See next. 

brionglaid, a confusion, dream, Ir. brionnglSid, a dream ; from 
brimin, a dream, a lie. In the sense of "wrangling," 
brionglaid is purely a Scotch Gaelic word, from Sc, Eng. 
brangle, of like force. 

brionnach, pretty (M'F.), fair (Sh.), glittering, Ir. brinneall, a 
beautiful young woman, a matron : 

brionnach, brindled, striped ; from the Eng. brinded, now brindled. 


brios, mockery (A. M'D.), half-intoxication (M'A.) : 

briosaid, a girdle (Arm.) ; from Eng. brace ? 

briosg, start, jerk, so Ir. ; from brisg, active, q.v. 

briosgaid, a biscuit, M. Ir. hrisca (F. M.) ; founded on Eng. biscuit, 
but by folk-etymology made to agree with hrisg, brittle 

briosuirneach, ludicrous ; cf. brios, mockery, Ac. 

briot, briotal, chit-chat, Ir. ^briot, chatter, briotach, a stammerer : 
*brt-to, *br-t, root bar, ber, as in Lat. barbarus, Gr. ^dp^apo's, 
/Sep/Sepi^b), 1 stammer. The reference of briot to the name 
Breatnaich or Britons as foreigners and stammerers is scarcely 

bris, break, so Ir., 0. Ir. brissim, *brest8, I break, root bres, bhres ; 
0. H. G. brestan, break, Ag. S. berstan, Eng. burst, Fr. briser, 
break. Distantly allied to *berso-s, short, G. bearr. Brug- 
mann has compared the Gaelic to Gr. TrkpOto, destroy, from 
bherdho-, giving a Celtic stem brd-to-, and brd-co- for brisff. 

brisg, brittle, Ir. briosg, E. Ir. brisc, Br. bresq : *bres-co-; root bres 
of bris above. 

brisg, lively, Ir. brisc, W. brysg ; all from the Eng. brisk, of 
Scandinavian origin (Johansson, Zeit. xxx.). 

brisgein, cartilage ; from Norse brjdsk, cartilage, bris, Sw. and 
Dan. brush ; Ger. brausche, a lump (from a bruise). 

brisgein, brislein, white tansy ; from brisg, brittle. 

britheamh, a judge, Ir. breitheamh, 0. Ir. brithem, g. britheman ; 
root brt-, of breath, judgment, q.v. 

broc, a badger, so Ir., E. Ir. brocc, W., Cor. broch, Br. broc'h, 
*brokko-s : *bork-ko-, "grey one;" root bherk, bhork, bright, 
Gr. (popKOi, grey. Lit. berszti, Eng. bright 2 Thurneysen cfs. 
the Lat. broccus, having projecting teeth, whence Fr. broche 
(from Lat. *brocca, a spike, &c.), a spit, Eng. broach, brooch ; 
he thinks the badger was named broccos from his snout, and 
he instances the Fr. brocket, pike, as parallel by derivation 
and analogy. If Gr. fipvKw, bite, is allied to Lat. broccus, the 
underlying idea of broc may rather be the " biter," " gripper." 
Bezzenberger suggests Russ. barsuku, Turk, pormk, Magyar 
borz ; or *brckko-s, from *bhrod-ko-s, Skr. bradhnd, dun. 

brocach, greyish in the face, speckled, Ir. brocach, broc, W. broc, 
grizzled, roan ; from broc. 

brochan, gruel, porridge, Ir. brochdn, 0. Ir. brothchdn ; broth-chdn, 
*broti-, cookery; root bru, I. E. bhru, whence Eng. broth, 
Lat. defrutum, must. See bruith. 

br6chlaid, trash, farrago ; root bhreu, bhru, as in brochan ; bh-eu 
varies with bhrou, G. brb. 

brdcladh, spoiling, mangling ; see brebclaid. 


brod, a goad, prickle, Ir. brnd, E. Ir. brott, W. brath. Cor. broz, Br. 

hrout, *broddos, from hroz-do- ; 0. H. G. brort, edge, Norse 

broddr, sting, Eng. irorf, SracJ, Ag. S. brord, sting. 
brod, the choice of anything; from the above, in the sense of 

" excess." Of. corr. 
brdd, pride, brodail, proud, Ir. brdd, &c. In Arran (Sc.) we find 

protail, which is a step nearer the origin. From the Eng. 

brod, a crowd, brood, brodach, in crowds ; from the Eng. brood ? 
brog, a shoe, Ir. br-bg, M. Ir. brocc, E. Ir. brdc, pi. brdca, used in 

compounds for various nether garments ; from Norse brSkr, 

Ag. S. brdc, pi. brec, Eng. breech, breehs (Zimmer, Zeit. xxx.). 

See briogais. 
brog, stimulate, an awl ; from Sc. brog, prog. Cf . W. procio, 

thrust, poke, from M. E. prokien, stimulare. Thumeysen 

takes Sc. and G. from Fr. broche, Lat. *brocca (see broc). 
brogach, a boy, young lad, brogail, active, " in good form ;" from 

brog ? 
broidneireachd, embroidery, Ir. broidineireachd ; from the Eng. 

broider, embroidery. 
t broigheal, cormorant, Ir. broighioll : 
broighleadh, bustle ; from Sc. hrulye (Eng. broil), Fr. brouiller, 

It. broglio. See braodhlach. 
broighleag, whortle-berry ; see braoileag. 
broigileineach, substantial ; from broigeil, a by-form of brogail ; 

see brogach. 
broilein, king's hood ; pig's snout (Badenoch) : root bhru, brow ? 
broilleach, a breast, Ir., E. Ir. brollach : *bron-lach ; for *bron, see 

broineag, a rag, ill-clad female, bronag, a crumb (Dialectic) ; pos- 
sibly from the root of bronn, distribute. Shaw spells it 

broinnag, M'F. as above, 
broinn, belly (Dialectic) ; the dat. of brii used dialectically as 

nom. ; see brii. 
broit. the bosom ; properly the breast covering (H.S.D., for latter 

meaning) ; cf. G. brat, 0. Ir. broitene, palliolum. The word 

appears to be from brat, mantle, with a leaning for meaning 

on bruinnej breast. 
brolaich, incoherent talk (as in sleep), brolasg, garrulity, Ir. 

brolasgach, prattling ; cf. W. brawl, brol, boasting, Eng. 

brawl, Du. brallen, boast, 
broluinn, brothluinn, boiling, " sestus," tide-boiling ; from broth, 

boiling, as in brollach, &c. 
brollach, a mess ; cf . E. Ir. hrothlach, the Fenian cooking pit, from 

broth, as in brochan, q.v. 


bromach, a colt, Ir. bromach : *brusmo-) *brud-, *bru, as in 
Eng. em-Sryo ? 

brdn, grief, Ir., 0. Ir. brSn, W. Jynuyn, smarting, sorrow, *brug7io-s; 
Gr. Iipvx<» {v long), gnash the teeth ; Lit. grduziu, gnaw, 
Pol. zgryzota, sorrow. 

t bronn, grant, distribute, M. G. hronnagh (1408 charter), Ir. 
bronnaim, E. Ir. bronnaim, brondaim, bestow, spend : *brundo-, 
*bhrvd-no-, I. E. root bhrud; Ag. S. bryttian, deal out, Norse 
liryti, a steward (cf. Gr. rafjilas, steward, " cutter"), brytja, 
chop, Eng. brittle, Teut. brut, chop ; perhaps Lat. frustum, 

brosdaich, stir up, Ir. brosduighim, E. Ir. brostugud, inciting. The 
word is from the root broa- in brosdo- of brod, q.v., being here 
bros-to-, which becomes brosso-, and later reverts to brost, 
brnsd, or remains as in brosnaich. Stokes says it is founded 
on Low Lat. brosdus, brusdus, broidery, "done by a needle" 
or brosd, which is of Teutonic origin and cognate with G. 
brod, already given as the root. Hence brosgadh, stimula- 
tion, &c. The Ir. brosna, 0. Ir. brosne, faggot, may be hence ; 
the root bhrud-, discussed under bronn, has also been suggested. 

brosgul, flattery, fawning (especially of a dog) ; possibly from the 
root form brost, in brosdaich, brosgadh. 

brosnaich, incite ; see brosdaich. This is the best G. form ; 
brosdaich is rather literary and Irish. 

brot, broth ; from the Eng. broth. 

brot, a veil, upper garment, 0. Ir. broitene, palliolum ; G. is a by- 
form of brat. 

broth, itch, Ir. broth, *bruto- ; see bruthainn for root. Also 
(rarely) bruth. 

brothag, the bosom, a fold of the breast clothes; *broso-, root 
brus of bruinne, breast. 

brothas, farrago, brose, Ir. brothus, from M. E. brewis, Sc. brose. 
See bruthaist, the best G. form. 

brd, g. bronn, belly, so Ir., 0. Ir. br4, brond, W. bru : *bras, 
*brus-nos, root brus, I. E. bhrus, bhreus ; Teut. breusl^, Norse 
brj6st, Eng. breast, Ger. brust. Stokes refers it to the root 
bru,, to swell, Gr. jipvm, am full, kft^fipvov, embryo (whence 
Eng. embryo), or to Skr. bhrund, embryo. See bruinne. 

bruach, a bank, brink, Ir., 0. Ir. bruanh : *brouko-, I. E. bhrA, 
brow, Gr. d^/)w, eyebrow, Eng. brow, Lit. bruvis, O. Ir. brdad, 
(dual). Also E. Ir. brii, bank, border. Stokes suggests 
either the root of briith, bruise, or Lit. briau^, edge". 

bruachaire, a surly fellow, one that hovers about, Ir. bruach- 
aireachd, hovering about ; from bruach. 


bruadar, bruadal, a dream, Ir. bmadair, W. brevddwyd : *hravd- 

or *brav- : 
bruaillean, bruaidlean, trouble, grief ; from bruadal above. 
bruais, crush to pieces, guasb (Dialectic) : *broug-so ; cf.' Gr. 

/3pvx<i>, gnasb. See bron. 
bruan, thrust, wouud ; from the root of IrutL 
bruan, a fragment ; * bhrotuPno-, from *bhroud, break, Ag. S. 

breostan, break, Eng. brittle, &c., as under bronn. Strachan 

also suggests *bhr(mcno-, Lett, brukt, crumple, and Stokes the 

root of briith. 
brucacb, spotted in the face, smutted, Ir. brocac/i : "badger-like;" 

see broc. The Sc. broukit, brooked, is of uncertain origin 

(Murray). Hence brucachadh, irregular digging, brucanaicb, 

the peep of dawn (M'A.), &c. 
brucag, brucbag, a chink, eylet (Sh.), dim candle light (H.S.D.). 

Sh. gives bruchag, H.S.D. briteag, which appears only to apply 

to the " dim candle light ;" from brucach. 
brticlld, belch, burst out, so Ir., E. Ir. bruchtaim, eructo, vomo, 

W. brytheiro (vb.), brythar (p..). 
bruchlag, a hovel ; from brugh, q.v. 
bruchlas, the fluttering of birds going to rest (Sh.) : 
brucborcan, stool bent, heath rush ; said to be derived from ^bru, 

a hind, and corc-an, oats, " deer's oats." Also bruth-chorcan. 
briidhacb, a brae ; see bruthach. 
brudhaist, brose ; see brutkaist. 
brugh, large house, a tumulus, so Ir., E. Ir. brug, mrug, land, 

holding, mark, W. bra, country region, land, Cym-mro, a 

Welshman, pi. Cymmry i^cow^mroges), Br. bru, country, Gaul. 

Brogi^: *mrogi- (for Gadelic) ; Lat. mar go ; Got. marka, 

border-country, Ag. S. mearc, border, Eng. mark, march. 
bruich, boil, cook ; gutturalised form of bruith (cf. brath, brack). 

See bruith. The Ir. bruighim appears in O'R., and has been 

compared to Lat. frigo, Gr. ^pi!yw, roast ; but it is evidently 

a bad spelling of bruith. 
bruid, captivity, Ir. bruid, M. Ir. *brat, g. braite, E. Ir. ace. broit, 

*braddd. For root, see bradach. 
bruid, bruidich, stab, goad, Ir. bruidighim : the verb from brod, a 

bruid, a brute, Ir. br-did ; from Eng. brute. 
bruidheann, bruidhinn, talk conversation, Ir. bruighinn, scolding 

speech, a brawl (also bruitheann), 0. Ir. fris-brudi, reuuit, W. 

cyfrau, song, 0. Br. co-broval, verbialia, * mru, say ; Skr. bru, 

bravati, says, Zend mril, speak. 
bruidlicb, stir up; see bruid, stab, goad, 
briiill, bruise, thimip ; a derivative from briith, q.v. 

48 Etymological bicrioNAET 

briiillig, a person of clumsy figure and gait (H.S.D., which refers 
the word to brii, belly) ; from brii ? 

bruim-fheur, switch grass, so Ir. : from braim-fheur, a tenn to 
denote its worthlessness. 

Brtiinidh, the Brownie ; from Sc. Brownie, the benevolent farm- 
house goblin, from Eng. brown. Cf. the Norse Svart-dlfr or 
Dark elves. 

bruinne, breast, 0. Ir. bruinne, W. bran, Cor. and M. Br. bronn, 
*brws-no, root bhrus, bhreus ; Norse brydst, Ger. brvst, Eng. 
breast. Stokes gives the root as hrend, from I. E. grendh, 
swell, be haughty, Gr. ^pe/jbOofiai, strut, bear oneself loftily, 
Lat. grandis, Cli. SI. gr<}d'i, breast. Usually correlated with 
Got. brunjd, breastplate, M H. G. briinne, N. brynja, coat of 
mail, M. Eng. brynie, Sc. byrnie : a satisfactory enough deri- 
vation, and ultimately from the same root as the first one 
given above (I. E. bhru). Indeed Stokes says the Teut. is 
borrowed from the Celtic. 

bruinneadh, the front (Dialectic), 0. Ir. bruinech, prow. Cor. 
brenniat, prow, *bronjo-, to which Bez. compares Ger. grans, 
prow (I. E. gh = G. b ?). From root of bruinne. 

bruis, a brush, Ir. bruis (vulg.) ; from the Eng. brush. 

bruiteach, warm ; from * bruth, heat ; see bruthainn. 

bruith, boil, cook, so Ir., E. Ir. bruith, cooking, * broti-, from the 
root bru, I. E. bhru ; Eng. broth (Teut. bropo-, I. E. bhrato-), 
and brew (I. E. bhreu) ; Lat. defrutum, must ; Thrac. Gr. 
fSpvTov, beer. 

bmnsgal, rumbling noise ; bronn + sgal .? From brii in any case. 

brusg, a crumb, particle of food, Ir. bruscdn, brusgar, broken ware, 
useless fragments, brw, refuse of corn : from *brus, short 
form of *brus in briith. 

brutach, digging, the act of digging (N. H. according to H.S.D.) : 
*brutto-, *bhrvd-tn-, root bhrud, break 1 See bronn. 

briith, bruise, pound, Ir. bniighim, E. Ir. briiim, *brus, strike, 
graze, pound ; Pre. Celt, bhreus ; Ag. S. brysan, bruise, Eng. 
bruise (influenced by Fr.) ; perhaps 0. Slav, brusnati, corrum- 
pere, radere. 

biuthach, a brae : * brut-acos, root bru, from bhru, brow ; see 
bruach. Sc. brae is of a similar origin, founded on Norse 
brd, eyelid, brow (Murray). 

bruthainn, sultriness, laeat, Ir., 0. Ir. bruth, fervor, W. brwd, hot, 
Br. brout, hot (fire), 0. Br. brot : *brutu-. For further root, 
see bruith. Wider are Lat. ferveu, fervor, Eng. burn, &c. 

bruthaist, brose ; from early Sc, Eng. browes, Sc. brose ; from the 
Fr., but allied to Eng. broth. 


bu, was, Ir. ludh, 0. Ir. hu : Proto-Gaelic *bu for a Celtic bu-t ; 

Gr. e<f>v (v long), aorist tense ; Lat. fuit ; Skr. dbhitt, was ; 

I. E. e-bhu-t. The root is bheu, bhu ; Eng. be, &c. Both G. 

and Ir. aspirate, which shows the t of the 3rd sing, disappeared 

buabhall, unicorn, buffalo, M. Ir. buabhaU, W. bual ; from Lat. 

bubaliis, buffalo, gazelle, whence (bu/alus) Eng. buffalo. 
buabhall, a trumpet, Ir. bubhall, buadhbhall, M. Ir. buaball, W. 

biial, bugle ; cf. M. Ir. buabhall, horn, W. bual, buffalo horn, 

M. Ir. com bvabkaill; whence the further force of "trumpet." 
buachaill, a herdsman, so Ir., 0. Ir. bdchaill, buachaill, W. hugail, 

Cor., Br. bugel ; Gr. ^ovkoAos, cowherd (Lat. bucnlicus, Eng. 

bucolic), ^ov-, cow, and -koAos, attendant, Lat. culo, cultiv&te. 
buachar, cow-dung, Ir. buacar, buackar (Con.), Br. beuzei ; for the 

stem before the suffix -ar, cf. W. bicwch {*boukM), though 

bovH:or- or bouk-cor-, " cow-offcast," may properly be the 

derivation for the Gadelic. See b6 and, possibly, cuir. 
buadhghallan, buaghallan, ragwort, Ir. buadhghallaD, M. Ir. 

buathbhallan : " virtue bearing wort ?" More probably it is 

buaf-bhallan, " toad-wort," from huaf, toad, reptile, from Lat. 

bCkfo. The Welsh call it " serpent's weed," llysiau'r nedir. 

Ir. bvAifanan is " mugwort." 
buaic, a wick, Ir. buaic ; from Eng. wick, Ag. S. loeoca 1 
buaic, bleaching lees, Ir. buotc ; from M. E. bouken, steep in lye, 

Eng. buck, Ger. bauchen; Fr. bv^r, from a Lat. type *hucare. 

See fuaadh. 
buaicneach, small-pox (Suth.) ; founded on a later form of Lat. 

bucca, as in bucaid, q.v. 
buaidh, victory, virtue, so Ir., 0. Ir. hiiaid, W. bvdd, 0. Br. bud, 

Gaul, boudr, in many personal names, whether as the only 

root (cf. Boudicca, " Victrix") or in compounds, either initial 

or as second part : * boudi- ; Norse byti, exchange, Ger. heute, 

booty, Eng. booty, Fr. butin (do.). 
buaidheam, fits of inconstancy ; cf. Imathadh. 
buail, strike, so Ir., E. Ir. bualaim : *budlo- or *boudlo-, *boud, 

Pre-Celt. bhoud, bkeud ; Ag. S. bSatan, Eng. beat, beetle, Ger. 

beutel, beetle (Strachan). See buille. Stokes gives the form 

* buglao, root bug, bhug, as in Ger. pocJien, Eng. poke. 
buaile, a fold, pen, so Ir., E. Ir. buale; Lat. bovile; from *bov-, cow. 
buain, reap, Ir., 0. Ir. buain, inf. of bongaim, I'eap, break : *bogni- 

or *bongni- ? For root, see bochd. 
buair, tempt, vex, Ir. buaidhirim, E. Ir. buadraim, 0. Ir. bicadartha, 

turbulentus : * boud-ro- ; possibly from bhoud, strike, the idea 

coming from a form *boudro-, a goad, goading ? G. has 

buaireadh, buair, a rage. 



buamastair, a blockhead : 

buan, lasting, Ir. bimn, lasting, fixed, E. Ir. biian : "being, 

during," from * bu, be, I. E. bhu, be ; Lit. hitinas, being, 

during, from buti, be ; Norse btia, dwell. Got. bawan, &c. 

Stokes gives the G. stem as buvano-s, and cfs. Skr. bhUvana, 

existence. Hence buanaich, persevere, 
t buanna, a mercenary, a billeted soldier, so Ir. : 
buannachd, profit ; from buain, reap, with irregularly doubled n 

(see cinne, linn, seann, bann- for 6ara-, miann) ? 
buar, cattle, so Ir., E. Ir. biiar, cattle of the cow kind ; from b6, 

cow : * bovdro- ; cf. Lat. boarius. 
buarach, cow-fetter, Ir., E. Ir., buarach : for bd-drach, " cow-fetter," 

drach being for ad-rig-os, root rig of cuibhreach, q.v. 
buathadh, a rushing, a mad fit : 
btib, roar, Ir. hub : onomatopoetic. Cf. Lat. baubor, bay, Gr. 

jSav^w, bark, Lit. bubauti, roar. 
bdban, coxcomb, Ir. bubdn ; cf. Eng. booby. 
bucach, a boy (dial.) : " growing one ;" founded on Lat. bucca as 

in the following word, 
bucaid, a pustule, Ir. bocdid, a spot, E. Ir. boccdit ; from Brittonic 

Lat. buccdtus, from bucca, puffed cheek (Eng. debouch, rebuke). 
bucall, a buckle, Ir. bucla, W. bwcl ; from M. Eng. bukyll, Eng. 

buckle, from Fr. boiicle, from Lat. bucula, cheek-strap, from 

bv<:ca, cheek, 
btichd, size (Sh. buc) ; from So. bo^^k, i.e., bulk. 
buchainn, melodious (A. M'D.) : 

buchallach, nestling (adj., M'A.) : *buth-ckal, "house tending?" 
budagochd, snipe (M'L.), woodcock (H.S.D.). It seems a reminis- 
cence of Eng. woodcock. 
budhaigir, the puffin, buigire (M'A., for St Kilda), Sc. bowger, the 

coulter-neb; somehow from Norse bugr, curve, "bent-bill?" 
budhailt, a window-like recess in a wall ; from Sc. bowall, boal, 

hole. Origin unknown (Murray). 
budhag, a bundle of straw : root bud, which underlies Fr. botte, 

bundle 1 See boitein. 
buideal, a bottle, cask, Ir. buideul, W. potel ; from Eng. bottle. 

See hotul. 
buidealaich, a conflagration, Ir. buite, fire, buitealach (Lh.-f, O'Cl., 

O'B.), bott (O'Cl.) : * bud-do-, root blmd (Lat. fustis, hhud-tis, 

Eng. beetle), giving the idea of " faggot, firewood ?" 
buidhe, yellow, so Ir., 0. Ir. buide ; Lat. badius, Eng. bay. 
buidhe, now buidheachas, thanks, Ir. buidhe, 0. Ir. buide [W. 

boddaw, please, bodd, will?], *budo-, 1. E. hhudh, bheudh; Gr. 

Trevdofiai, learn by inquiry ; Ag. S. beodan, command, Eng. 



buidhe, glad to, had to, 0. Ir. buithi, participle of necessity, from 

the verb bi, be : " Is amlid is buithi do chach " — Thus ought 

it to be with every one (9th Cent, glosses) ; G. " Is buidhe do 

gach neach." 
baidheann, a company, Ir. buidhean, 0. Ir. buden, W. hyddin, 

0. Br. bodin, manus, * bodind ; 0. H. G. chutti, troop, band, 

0. Fries. Iixdde, Ger. kette, covey ; I. E. go : go, drive ; of. Lit. 

g&tas, herd, 
buidhinn, gain, win, buinnig, act of gaining, gain ; from the Eng. 

^oin, winning. 
bull, effect, use, Ir. boil, * bol, * bel : Pre-Celt. bliel, bkol ; Gr 

o^eXos, advantage, axfieXeb), help. 
buileastair, a buUace or sloe (M'D., Sh.) ; from M. E. bolaster = 

bullace-tree, from bolace, now buUace. 
builionn, a loaf, Ir. builin; from 0. Fr. *boulange, ball-shaped 

loaf (?), which Diez suggests as the basis of Fr. boulanger, 

buille, a blow, so Ir., E. Ir. bulle, buille = bollia = bus-lid = bhud-s-lid; 

root bhitd, beat, as in buail, q.v. Stokes gives the stem as 

* boldja, allied to Lit. be'ldziu, belsti, give a blow, baldas, a 

beetle ; Ger. poltern. 
buillsgean, centre, Ir. boilscean, M. Ir bolscen, middle, midriff = 

bolgdn, from balg, bolg, belly. 
buiu, belong to, Ir. beanaim. The Ir. is from the verb bean, 

touch ; the G., which has the idea of relationship or origin 

{Gha bhuin e dhomh : he is not related to me), seems to 

confuse bean and bun, stock. 
buinne, a cataract, tide, Ir. buinne, a spout, tap, E. Ir. buinne, 

wave, rush' of water: G. bliinneach, flux, diarrhoea, so Ir. ; 

see boinne. 
buinneag, a twig, sprout, Ir. buinnedn, E. Ir. buinne : *bits-nid ; 

root bus, as in Eng. bush, bosky, Ger. busch, &c. 
buinnig, winning ; see buidhinn. 

t buinnire, a footman, so Ir. ; from bonn, sole of the foot. 
btlir, buirich, roar, bellow (as a bull), Ir. buireadh, roaring ; E. Ir. 

buraim ; * bu-ro-, I. E. root gevo, gii, cry ; Gr. /3oaa), shout ; 

Lit. gauju, howl ; Skr. gu, cry. Strachan gives as G. stem 

bucro-, root bvq as in Lat. buccina, horn. Gr. jBvKTrj^, howling, 

Skr. bukkdras, lion's roar. 
buirdeiseach, a free man, burgess, Ir. buirgeiseach ; from the Eug. 

buirleadh, language of folly and ridicule ; from the Eomancc 

burla, to jest, &c. See burraidh. 
buirseach, a deluge of rain ; a rousing fire (Heb.) : 
buiseal, a bushel, Ir. buiseul ; from Eng. bushel. 


buit, bashful (Badenoch) : " fugy," as a fowl ; see piit. 

btiiteach, a threat (Suth.) : a form of hbidich ? 

buitseach, a witch, so Ir. ; from Eng. tuitch. 

biilas, pot hook ; from the Sc. boots, a pot hook in two parts or 

" bools," M. Eng. boot, a pail handle, round part of a key, 

Ger. biigel, arc ; from Teut. beugan, bend, Eng. bow. Dialectic 

bumailear. a bungler ; from Sc. fnommeler, from bummil, btmgle, 

Eng. bumble ; of onomatopoetic origin (Murray). Cf. Ger. 

bww/mler, a lounger, 
bun, root, stock, bottom, Ir., E. Ir. 6mm, W. bon, stem, trunk, 

0. W. boned ; Armen. bun ; N. Pers. bun, Zd. buna- (Bugge). 

Rhys has suggested a connection with Ger. hiihne, a stage, 

boards. Ag. S. bwne, " stalk, reed," may be allied. It cannot 

be connected with bonn, for the stem there is bhudh-no-, root 

bhudh. The ultimate root of bun, in any case, is simply bhii, 

bhu, grow, swell, Gr. (^vo), cfrnXov, a tribe, Eng. boil (n.), Ger. 

beuU, a swelling, Skr. bhumis, earth ; bhu, grow, is identical 

with bhu, be. 
bnnach, coarse tow, refuse of flax, so Ir. ; from bun. 
bunait, foundation, Ir. bundit : bun + dit., jj.v. 
bunndaist, a bounty, grassum, Ir. bunntaiste ; from Eng. poundage. 
bunnlum, steadiness, bunntam, bunntamas, solidity, shrewdness ; 

from bun, foundation. Cf. Ir. buntomhas, well founded 

opinion : bun + tomhas, q.v. 
buunsach, a twig, so Ir., E. Ir. bunsach ; see buinneag. 
bunnsach, a sudden rush ; from buinne. 
bunntam, solidity ; see bunnlum. 
bunt^ta, potato, Ir. potdta ; from the English. It contains a piece 

of folk-etymologising in the syllable bun-, root, 
buntuinn, belonging ; see huin. 
bUrach, turning up of the earth, digging ; from the Sc. bourie, 

Eng. burrow. The Sc. bourach, enclosure, cluster, knoll, 

heap, &c., is the Eng. bower. 
burgaid, a purge, Burgadoir, Purgatory ; see purgaid, Purgadoir. 
burmaid, wormwood ; from the Eng. 
btirn, water ; from Sc. burn, water, spring-water, Eng. bourne, 

burn, a stream, Teut. brunnon-, a spring, Norse brunnr, well, 

Ger. brunnen. 
burraidh, a blockhead, Ir. biirraidh; from Lat. burrce, nonsense, 

Eng. burlesque, ifec. 
burral, a howl, lamentation, so Ir ; for the root, which is here 

short {*bv/r-ro- ?). see buir. Cf. bururus, however, 
burras, a caterpillar : 


burr-, as in burr'caid, clumsy person, burr'ghlas, a torrent of 

rage, &c., seems from borr, great, excessive, q.v. Burrs'gadh, 

a burst of passion, may be from Eng. borasco, squall of wind. 
burt, mockery ; from Sc. bov/rd, M. Eng. bowd, jest, Fr. bourde, 

a lie. 
bururus, infant lisping, warbling, purling ; cf. Eng. purr and purl 

(Skeat). Evidently onomatopoetic. 
bus, a mouth, kiss, Ir., M. Ir. bus, *bussu-; Pre-Celt. guss- ; Teut. 

kuss, Ger. kiissen, kiss, Eng. kiss (Kluge). Bezzenberger cfs. 

Lit. bucziiti, kiss ; others give buc-sa, allied to Lat. bucca, 

busgadh, dressing ; from the Sc, Eng. busk. 
busgaid, a bustle (M'D.) ; formed from Eng. busy ; cf. Ag. S. 

bysgu, business. 
bustail, puffing, blowing (Heb.) ; from bus. 
butadh, a push ; see putadh. 
butag, oar pin ; see putag. 
buth, a shop ; from the Eng. booth, Norse biiS, shop, root bhu, be. 

See bothan. 
biithainnich, thump, thrash, bang ; from the root bhvd, beat 

(Eng. beat) ? 
buthuinn, long straw for thatch ; from buto-, the stem of bothan, 

a bothie 1 
butrais, butarrais, a mess : 


c', for CO, da, who, what, q.v. 

ca, ca, where, Ir. cd, how, where, who ; a by-form to da, ce, q.v. 

cab, a gap, indentation, mouth, Ir. cab, mouth, head, gap, cabach, 
babbling, indented. The word is borrowed from two English 
words — gap and gab (M. E. gabben, chatter) ; G. has also gab, 
directly from gab of the Sc. Hence cabach, gap-toothed. 

C^bag, a cheese ; Sc. cabback, kebbock. The latter form (kebbock) 
is probably from a G. ceapag, cepac, obsolete in G. in the sense 
of " a cheese," but still used for the thick wooden wheel of 
wheel-barrows ; it is from G. ceap. Sc. cabback is a side form 
of kebbock, and it seems to have been re-borrowed into G. as 
cabag. The real G. word for " a cheese" is now mulachag. 

cabaist, cabbage, Ir. gabdisde ; from the Eng. 

caball, a cable, Ir. cabla ; from Eng. cable, which, through Fr., 
comes from Lat. capulum. 

cabar, a rafter, caber, deer's horn, Ir. cabar, W. ceibr, rafters, 
0. Br. cepriou, beams; from a Med. Lat. *caprio, a rafter, 
capro, caprones (which exists as a genuine 8th century word), 
Fr. chevron, rafter. Caprio is from caper, goat ; Lat. capreoli. 


goat-lets, was used for two beams meeting to support some- 
thing, props, stays. 

eabasdar, cabstar, a bit, curb, W. cehystr, Br. kabestr ; from Lat. 
capistrum, halter, " head-holder," from caput. 

cabhag, hurry : 

cabhiach, a fleet, Ir. eobhlach, cabhlach, E. Ir. cohlach ; *cob-lach ; 
from *kub, *qug., curve, root of Lat. cymba, boat, Gr Kv/M/Br], 
boat, cup, especially Lat. cybaea, a transport (* KvfSata). 

cabhruich, sowens, flummery, Ir. cdthbhruith ; from chth and 
bruith, q.v. 

cabhsair, causeway, Ir. cabhm ; from Eng. causey, causeway, from 
0. Fr; caucie, from Lat. calciata (via). 

cabhsanta, dry, snug ; from Sc. cosie, colsie, Eng. cosy, whose 
origin is unknown. 

cabhtair, an issue, drain in the body (M'D., who, as cautair, 
explains it as " an issue or cauter") ; from Eng. cauter. 

cabhuil, a conical basket for catching fish ; from M. Eng. cawell, 
a fish basket, still used in Cornwall, Ag. S. cawl. Cf. Br. 
havell, bow-net, 0. Br. cauell, basket, cradle ; from Lat. 
cauuella, a vat, &c. (Loth, Emault). 

cabon, capon (M'D.), Ir. cab4n ; from Eng. capon. 

cac, excrement, so Ir., E. Ir. cacc, Cor. caugh, Br. hic'h, *kahho-; 
Lat. caco ; Gr. KaKK-q ; Skr. fdka, g. (aknds. 

C&ch, the rest, others, Ir., O.Ir. each, quivis, W. pawb, all, Br. pep, 
*qdqe ; root qo, qo, qe of co and gach, q.v. 

cachdan, vexation, Ir. cacht, distress, prisoner, E. Ir. cachtaim, I 
capture, W. caeth, slave, confined : *kapto-, caught ; Lat. 
capio, captus ; Got. haban, Eng. have. 

cachliadh (Arm.), cachaleith (H.S.D.), a gate; co + eUath, "co- 
hurdle;" see cliath, death, hurdle, wattle. Also cachliag 
(C. S.). It has also been explained as cadha-chliath, " hurdle- 

cadadh, tartan cloth, hose tartan, Manx cadee, cotton ; Eng. 

caddow (16th cent.), an Irish quilt or cloak ; doubtless from 

Eng. caddis, worsted, crewel work, &c., Fr. cadis, woollen 

serge. See also catas. 
cadal, sleep, Ir. codladh, 0. Ir. cotlud, vb. contulim : *con-twl-, root 

tol ; Ch. SI. toliti, appease, placare. Lit. tilas, quiet (Persson). 

The root tol, tel, appears in tlath, gentle, Lat. tolerare, Sc. thole. 
cadan, cotton (Sh.) ; from Eng. cotton. Properly codan, which is 

the usual dialect form. See cotan. For Ir. cadds, cotton, 

see catas. 
cadha, a pass, narrow pass, entry ; cf. Ir. caoi, way, road, E. Ir. 

cdi, which Stokes, however, refers to the root a as in Lat. 

do, move, Gr. kioj, go, a derivation which does not suit the G. 



cadhag, jackdaw, Ir. cabhdg, M. Ir. caog ; *ca-tg, the ca-er or 

crier of ca, caw ; of onomatopoefcic origin. Cf . Eng. caw ; 

also choiLgh, from a West Teut. kdtoa-. 
cadhag, a wedge (M'A. for Skye) : 
cadhan, wild goose, barnacle goose, so Ir. ; cf. Eng. caw, for possibly 

the name is ouomatopoetic. 
cadh-luibh, the cud-weed (Sh. gives cad-luibh, and O'B.), Ir. 

cadh-luihh ; from M. Eng. code, a cud. M'A. omits the word; 

it is clearly Irish. The G. is cn^mh lus, which is its Lat. 

name of gnaphalium in folk etymology, 
cadhmus, a mould for casting bullets ; from Sc. cawmys, calmes 

(16th century), caums, Eng, calm, came. 
cagailt, a hearth, Ir. cagailt, raking of the fire (O'R.) : 
cagar, a whisper, Ir. cogar, M. Ir. coccv/r : * con-cor, root k&r, set ; 

see cuir. 
cagaran, darling : * con-car- ; root car, dear, as in caraid. 
cagnadh, chewing, Ir. cognadh, M. Ir. cocnum : '^ covrcndmh ; see 

caibe, a spade, turf cutter, Ir. coibe, cuibe (O'R., FoL), W. caib, 

0. Cor. cep. 
caibeal, a chapel (M'D.) ; from Lat. capella. The G. really is 

seipeal, q.v. 
caibheis, giggling, laughing : 
caibideil, caibdeil, a chapter, Ir. caibidil, E. Ir. caiptel, W. 

cabidwl ; from Lat. capitulum, whence 0. Fr. chapitre, Eng. 

caidir, cherish, so Ir. See the next word, 
caidreabh, fellowship, aiFection, vicinity, so Ir., M. Ir. caidrebh, 

Celtiberian Contrebia: * con-treb- ; see aitreabh, treabh. 
caigeann, a couple (of animals), coupling : *con-ceann ; from 

ceann, q.v. 
call, condition, vigour, appetite, Ir. cdil, W. cael, to have, get, 

enjoy, *hapli^, *kapelo- : root qap ; Lat. capio, Eng. have. 
cailbhe, a partition wall (of wattle or clay, &c.) ; from calbh, q.v. 
cailc, chalk, Ir., E. Ir. cailc, W. calch ; from Lat. calx, calcis, 

whence also Eng. chalk 
caile, girl, wench, Ir. caile, hussy, E. Ir. caile ; cf. Br. pla£h, girl ; 

Gr. iraAAttKij, concubine, Lat. pellex. Usually caileag, girl. 
CJlileach, husks, Ir. cdithleach : cdith-lach ; see cath. From cath 

comes also cailean, a husk. 
caileadair, philosopher, star-gazer ; from the Eng. calender, a 

mendicant dervish, from Pers. qalander. 
cailidear, snot, rheum (M'F., cailidhir in Sh.). O'R. improves this 

into cailidear. 
cailis, chalice, Ir. cailis ; from Lat, calix, cup, Eng, chalice. 


cailise, kails, ninepins (M'D.) ; from Eng. kails, M. Eng. eailis, 

from heyle, a peg, Gar. kegel, a cane, ninepin. 
cailleach, old wife, nun, so Ir., 0. Ir. caillech, " veiled one ;" from 

caille, veil, which is from the Lat. pallium, cloak, Eng. pall. 
caillteanach, eunuch, so Ir. ; from caill, lose. See call. 
ciimein, a mote, Ir. cdim, a stain, blemish ; from cam. 
caimleid, camlet ; from the Eng. 
cain, a tax, a tribute, Ir. cdin, E. Ir. cdin, statute, law : *kap-ni-, 

root qap, as in cail ? Stokes refers it to the root kds, order, 

Skr. gas (do.), Lat. castigare, castus, Got. hazjan, praise. 

Hence Sc. cain. 
ckin, white ; from Lat. cdnus. 
ciin, scold, revile, Ir. cdin, M. Ir. cdined, scolding : *kag-nid or 

* kaknid (?) ; Gr. /caxafw, laugh, Kayxa^d), Lat. cachinnus ; 

0. H. G. huohdn, mock ; Skr. kahhati, laugh, 
cainb, hemp, Ir. cndib, M. Br. canap ; from Lat. cannabis, allied to 

Eng. hemp. 
caineal, cinnamon ; from Sc. and obsolete Eng. cannel, canel, 

cinnamon, from 0. Fr. canelle, from Lat. canella, dim. of 

canna, cane, 
caingeann, a fine (Heb.), Ir. caingean, a rule, case, compact, &c. : 
Caingis, Pentecost, Ir. cingcis, E. Ir. Cingcigais ; from the Lat. 

quinquagesima (dies, 50th day from the Passover). 
cainneag, a mote : 
cainneag, a hamper (Skye) : 
cainnt, speech, Ir. eaint ; from can, say, q.v. Stokes gives the 

stem as *kan{s)ti, root hans, Skr. casti, praise, from pams, 

speak, Lat. censeo. 
caiptean, a captain, Ir., M. Ir. caiptin ; from M. Eng. capitain, 

from 0. Fr. capitaine, Lat. capitaneus, caput, head, 
ciir, a blaze, sea foam, &c ; see rather caoir. 
ciir, the gum, Ir. cdir (cairib, Fol.) : 
Gkit, a peat moss, dry part of the peat moss (Dial.) ; from Eng. 

carr, boggy ground, Norse Tgarr, brushwood. Also catkar, 

cairb, the bent ridge of a cart saddle (srathair). Shaw gives 

further the meanings "plank, ship, fusee, chariot;" Ir. corb, 

coach. The word is the primary stem from which carbad, 

chariot, springs ; see carbad. As " fusee" or " fusil," i.e., 

" musket," it seems a curtailed form of cairbinn. 
cairbh, a carcase ; allied to corpus ? 
cairbhist, carriage, tenants' rent service ; from M. Eng. cariage, 

in all senses (Of. the charter terms — -" Areage and cariage 

and all due service"), now carriage. 
cairbinn, a carabine ; from the Eng. 


cairbinneach, a toothless person (Sh.) ; from teairb, a jaw, gum, 

Ir. cairb. See cairb above. 
C^ird, a delay, respite, Ir. edirde ; cf . 0. Ir. cairde, pactum. A 

special legal use of a word which originally means " friend- 
ship." See next. 
cairdeas, friendship, so Ir., 0. Ir. cairdes ; from caraid, q.v. 
ciireag, a prating girl (Sh., who gives caireog) ; probably from 

cair, gum : " having jaw." 
caireal, noise ; see coiriolL 
tcairfhiadh, a hart or stag, Ir. cdirrfhiadh : * ewrhh-f kiadh. For 

*carbh, a deer; cf. W. carw, hart, stag, Cor. caruu, Br. caru ; 

Lat. cervus ; Gr. Kepaos, horned. 
cairich, mend, Ir. e6irighim, E. Ir. cdraigim, arrange, from coir, q.v. 
cairidh, a weir, Ir. cora, M. Ir. coraidh for cora, g. corad, W. 

cored, 0. W. and 0. Br, coret, from Celtic horjd, I set, put. 

See cuir. 
cairgein, sea moss, Irish moss, Eng. carrageen, so named from 

Carragheen (Waterford), in Ireland. This place name is a 

dim. of carraig, rock, 
cairis, corpse, carcase ; founded on M. Eng. cars, Sc. corrssys (pi. 

in Blind Harry), now corse. 
cairmeal, wild liquorice ; see carrameille. 
cairnean, an egg-shell : 
cairt, bark (of a tree), Ir. cairt ; Lat. cortex ; root qert, cut, Lit, 

kerbk, cut, Eng. rend. 
cairt, a cart, so Ir., W. cart ; from the Eng. cart. 
cairt, a card, so Ir. ; G. is from the Sc. carte, which is direct from 

the Fr. carte. The Eng. modifies the latter form into card. 

They are all from Lat. charta, paper. E. Ir. cairt meant 

" parchment." 
cairt, cleanse, Ir. cartaighim, E. Ir. cartaim, W. carthu, purge, 

kar-to-. The root idea is a " clearing out ;'' the root ker, kar, 

separate, is allied to sker in dscart, and especially in sgar. 
cairteal, a quarter ; from Late Lat. quartellus, Norse kvartill, 

Lat. quartus, fourth, 
caisbheart, cais'eart, foot gear (shoes or boots), Ir. coisbheart ; 

from cas + beart, q.v. 
caisd, listen, Ir. coisteacht, listening, E. Ir. coistim, 0. Ir. coitsea, 

auscultet : co-^tsim, co and eisd, listen, q.v. O'R. gives the 

modem Ir. cdisdeacht with o long, which would seem the 

most natural result from co-disd. 
caise, cheese, Ir., E. Ir. cdise, W. caws, Br. kaouz ; from Lat. 

cdseus, whence Eng. cheese. 
caiseal, bulwark, castle, Ir. caiseal, E. Ir. caisel, caissle ; from Lat, 




caisean, anything curled, &c. ; from cas, curled, q.v. 

caisg, check, stop, Ir. coisgim, 0. Ir. cose, castigare, W. cosp, *k(m^ 
sqo-, *seqd, I say ; Lat. inseqiie ; Gr. hiveire., say, evi-crire, dixit ; 
Eng. saff, Ger. sagen. 

Caisg, Easter, Ir. Gdisg, 0. Ir. cdsc, W. pasc ; from Lat. pascha, 
Eng. paschal. 

caisil-chro, a bier, bed of blood, M. Ir. cosair ehr6, bed of blood — 
to denote a violent death, E. Ir. cosair, bed. The expression 
appears in the Ossianic Ballads, and folk-etymology is 
responsible for making G. cosair into caisil, bulwark. The 
word cosair has been explained as co-ster-, root ster, strew, 
Lat. stemere, Eng. strew. 

caisleach, a ford, footpath ; from cas-lach, rather than cas-slighe, 
foot- way. 

caislich, stir up, caisleachadh, shaking up, &c. ; from cas, sudden. 

caismeachd, an alarm (of battle), signal, march tune. The cor- 
responding Ir. is caismirt, alarm, battle, M. Ir. caismert, E. Ir. 

caisrig, consecrate ; see coisrig. 

caisteal, a castle, M. Ir. caste'l, E. Ir. castiall ; from Lat. castellum, 
whence Eng. castle. 

caiteach, a rush mat for measuring corn, Ir. cditeack, winnowing 
sheet ; from ccdte, winnowed, from. cd,th. 

caiteag, a small bit (H.S.D.), a basket for trouts (M'A. for 
Islands), basket (Sh.), a place to hold barley in (M'L.). For 
the first sense, cf. W. cat, a piece, Sc. cat,, a rag. In Irish Lat. 
the trout was called catus (Giraldus). 

caiteas, scraped linen, applied for the stoppage of wounds (M'F.) ; 
from Sc. caddis, lint for wounds, M. Eng. codas, caddis, cotton 
wool, floss silk for padding, from 0. Fr. cadas. See G. catas. 

caitein, nap of cloth, shag, Ir. caitin, catkin of the osier, little 
cat. The Eng. words caddis, catkin, and cotton seem to be 
mixed up as the basis of the G. and Ir. words. Cf. W. ceden, 
shaggy hair. 

caith, spend, cast, Jr., 0. Ir. caithim, *katj6, 1 consume, castaway; 
Skr. cAtayoti, sever, cast down, destroy, gdt-ana, causing to 
fall, wearing out, root cat. Allied to the root of cath, war. 

caithear, just, right, Ir. caithear (Lh.), cait/ifidh, it behoves, 
M. Ir. caithfid ; from caith, doubtless (Atk.). 

caithream, shout of joy, triumph, Ir. caithreim ; from cath, battle, 
and reim, a shout, E. Ir. rem. This last word, Strachan 
refers to the root req l*rec-m or *rec-s-m), Ch. SI. relc<i., speak, 
Lith. rekiu. 

caithris, watching : 


C^l, kaU, cabbage, Ir. cdl, W. cawl, Cor. caul, Br. kaol ; from Lat. 
caulis, a stalk, whence likewise Etig. cole (cole-wort) and Sc. 

cala, caladh, a harbour, Ir. caladh, M, Ir. calad. It is usual to 
correlate this with It. cala, Fr. cale, bay, cove (Diez, Thur- 
neysen, Windisch), and Stokes even says the G. and Ir. words 
are borrowed from a Romance * calatum. It. calata, cala, Fr. 
cale, cove. More probably the Celtic root is gel, qal, hide, as 
in Eng. hollow, M. Eng. holh, hollow, cave, also Eng. liole, 
possibly. The root of eladh, has also been suggested. 

caladair, a calendar, Ir. calaindiir ; from M. Eng. kalendar, 
through Fr. from Lat. calendarium, an account-book, from 
calendas, the Calends or first of the month. 

calaman, a dove ; the common form of the literary columan, q.v. 

calanas, spinning of wool ; seemingly founded on Lat. colus, 
distaff. See cuigeal. 

t calbh, head, pate, bald, Ir. calb, head, calbh, bald, E. Ir. calb ; 
from Lat. calva, scalp, calvus, bald. H.S.D. gives as a mean- 
ing " promontory," and instances " Aoineadh a' Chailbh 
Mhuilich," which surely must be the Calf of Mull ; and Calf 
is a common name for such subsidiary isles — from Norse 
kdlfr, Eng. calf. 

calbh, a shoot, osier twig, Ir. colbha, plant stalk, sceptre, hazel 
tree, E. Ir. colba, wand ; see colbh. 

calbh, gushing of water or blood : 

calbhair, greedy of food (Suth.) ; from cdil ? 

cale, drive, ram, caulk, Ir. calcaim ; from Lat. calco, calx, the heel, 
Eng. in-culcate. 

caldach, sharp, pointed (Sh., M'L.) : 

calg, awn, beard of corn, bristles, Ir. calg, colg, E. Ir. colg, a sword, 
0. W. colginn, aristam, W. cola, beard of corn, sting, caly, 
penis, Br. calc^h (do.), *kalgo-, *7colgo- ; Gr. KoAo/3ds, stunted ; 
Got. fialks, poor ; further is Lat. cellere, hit, culter, knife ; <fec. 
The main root is qel, qld, hit, break ; see claidheamh, cladh. 
The Caledonian hero Galgacos derives his name hence. 
Hence calg-dhireach, direct, " sword-straight" to a place. 

call, loss, Ir. caill, E. Ir. coll, W. coll. Corn, colled, jactura, M. Br. 
coll, *koldo- ; Eng. halt. Got. halts, 0. H. G. halz, lame ; root 
qel, as above in calg, q.v. 

calla, callda, tame, callaidh (M'A., also Sh., who gives the 
meaning "active" to the last form); cf. W. call, wise ; from 
Lat. calliduB ? 

callag, calltag, the black guillemot, diver ; compare Eng. griail, 
Fr. caille. 

callaid, a partition, fence ; the same as tallaid, q.v. 1 


callaid, a wig, cap (M'F.) ; from Eng. calotte, skull-cap. 

callan, a noise, Ir. calldn, caU6ich ; from Eng. call ? 

calltuinn, hazel, Ir., E. Ir. coll, W. collen. Cor. collwiden, M. Br. 

q^bel-vezenn, *koslo- ; Lat. coryhis ; Norse liasl, Eng. hazel. 
Calluinn, New Year's Day, Ir. calldin. Calends, or first day of the 

month, E. Ir. callaind, the Calends, particularly the first Jan., 

W. calan. Calends ; from Lat. calendce (Eng. Calends). 
calm, a pillar (M'A.), Ir. columhan, colbh ; from Lat. columna, &c. 
calm, calma, brave, Ir., E. Ir. ealma. Cf. W. celf, skill, art, 

celfydd, skilled, 0. Br. celmed, efficax. The root cal is to be 

compared with that in Ger. held, hero, *haleth or *calet. The 

I. E. root is qel, as in Lat. celsus, high, columna, column, Eng. 

caiman, dove ; see calaman. 
calpa, the calf of the leg, so Ir., E. Ir. calpda, bonus pes (Conn.), 

colpa, tibia ; from the Norse Mlfi, whence also Eng. calf. 
calum, hardness on the skin (H.S.D. ; cathlum in M'D.) ; from 

Lat. callum, callus. It is not the obsolete caladh, hard, 

E. Ir. calad, W. caled, 0. Br. calat, *Icaleto-, root kal, hard ; 

Got. hallus, stone, Norse helle, liallr ; Skr. eild, stone. 
cam, crooked, one-eyed, Ir. cam, 0. Ir. camm, W. cam, Br. ham, 

Gaul, cambo-, root kemb, wind ; Gr. xd/i/Sos, a band, bond ; Lit. 

hinge, door-bar. It has been referred to the root of Gr. 

a-Ka/j./So's, crooked (see ceum), and to Lat. camera, whence Eng. 

chamber. Hence camag, club, camas, bay. 
camag-gharuidh, hollow above the eye, Ir. camdg-ara, '' the bend 

of the ara," 0. Ir. aire, g. arach, tempus ; Gr. iraptid, cheek, 
camhach, talkative ; *com-ag-ach, root ag in adhan "i 
camhal, a camel, Ir. camhall, E. Ir. camail, W. camyll ; from Lat. 

camhan, a hollow plain, Ir. cabhdn (County Cavan) ; from the 

Lat. cavus. 
camhanaich, break of day, twilight, Ir. camliadir : 
camp, campa, a camp, Ir., M. Ir. campa ; from the Eng. camp. 
campar, vexation, grief ; from Sc. cummar, Eng. cumber. 
can, say, sing, Ir. canaim, 0. Ir. canim, W. cana, sing, Br. hana ; 

Lat. cano, sing ; Gr. /cavafco ; Eng. hen. 
canach, mountain down, cotton, Ir. canach, 0. Ir. canach, lanugo ; 

Gr. Kvr)Ko^, thistle, kv7]k6s, yellow ; Skr. hancanas, golden, a 

plant; *qonah-. Stokes refers it to *casnaka, Lat. cdnm, 

white (*casno-), Ag. S. hasu, grey, Eng. hare. 
canain, language, Ir. cdnamhuin. Seemingly a long-vowel form 

of the root qan, sing, cry. See cainnt. 
canal, cinnamon ; see caineal. 
canan, a cannon ; from the Eng. 


canastair, a canister ;' from the Eng. 

cangaruich, fret ; from Sc. canker, fret, Eng. canker. 

cangluinn, trouble, vexation ; from Sc. cangle. 

canna, a can, so Ir. ; from Eng. can. 

cannach, pretty, kind ; *cas-no-, root, qas, Lat. cdnus, white (cas- 
mts), Ag. S. hasu, grey, Eng. haze ? Or it may be allied to 
Lat. candidus, white, Skr. cand, shine. 

canntaireachd, articulate music, chanting, Ir. cantaireachd, sing- 
ing, cdntaire, a singer ; from Lat. cantor, cano, I sing. 

canran, wrangling, grumbling, muttering, Ir. cannrdn ; from can, 
say, sing. 

cantal, grief, weeping (Sh., M'L.), Ir. cantlamh : 

caol), a clod, a bite, Ir. caob, clod, M. Ir. coep, E. Ir. caip, cdep, 
clot, lump, 0. Ir., caebb no, jecur. 

caoch, empty (as a nut), blind, so Ir., 0. Ir. caech, W. coeg, foolish, 
Cor. cuic, *kaiko-s ; Lat. caecus ; Got. haihs, one-eyed. 

caoch, caothach, rage ; see cuthach. 

caochan, a streamlet ; from caoch, blind 'I 

caochail, change, die, caochladh, a change, Ir. caochluighim, 
0. Ir. coimchldim, c6em-chl6im : irnchloud, imchldad, inversio ; 
for co-imm-cl6im ; from cldim, muto : see claoidh. The aspira- 
tion of the mn of imb is unusual, but the history of the word 
is also unusual, for it actually appears as claemchldd in E. Ir. 
oftener than once, and Ir. claochlddh, claochladh. 

caod Chaluim-chille, St John's wort (Sh.) : 

caog, wink ; apparently from Eng. cock (the eye). 

caogad, fifty, so Ir., 0. Ir. c6ica{t), *qenqehont; Lat. quinqaaginia; 
Gr. TrevTijKovTa. See c(>ig. 

caoidh, lamentation, Ir. caoi, caoidh, E. Ir. cdi, cdi, inf. to dim, 
ploro, *keid, root qei, which appears in caoin, q.v., and in 
Eng, whine, whisper, etc. Bezzenberger suggests *keipt, and 
compares Lit. s^ptis, grimace, Ch. SI. 0-sipnq.ti, raucescere. 

caoillean, a twig or osier for wicker, M. Ir. cdelach; from cool, slender. 

caoimheach, a bedfellow (Sh.), Ir. caoimhthech, E. Ir. com-aithech, 
neighbour ; see aitheach. Also caomhach, friend, bedfellow. 
The latter seems from, or influenced by, caomh. 

caoiinhneas, kindness. This word is supposed by folk etymology 
to be from caomh, kind, whereas it is really allied to 0. Ir. 
coibnes, affinitas, * co-ven^estii-, root ven at fine, q.v. The ao is 
short in caoimhneas and long in caomh. 

caoin, kind, mild, so Ir., 0. Ir. cdin, kind, beautiful [W. cain ?] : 
*koini-, root koi, kei of caomh, q.v. Stokes gives base as 
kainl-, and Bezzenberger compares Gr. Kaivva-Oai, excel, Ch. 
SI. sinati, gleam forth. If the base idea were " beauty," Eng. 
shine might be compared. 


caoin, the exterior surface of cloth, right side, rind, sward ; from 
caoin, gentle, polished ? 

caoin, weep, so Ir., 0. Ir. c6inim, edinim, 0. W. <yidnhaumt, 
deflebunt, Br. ccyiten, queiniff, *koinid ; qein, qin ; Eng. whine, 
Norse hvina, whirr ; Gr. Kivvp6% wailing. See caoidh. 

caoinich, dry, make dry (as hay by the sun), caoin, seasoned ; 
from the adj. caoin 1 

caoir, a blaze, stream of sparks, a coal, Ir. caor, E. Ir. cder, *kairo; 
Eng. hoar (*kairo-), Teat, root hai in Norse hei&, atmospheric 
clearness, 0. H. G. Jiei, heat, Eng. heat ; Skr. kitus, light. 
More near are Gr. ki/jis (lamp, Hes.), Skr. Mrdna, a ray, 
Mrikd, sparkling. The root skei of Eng. shine, Got. skeirs, 
clear, has been also suggested. 

caoirean, a plaintive song ; also caoi-rd.n,. moaning (H.S.D.). The 
root word is caoidh ; possibly ran, roar, forms the latter part. 

caoirnean, a drop of sheep or goats' dung, a drop or globule ; cf. 
Ir. caoirin, a little berry, little sheep, from caor, berry, caora, 
sheep. The two ideas seem confused in Gaelic. 

caol, slender, so Ir., 0. Ir. c&il, W., Cor. cul, 0. Br. cided, macies, 
*koilo- ; Lett, kdils, naked ; Lat. caelebs, single ? Gr. koiXos, 
hollow 1 Hence caol ; caolas, a firth or Kyle. 

caolan, gut, intestine, Ir. caoldn, E. Ir. coeldn, 0. W. coition, exta ; 
from caol. 

caomh, tender, kind, so Ir., E. Ir. coem, 0. Ir. cdim, W. cu, 0. W. 
cum, Br. cuff, cun, debonnaire, *koimo-, root kei, lie ; Gr. 
Koifhaw, put to rest, Kiifxai,, lie ; Got. hdims, a village, Ag. S. 
hdm, Eng. home. The idea is " restful." 

caomhach, bedfellow, friend, Ir. caomthach, friend ; see caoimlieach, 
and cf. Ir. caomhaighim, I protect, cherish, from cacrnih. 

caomhain, spare, save, caomhnadh, sparing, Ir. caomhnaim, 
preserve, keep, protect, caomhaighim, caomhnuighim, preserve. 
The last form seems the most original, if we refer the root to 
0. Ir. anich, protegit, aingim, I protect {a^nah), root nak and 
nank, as in adhlac, thig, etc. The form nak is more particu- 
larly allied to Skr. nd^ati, reach, Lit. neszii, draw. The G. 
verb may have been * com-anich-. It is possible to derive it 
from caomh with caomhuin as an inf. form which usurped the 
place of the present stem. 

caonnag, strife, tumult, Ir. caonndg, strife, a nest of wild bees : 
*kais-no-, root kais, hai, heat, Eng. heat, G. caoir ? 

eaor, berry of the rowan, a mountain berry, Ir. caor, 0. Ir. cder, 
bacca, W. cair, berries, ceirion, berry, *kaird. It is seemingly 
the same word as caoir, blaze, the idea arising probably from 
the red rowan berries. 


caora, a sheep, Ir. caora, g. caorach, 0. Ir. cdera, *cairax, from 

*ka{p)erax, allied to Lat. caper, a goat, Gr. Korrpos, a boar, 

Eng. heifer. Of. W. caerivirch, roebuck, 
caorrunn, the rowan tree, Ir. caorthann, E. Ir. caerthann, W. 

cerddin, Br. kerzin, * eairo-tann, from caor, berry, and *tann, 

tree, Br. tann, oak, Cor. glas-tannen. The connection with 

0. H. G. tanna, fir, oak, M. H. G. tan, wood, Ger. tarme, fir, 

Eug. tan, tanner (Gr.,vos, bush ?) is doubtful ; it would 

necessitate the idea of borrowing, or that the Celtic word was 

capa, a cap ; from the Eng. cap. 
capuU, a horse, mare (more commonly), so Ir., E. Ir. capall, Br. 

caval ; from Lat. caballus, whence Eng. cavalry, etc. caple (M. 

Eng. capil, from Celt.). Norse kapall, nag, seems borrowed 

from Gaelic. The W. is ceffyl, with remarkable vocalisation. 
car, a turn, twist, Ir. cor, M. Ir. cor ( = cuairt, O'CL), 0. Ir. curv., 

gyros, W. cor-wyni, turbo, M. Br. coruent, *huro- ; Lat. curvus ; 

Gr. KUjOTos, curved. See cruinn. 
car, friendly, related to, Ir. cdra{d), a friend. See caraid for the 

usual root, 
caraich, move, stir, Ir corruighim, from corrach, unsteady. The 

G. confuses this with car, turn. 
oaraid, a friend, so Ir., 0. Ir. cara, g. carat, *harant- ; 0. Ir. verb 

carim, caraim, I love, W. caraf, amo, Br. quaret, amare, Gaul. 

carantus, Garactacus, etc. ; Lat. cdrus, dear, Eng. charity, etc. ; 

Got. kdrs, meretrix. 
caraid, a pair, couple, Ir. cdraid, E. Ir. corait : 
carainnean, refuse of threshed barley, Ir. carra, bran ; see 

caralst, catechism ; from Sc. carriteh, a corruption of catechise. 
caramasg, contest, confusion (Arm., M'F.) : from car and measg ? 
caramh, beside ; see caruihh. 
carbad, a chariot, so Ir., 0. Ir. carpat, W. cerbyd, 0. Br. cerpit, 

Gaul. Carpentoracte, Carbantia, *lcarhanto- ; Lat. corbis, a 

basket ; Norse hrip, pannier for peats on horse-back. Lat. 

carpentum (Eng. carpenter, etc.), seems borrowed from Gaulish. 

The root idea is " wicker," referring to the basket character 

of the body of these chariots. 
carbad, jaw, jaw-bone, so Ir., W. car yr Sn (car of the mouth), Br. 

karvan. The idea is " mouth chariot," from the resemblance 

between the lower jaw and the old wicker chariots, 
carbh, engrave, cave ; from the English. 
carbhaidh, carraway-seed ; from the English. 
carbhanach, a carp, Ir. carbhdn, Manx carroo ; from Norse karfi, 

Eng. carp. 


carcair, a prison, sewer in a cow-house, Ir. carcar, prison, E. Ir. 

carcair (do.) ; from Lat. career, prison, barrier, 
carcais, a carcase ; from the English. 
card, card wool, Ir. cardaighim ; from the Eng. card. 
cargo, a cargo, load ; from the English. 
Carghus, Lent, torment, Ir. Corghas, M. Ir. corgus, W. garawys ; 

from Lat. quadragesima. 
cirlag, a lock of wool (Sh., H.S.D), carla, a wool-card (Sh., Coneys 

for Ir.); * card-la-, from card of Eng. For phonetics, cf. 

carlas, excellence, Ir. carlamh, excellent ; * co-er-lam-, erlam, 

clever, * air-lam ? For lam, see ullamh. 
cArn, heap of stones, cairn, Ir. cam, E. Ir, W. cam, Br. karn, 

*kar-no-, root kar, be hard ; Gr. Kjoavads, rock (/c/Jot-, nap) ; 

further Eng. hard, harsh. See carraig. 
earn, a homing. The G. seems a confusion between com, horn, 

Eng. horn, put to the horn, and cam. M'F. gives air cham 

for " outlawed," c&m-eaglais, excommunication, 
cam, a sledge, cart, peat cart (Dial.), Ir. carr, dray, waggon, 

E. Ir. carr, biga, W. carr, biga, 0. Br. carr, vehiculum (gl.), 

Gaul, carros, Latinised into carrus (whence, through Fr., 

Eng. chariot, career, carry, cargo, charge) ; from Celt, karso- ; 

Lat. currus (qvors-), from qrs : Eng. horse, hurry. 
carnaid, red ; from Eng. carnation. 
carnag, (1) a she-terrier, (2) a small fish found in stony shores at 

ebb-tide. The first meaning seems founded on cam, flesh, 

from Lat. caro, camis ; the latter from cam, cairn, 
carr, the flesh of the seal and whale (Heb. ; Carmichael) ; founded 

on obsolete cam, flesh ? 
carr, the itch, mange, superficial roughness, Ir. carr ; carrach, 

sdabby, M. Ir. carrach, *karsdko-, from *kars, be rough, hard ; 

cf. Eng. harsh {*horsqs), and hard, Lit. krasta, the itch 

(*kors-ta-) ; fm-ther root kar, to be hard, rough. For carr, 

rocky shelf, Ir. carr, rock, see carraig. 
carrachan, a frog-fish, called " cobler," Ir. carrachdn, the rock fish 

called cobler (Coneys). From cmrr, a rock. Also the word 

means " the wild liquorice root" — carra-m^ille, q.v. 
carragh, a pillar stone, Ir. carrthadh, cartha, E. Ir. corthe. The 

root, despite the vocalic difficulty caused by the E. Ir. form, is 

likely the same as in carraig ; yet cf. kor of cuir, set. 
carraid, conflict; from the root kars in carr, "rough-work?" 
carraig, rock, so Ir., 0. Ir. carric, W. careg, 0. W. carrecc, Br. 

karrek, *karsekki; from root kars, hard, rough ; Norwegian 

herreti, hard, stiff, harren, hard, Eng. harsh, hard (root kar). 

See carr. 


carra-meille, wild liquorice, wood pease, Ir. carra-mhilis. The 

name is explained as " knots of honey," the carra being the 

same as carr, and meille the gen. of mil. Hence Sc. carmele, &c. 
carran, spurrey, spergula arvensis, Ir. carrdn, scurvy graas. From 

the root Tears of carr. Carran also means a " shrimp," and is 

of the same origin, 
carran-creige, the conger ; see carran above. 
carrasan, hoarseness, wheezing, Ir. cars&n ; from the root kars, be 

rough. See cd,rr. 
cart, a quart, Ir. cart ; from the Eng. qva,rt, Lat. quartus. 
cartan, a small brown insect that eats into the flesh, Ir. cartdn, a 

small brown insect that eats into the flesh, a crab. A 

Gadelicised form of partan, q.v. 
carthannach, affectionate, charitable, Ir. cdrthannach ; from Lat. 

carthuinnich, dwell apart as in a cave, separate (M'F.). Cf. 

caruinnean, refuse of threshed corn, caruinnich, winnow. 

Possibly from the root kar, separate, a form of the root in 

sgar, q.v. 
caruibh, an caruibh, beside, near. This is the dat. pi. of car. 
cas, foot, leg, Ir. cos, 0. Ir. coss, W. coes, *koksd ; Lat. coxa, hip ; 

M. H. (ir. hahse, bend of the knee ; Skr. kdkshas, armpit. 
cas, steep, sudden, Ir. casach, an ascent, M. Ir. cass, rapid, *kasto-; 

Eng. haste. 
cas, curled, Ir., M. Ir. cas, curly, casaim, flecto ; *qasto-, root qas ; 

Norse Iwddr (has-da-), hair, Eng. hair ; Lit. kasa, hair-plait, 

Ch. SI. kosa, hair (Kluge). Stokes compares it with Lat. 

quasillum, a basket, root quas. 
cas, gnash the teeth, Ir. cais, hate, W. cds, hate, Br. cas, *cad-s~to- ; 

Eng. hate, Ger. hass, Got. hatis. Of the same ultimate origin 

as cas, sudden (Strachan). 
cas, a difficulty, Ir. cds ; from Lat. casus (Eng. case). 
casad, casd, a cough, Ir. casachdach, W. -pds, peswch, Br. pas, 

*qasto-; Eng. host, Ag. S. hvdsta, Ger. kusten.; Lit. kdsiu; 

Skr. kdsaie, coughs, 
casag, a cassock, Ir. casdg ; from the Eng. The E. Ir. word is 

casal, from Lat. casula. 
casaid, a complaint, accusation, Ir. casaoid, 0. Ir. cossdit. The 

word is a compound, beginning with con, and seemingly of 

the same origin as faosaid, q.v. Stokes thinks that the word 

is borrowed from the Lat. causatio ; this is not likely, however. 
casair, sea drift, Ir. casair, a shower, E. Ir. casair, hail, W. cesair 

(do.), Br. kazerc'h (do.), *kassri-, *kad-tri- ; from root cad as 

in Lat. cado, fall. The Ir. and G. (?) casair, phosphorescence, 

seems to be the same word. 



casan, a path, Ir. casdn ; from cas, foot. 

casan, a rafter, roof-tree ; from cas ? 

casgair, slay, butcher, so Ir., 0. Ir. coscar, victory, destruction ; 

* CO -scar ; see sgar. 
casnaid, chips of wood (Arm.), Ir. easnaidh ; *co + snaidh, q.v. 
caspanach, parallel (Sh.), Ir. cospanach (O'E.) ; *co-8pann ; see 

castan, a chestnut ; from Lat. castanea, through M. Eng. castane, 

castaran, a measure for butter (^ stone) ; from the Eng. castor. 

castreaghainn, the straw on a kiln below the grain (Arm., not 
H.S.D.) : 

cat, a cat, so Jr., E. Ir. catt, W. cath, Cor. hat, Br. Tcaz, Gaul. 
Cattos ; Lat. catta, perhaps also catulus ; Eng. cat, Ger. hatze, 
ifec. It is a word of doubtful origin ; possibly, however, 
Celtic, and applied first to the wild cat, then to the tame 
Egyptian cat introduced in the early centuries of the Chris- 
tian era. 

cata, c^ta, sheep-cot, pen ; from Eng. cot. 

eatadh, catachadh, taming, catadh (M'F.) ; cf. tataich. 

catag, potato cellar (Dialectic) ; see cata. 

catas, refuse at carding of wool, Ir. codas, cotton, scraping of 
linen rags ; from Eng. caddis. See further under caiteas. 

cath, battle, Ir., 0. Ir. cath, W. cad, 0. W. cat. Cor. cas, Gaul. 
catu- ; 0. H. G. hadu-, fight, Ag. S hea<?o-, Ger. hader, con- 
tention ; Skr. catru, enemy ; Gr. kotos, wrath. 

cath, chaff, husks of corn, Ir., 0. Ir. cditk, W. coden, a bag, husk, 
pod (?), *huti-, root kdt, kat, as in caith, spend, cast. 

cathachadh, provoking, accusing, fighting, Ir. cathaighim ; from 
cath, fight. 

cathadh, snow-drift, Ir. cdthadh, snow-drift, seardrift ; cf. M. Ir. 
cila, gen. cuadh, W. cawod, O. Cor. cowes, nimbus, Br. kaouad, 
*havat (Stokes) ; allied to Eng. shower. It is possible to 
refer the G. word to the root of caith, cath. 

cathair, a city, Ir., E. Ir. catJiair, 0. Ir. cathir (*kastrex), W. 
caer, Br. kaer, *kastro- ; Lat. castrum, fort (Stokes). The 
root seems to be cat, cats ; the phonetics are the same as in 
piuthar for the final part of the word. 

cathair, a chair, Ir. cathaoir, E. Ir. cathair, W. cadair, Br. hador ; 
from Lat. cathedra, whence also, through Fr., Eng. chair. 

cathan, a wild goose with black bill (Heb.) ; see cadhan. 

cathan-aodaich, a web (M'D.) : 

cathar, mossy ground ; see cair. 

cathlunn, a com (Sh. ; not in H.S.D.) ; formed on Lat. callum. 
See calum. 


catluibli, cudwort ; see cadhluibh. 

cb, c^ath, cream, M. Ir. ceo, milk ; cf. Br. koavenn, which suggests 

a form keivo- (cf. gle from gleivo-), root kei, sl-ei, shade, cover, 

as in Gr. o-klo., shadow, Ger. schemen (do.) ? The Br. koavenn 

has been referred to *co + hu,fen, W. hufen, cream. Cf. ceo, 

mist, " covering." 
ce, the earth, used only in the phrase an cruinne ce, the (round) 

earth, Ir., E. Ir. ce, for hith ehe, on this earth. The ce is 

supposed to be for " this," from the pronominal root kei, Gr. 

KEtvos, he, Lat. ce, cis, Eng. he. The root kei, go, move (Lat. 

do, Gr. Ki'o)) has also been suggested. 
ceaba, ceibe, the iron part of a spade or other delving instrument ; 

see caibe. 
c^abhar, a fine breeze (Heb.) : 
ceach, au interjection of dislike ; see the next word. 
ceacharra, dirty, mean, Ir. ceachair, dirt, M. Ir. cecharda, *kekari- ; 

from kek, the e form of the root kak seen in cac, q.v. 
ceachladh, digging, Ir. eeachlaim, 0. Ir. ro-cechladatar, sufFoderunt, 

*ee-elad-, a reduplicated or perfect form of the root clad of G. 

cladh, q.v. 
cead, permission, so Ir., 0. Ir. cet, *ces-do-; Lat. cedo, I yield (for 

ceadan, bunch or lock of wool : 
ceadha, the part of the plough on which the share is fixed. Also 

ceidhe. Both words are used for Eng. qvuy. 
ceafan, a frivolous person (Dialectic) : 
ceaird, a trade, E. Ir. cerd ; see ceard. 
ceal, stupor, forgetfulness, Ir. ceal, forgetfulness ; from the root 

qel of ceil, conceal. Of. E. Ir. eel, death, 
cealaich, the fire-place of a kiln : 

cealaich, eat (Kirk), Ir. cealaim ; root qel as in Lat. colo 1 
cealg, guile, treachery, so Ir., E. Ir. celg, *kelgd ; Arm. keXch'', 

hypocrisy. The further root is qel of ceil. 
ceall, g. cille, a church, so Ir., E. Ir. cell ; from Lat. cella, a cell, 

a hermit's cell especially, whence the Gadelic iise. Hence 

cealloir, superior of a cell, and the name Mackellar. 
cealtar, broad-cloth, Ir. cealtair, clothes, E. Ir. cellar, celt, raiment ; 

from qel, cover, as in ceil, q.v. 
ceana, whither, for c'iona, c'ionadh ? Cf. Ir. cd h-ionad. See 

ceanalta, mild, kind, so Ir. ; from *cen, as in don, jcean, love, 

desire. See don. 
ceangal, a tie, binding, so Ir., E. Ir., cengal, W. cengl ; from Lat. 

dngulum, vb. dngo, I bind, Eng. cinctwre. 


ceann, head, so Ir., 0. Ir. cend, cenn, W., Br. penn, Gaul. Penno-, 
*qenno-. Perhaps for qen-no-, root qen (labialised), begin, 
Ch. SI. koni, beginning, as in ceW, first. The difficulty is that 
the other labialising languages and the Brittonic branch other- 
wise show no trace of labialisation for qen. Windisch, followed 
by Brugmann, suggested a stem kvindo-, I. E. root Icvi, Skr. 
fvi, swell, Gr. IltvSos, Pindus Mount ; but the root vowel is 
not i, even granting the possible labialisation of kvi, which 
does not take place in Greek. 

ceannach, , a purchasing, so Jr., E. Ir. cennaigim, I buy, 0. Ir. 
cennige, lixa, caingen, negotium : 

ceannairc, rebellion, turbulence, so Ir. ; * ceann + arc; for root 
are, see adharc. For meaning cf. Eng. headstvong, W. 
penSest (do.). 

ceannard, commander, chief, Ir. ceannd/rd, arrogant, commanding : 
" high-headed," from ceann and ard. 

ceannrach, ceannraig (Cam.), a bridle or horse's head-gear, Ir. 
ceannrach ; from ceann -I- rack. For rack (root rig), see 
cuibhreach, arachas. 

ceannsaich, subdue, tame, Ir. ceannsaighim ; from ceannas, superi- 
ority, " head-ness," from ceann and the abst. termination as. 
Similarly ceannsal, rule. 

ceap, a block, so Ir., E. Ir. cepp, W. cyff, Br. kef; from Lat. cippus. 

ceap, catch, stop. This word seems borrowed from the Sc. kep, of 
like meaning, a bye-form of Eng. keep. The Ir. ceap, bound, 
bind, stop (?), seems from ceap above. 

fceapach, a tillage plot, Ir. ceapach. This Stokes refers to a 
Celtic keppo-, garden, root kep, kdp, Lat. campus, Gr. k^ttos, 
garden, Ger. liMbe, piece of land. Satisfactory though the 
meaning be, the derivation is doubtful as involving the pre- 
servation of p, even though flanked by a second /< (or -no-, 
i.e., kep-no-, which is still more doubtful). Perhaps from 
ceap, a block, in the sense of a " holding." Hence the common 
place-name Keppoch. 

ceapag, a verse, an impromptu verse, carelessly sung verse, E. Ir. 
cepdc, a chorus song : a rare word in Ir., and said to be Sc. 
Gaelic for Ir. aidhsi, great chorus. Prom ceap, catch ? cf. 
Eng. catch, a chorus verse. Zimmer suggests that it staiads 
for Ce P6c, " kiss here (?)", sung by the girls as a refrain at 
gatherings ! 

ceapaire, bread covered with butter, etc., Ir. ceapaire ; from ceap, 
a block. Cf. ceapag, a wheel-barrow wheel. 

cearb, a rag, piece, so Ir., E. Ir. cerp, cutting, cerbaim ; *krbh, 
skrbh ; Gr. Ka.p^o% twig, Eng. shrub ; * {s)ker, cut, divide. Cf . 
W. carp, rag, cerpyn. Bezzenberger cfs. M. H. G. herb, asper. 


cearc, a hen, so Ii\, M. Ir. cej-c, *cercd ; from I. E. qerqo, to sound, 
heuce " a noise-making bird " ; Gr. KcpKo^, a cock, k/oe^, a 
fowl ; Lat. (pierquedula, a teal, 0. Prus. kerku, a diver ; Skr. 
krka-vdkus, a cock. 

cearcall, a hoop, so Jr. ; from L. Lat. drculus, circuUus, a hoop, 
from drculus, a circle. 

ce^rd, a craftsman, Ir. c4ard, E. Ir. cerd, W. cerdd, art ; Lat. cerdo, 
craftsman ; Gr. kc/jSos, gain. 

ceardach, a smithy, Ir. ceardeha. 0. Ir. cerddchae ; from cerd + eae, 
the latter word cae meaning a hovise in Ir., a Celtic kaio-n, 
allied to Eng. home. 

ceard-dubhan, scarabseus, dung-beetle, hornet (H.S.D. for form), 
ceardaman (M'A) ; see ceamabhan. 

cearmanta, tidy (Arm.) : 

cearn, a comer, quarter, Ir. ceam, cearna, angle, corner, E. Ir. cern; 
evidently an e form of the stem found in corn, horn, q.v. 

ceamabhan, a hornet, Ir. ceamabhan ; from *cerno-. Of. Eng. 
hornet (*h's-en-), Lat. crabro. 

ce&rr, wrong, left (hand), E. Ir. cerr, *kerso- ; Lat. cerritus, crazed; 
Gr. eyKaptrio^, slantwise ; Lit. skersas, crooked. 

cearrach, a gamester, Ir. cearrhhach, a gamester, dexterous 
gambler. Cf. G. cearrbhag, eearrag, the left hand, the use 
of which was considered in plays of chance as " sinister." 

ceaTt, right, so Ir., E. Ir. cert ; Lat. certus, certain, sure, cerno, 
discern ; Gr. Kpivw, judge, Kpi-nj^, a judge, Eng. critic. 

ceasad, a complaint (M'F.), Ir. ceasacht, grumbling, M. Ir. 
cesnaighim, complain, ces, sorrow, *qes-to- ; Ijat. questus, 
queror, I complain, querela, Eng. quarrel. 

ceasnaich, examine, catechise, Ir. ceasnuighim ; from Lat. qucestio, 
qucestionis, Eng. question. Stokes (Bk. of Lis.) has suggested 
that the Lat. and Gadelic are cognate ; though possible (qais, 
qis may become by umlaut ces in G.), it is improbable from 
the stem form in n persisting in the G. verb. 

ceathach, mist ; this is reiiUy the old stem of ceo, mist, E. Ir. 
ciach, q.v. Ir. ceathach, showery, is from cith a shower. 

ceathairne, yeomanry, the portion of a population fit for warfare ; 
see ceatham. 

ceatharn, a troop, so Ir., E. Ir. cdthem, *ketemd; Lat. caterva, 
troop, catena, a chain ; 0. SI. ceta, company (Stokes). It 
has also been regarded as borrowed from Lat. quatermio, 
which in the Vulg. means a " body of four soldiers," quater- 
nion. Hence Eng. cateran, kern. 

ceidhe, quay, coulter-place, Ir. ceigh, quay. See ceadha. 

ceig, a mass of shag, clot, ceigein, a tuft, a fat man. From 
Scandinavian kagge, round mass, keg, corpulent man or 


animal, whence Eng. keg ; Norse kaggi, cask, Norwegian 
kayge, round mass. 

ceig, a kick ; from the Eng. 

ceil, conceal, Ir. ceilim, 0. Ir. celim, W. celu, 1. E. qel ; Lat. cMu, 
Eng. con-ceal ; Ag. S. Man, hide, Eng. Hell ; Gr. /caAwrw, 
hide ; Skr. kdla, darkness. 

ceile, spouse, fellow, so Ir., 0. Ir. cele, socius, W. cilydd {y gilydd 
= a cliAile of G.=eguille of Br.), *keiljo-, " way-farer," from 
kei, go (Lat. cio, move, Gr. kiu), go, Kiveia, move, kinetics). 
The idea is the same as in Ir. setig, wife, from se't, way. 
Strachan thinks that G. and W. demand a stem ceglio- ; and 
Dr Stokes thinks that, if ce'le, servus, is different from cdle, 
fellow, it must come from kak-lio- (better keklio-), and be 
allied to Lat. eacula, a servant. Hence Ceilidh, a gossiping 
visit or meeting. 

ceileach, martial (H.S.D.), Ir. ceallach, war, M. Ir. cellack, war ; 
Teut. hildi-, war, Lat. per-cellere, hit. 

ceileir, chirping of birds, Ir. ceileabhar, ceileabhrach, musical, 
M. Ir. ceilebradh eoin, singing of birds, E. Ir. celebrad, a cele- 
brating or observance, a welcome of joy; from Lat. celebratio. 

C^illidh, wise, sober, Ir. ceillidhe ; from ciall. 

ceilp, kelp ; from Eng. 

c6in, remote ; really the oblique form of dan, q.v. 

c6ir, wax, Ir., M. Ir. ceir, W. cwyr, 0. W. kuyr. Cor. coir, Br. coar ; 
from Lat. cera, wax. 

c6ir, c6ire, the buttock ; see peire. 

ceirein, a plaster, a " clout," Ir., M. Ir. ceirin, a plaster ; from 
c^ir, wax. 

ceirtle, a clew, ball of yarn, Ir. ceirsle (so G. too), ceirtlin, 0. Ir. 
certle, glomus, * kertillid ; from I. E. qert, wind, bend ; Skr. 
kart, spin ; Lat. cartilago, Eng. cartilage ; Gr. KapraXos, 
basket ; Eng. hurdle. 

ceis, a case, hamper ; from Eng. case. Ir. ceis, basket, M. Ir. ceiss, 
is a different word, possibly allied to, if not borrowed from, 
Lat. cista (Stokes). From Ir. ceis comes ceis-chrann, poly- 
pody, given in H.S.D. from O'R. 

ceisd, a question, so Ir., E. Ir. ceist ; from Lat. quosstio. Hence 
ceisdein, a sweetheart, founded on " ceisd mo chridhe" — 
darling (i.e., question, anxiety) of my heart. 

c6iseach, large, corpulent woman ; see cebs. 

C^itein, May, 0. Ir. cetam (g. cetaman), cetsoman (cetshaman) in 
Cor. Gl., where it is explained as cdt-sam-sin, the first weather- 
motion of sam or summer. The word means the " first of 
summer" — c4t -H saw,-, the sam of samhradh, q.v. The termina- 
tion is possibly influenced by other time words. 


ceithir, four, Ir. ceathair (n.), ceithre (adj.), 0. Ir. cethir, W. 
pedwar, Cor. peswar, Br. pevar, Gaul, petor-, *qeiveres, I. E. 
qetvor ; Lat. quatnor ; Gr. reTTapes ; Got. fidvdr, Eng. /oMr ; 
Lit. keturi ; Skr. catot^rcw. 

ce6, mist, Ir. ce8, E. Ir. ceo, g. ciacA, *cevox, g. *cevocos, I. E. sg'ew- 
Lat. obscurus, Norse sAy, cloud, Eng. «>l:y. The idea is 
" covering." 

ceob, a dark nook, corner : 

cedban, small drizzle : ceo + boinne or -bainne, "mist-drop." The 
Ir. is cedbhrdn, for ceo + braon. This last is G. ciuran, q.v. 
Hence ceopach (for cedbnach ?). Also ceopan. 

eeol, music, Ir., E. Ir. cedl, g. ciuil, *kipolo-, a Gadelicised form of 
*pipolo ; onomatopoetic root pip, Lat. ptpilo, chirp, pipilum, 
outcry, pipo, chirp, Ag. S. pipe, Eng. pipe (hence W. pib, G. 
piob, etc.) Stokes and Rhys have given a Celtic qeqlo- for 
stem, allied to W. pib, pipe. For phonetics, see febil. 

ce6s, the hip, podex ; see ceus, poples. Hence ceosach, broad- 
skirted, bulkj', clumsy. 

ceosan, burr or light down of feathers ; see ceuK, wool of legs, etc. 

ceud, first, Ir. cecui, 0. Ir. cet, W. cynt, formerly, cyntaf, first, Br. 
kent, kenta (do.), Gaul. Cinivr, '^kentu- ; allied to W. cann, 
with, Gr. Kara, down, against { — knta), Lat. contra. Furtlier 
allied is possibly (a.nd this is the usual derivation) I. E. qen, 
begin, Lat. re-cens, Eng. recent ; Gr. koivos ( = Kavids), new ; 
Skr. kand, young ; Ch. SI. koni, beginning. Some again have 
compared Tout, kind as iu Eng. hindmost. 

ceud, a hundred, so Ir., 0. Ir. cet, W. cant, Cor. cans, Br. kant, 
*kiit(i-n; Lat. centum; Gr. e/cardv [ = se-knton) ; Got. hund, 
Eng. hund-reA ; Lit. snmtas ; Skr. catdm. 

ceudfadn, sense, Ir. ceadfadh, 0. Ir. cethaid, W. canfod, to perceive, 
*cant-buti^, " with-being," from ceud, with, first, and bu, be. 

ceudna, the same, so Ir., O. Ir. cetna, *centinio-s ; from ceud, first. 

ceum, a step, Ir. ceim, 0. Ir. ceimm, W., Cor. cam, 0. W. cemmein, 
gradibus, Br. kam, *kngmen-, verb *kengd, I go, Ir. cinyim, 
Gaul. Cingeio-Tix, "king of marching men" — of warriors: 
I. E. kheng, limp ; Ger. hinken, limp ; Skr. khanj, limp. 

ceus, ham, poples : *cencso- ; Lit. kenkle, hough, bend of the knee, 
kinka, knee joint ; Ag. S. h6h ( = hanx), Eng. hoitgh (Strachan 
for Lit.). The gen. is cebis, whence cebs, etc. 

ceus, the coarse part of the wool on sheep's legs (Heb.), M. Ir 
ceslach ; from ceus, ham. 

ceus, crucify, Ir. c^asaim, ceusaim, 0. Ir. cessaim, sufifer, * kentsd 
sufler : I. E. qentho ; Gr. irkvdo^, TrdOo';, suffering, Eng. jMthos ; 
Lit. kenczii, suffering. 

centach, becoming ; see ciatach. 


cha, cha'n, Ir. nocha n-, M. Ir. ni co n-, no co n-, 0. Ir. ni eon', ni 
con. Cha, with the past tense, is for ni con, i.e., na gu'n, 
q.v. ; elm, cha 'n, with the pres. and fut., is for ni co no, where 
ni CO is the same as ni con or 6. na gu 'n, while the no is an 
otherwise lost particle, nu or no of 0. Ir., going along with 
the pres. and fut. to denote the now-nes& of the action. It is 
allied to Gr. vv, now, Lat. nunc, Skr. nu. Got., Ger. nu, Eng. 
now. Lit. nu. 

chaidh, went, ivit, Ir. dochuaidh, 0. Ir. dochdid, he went, *coud- ; 
Skr. codati, make haste, codayati, drive, c6da, a goad ; Eng. 
slioot. ' See deach. 

chaoidh, for ever, Ir. choidhche, E. Ir. chaidche, coidchi ; for co- 
aidehe, gu oidliche, " till night." 

chean', cheana, already, Ir. cheana, E. Ir. chena, in sooth, quidem, 
jam, ol chena, ar chena, 0. Ir. cene, olchene, *Mnai, root M, 
kei (Eng. he, Lat. cis, Gr. Ketx^os, he) 1 

chi, will see, Ir. ehidhim, cMm, 0. Ir. atchi, videt, *ad-cesi6, 
*kesid ; Skr. caksh, see, ior*ca-kas; Lat. canus (*cas-no-'l), 
grey ; Ag. S. hasu, grey, Eng. hare. See chunnaic, faic. The 
aspiration of chl is due to the lost ad- initial, which is con- 
fused with the verbal particle do, a. 

oho, CO, as, so, Ir. comh, W. cj/n ; from com, with. See comh-. 
Gaehc " Cho dubh ri feannag" = Welsh " Cyn ddued a'r fran." 

chon, to ; dialectic form of gu. The n belongs to the article. 
Also thun ; q.v. Compare chugad and thugad to chon and 
thun in phonetics. 

chuala, heard, Ir. do chuala, 0. Ir. rochuala, W. cigleu, *kuklova ; 
root kleu as in cluinn, q.v. 

chugad, towards thee, so Ir., 0. Ir. chumit, *cu-aih-t, where the 
prep. CM or gu, to, is reduplicated. See gu. The t or -ut is 
for tu, q.v. So with chuga, chuige, etc. 

chum, chum, a chum, to, for, in order to, Ir. chum, do chum, O. Ir. 
dochum n-, docliom n- ; an idiomatic use of com, side ? Cf. 
Eng. side, beside. 

chun, to, until ; see chon. 

chunnaic, saw, Ir. choncadar, they saw, 0. Ir. conaca, vidi ; from 
con +faic ; for con, see comh-, and see faic. The old past was 
chunnairc, still used in Ir. as chonnairc, from con-i-dearc, q.v. 

eia, who, what, Ir. cia, 0. Ir. cm, W. pivy. Cor. pyu, Br. piu, * qei ; 
Lat. qui (Old Lat. guei). See further under co. 

ciabh, a lock of hair, so Ir., E. Ir dab : *kes-abu-, kes of cos ? 

Ciadaoin, Di-ciadaoin, Wednesday, Ir. Ceadaoin, 0. Ir. cdtdin, 
first fast, " Day of the First Fast." The first weekly fast was 
the latter half of Wednesday, the next was Friday — 
Bi-h-aoine. Thursday is the day " Between two fasts" — 
Diardaoin, q.v. See further under Di-. 


ciagach, sly-humoured (Dialectic) : 

cial, side or brim of a vessel ; see ciobhuU. 

ciall, sense, understanding, Ir., 0. Ir. ciall, W. pwi/ll, Cor. pull, 

Br. poell, *qeisld : I. E. qei, observe, see, shine ; Gr. tvlvvto's, 

wise ; Skr. cetati, perceive, cittam, thought, cinoti, discover ; 

further Ger. heiter, clear. 
ciamhair, sad (Sh., Arm.), Ir. ciamhair, ciamlmire (O'Cl., O'Br.) : 
cian, remote, so Ir., 0. Ir. dan, *keino- ; from the pronominal 

root kei, there, Gr. keivos, ille, Lat. cis, citra, Eng. /le. Others 

have referred it to root qei, qi, Skr. dras, long, Got. hveila, 

time, Eng. while. Hence cianail, sad, lonesome, Ir. dan- 

cianog, a small measure of arable land (Heb. : H.S.D.) ; see doncuj. 
ciar, dusky, Ir., E. Ir. dar, *7ceiro-s, "shadowy;" root sqhei, Gr. 

o-KtEjOos, shadj', a-Kid, shadow, Skr. ehdyd, shadow, Ag. S. 

sdiruo (do.) It has been compared to Eng. hoar, Norse hwrr, 

but the vowels do not suit. 
cias, g. ceois, border, skirt, fringe : 
ciatach, ciatfach, elegant, becoming, Ir. eeadfadhach, discreet, 

belonging to the senses ; from ceudfadh, q.v. 
cibein, rump (of a bird, M'D.), Ir. dbin, the rump (Con.). Cf. Ir. 

gioh, a tail. 
Cibeir, a shepherd ; from Sc, Eng. keeper. 
cibhearg, a rag, a little ragged woman (Sh.) : 
cidhis, a mask, vizard (M'D.), luchd cidhis, masqueraders ; from 

Sc. gyis, a mask, gysara, masqueraders, M. Eng. ylsen, to 

dress, Eng. guise, disguise ; all from 0. Er. guise, modus, 

desguiser, disguise. Tlie Sc. was directly borrowed iu the 

Stuart period, 
cig^l, tickle (Sh.) ; see dogail. 
cilean, a large codfish ; froui Norse keila, gadus lougiis or " lung 

cod." Also cilig (Sutherland). 
cill, a church ; locative case of ceall, q.v., used for the most part 

in place-names, 
cillein, a concealed heap, repository, Ir. dli'm, a piirse or store of 

hoarded cash (O'B.), dim. of ceall, cell, church, (i-v. 
cineal, offspring, clan, Ir. dnetd, 0. Ir. cenel, W. ceiiedl, 0. W. 

cenetl. Cor. kinethel, *kenetlo-n : I. E. qen, begin ; Gr. Kaw6% 

new (Kav;os) ; Lat. re-cens, Eng. recent ; Ch. SI. koni, begin- 

ing ; Skr. IcanA, young. 
cinn, grow, increase, spring from, Ir., E. Ir. cinim,, spring from, 

descend of; root qenoi cineal, q.v. Also cinnich, grow, increase. 
cinneadh, cinne, tribe, clan, Ir. dneadh, cine, E. Ir. dniud 

(g. dneda) ; from root qen in cineal, q.v. Hence cinnich, 

gentiles, Ir. dneadhach, a gentile. 


cinnea^, a spindle (Sutherland) : 

cinnseal, need, desire (Arm.), contact, origin (M'A.). In the first 

sense, the word is from cion, want ; in the second, from cinn. 

In the sense of " contact," as exemplified by M'A., the Sc. 

kinches, correspondence, etc. (" to kep kinches wi' one"), has 

to be remembered, a word apparently from kin. 
cinnte, certain, so Ir., 0. Ir. cinnim, definio, ^cirUech infinitus ; 

from ceann, head, q.v. 
Ciob, bite, wound (Bib. Gl.) ; see caob. 
ciob, coarse mountain grass, tow, Ir, ciob, coarse mountain grass, 

scirpus csespitosus : 
ciobhuU, the jaw (M'D., who writes " na ciobhuill"), ciobhal (Sh.), 

more properly giall (Arm.), q.v. H.S.D. gives the pi. as 

Cioch, a woman's breast, Ir. cioch, E. Ir. cich , of. W. dg, flesh, 

M. Br. quie (do.), *kikd (kekd ?). Bez. suggests (with query) 

connection with Bulg. dca, teat, Polish eye. 
Ciocras, hunger, longing, Ir. eioeras, hunger, greed, ravenousness : 
eiod, what, Ir. ead, O. Ir. cote, eote. lit. " quid est," eo + ta, q.v. 
ciogail, tickle, Ir. giglim ; see diogail. In the Heb., ciogailt, 

tickling, also signifies terror, a crisis of timorous determination 

ciom, a comb, wool-card, Ir. domam, 1 comb (O'B., Sh.) ; from 

M. Eng. kemb, to comb. H.S.D. has not the word. 
ciomach, a prisoner, Ir. eimidh, 0. Ir. cimhid, * kmbiti- (Stokes), 

root kemb, wind ; Lat. cingo, surround ; Gr. Ko/i|Sos, band, 

Norwegian hempa (do.). See eeangal, from the same I. E. 

root qeng. 
ciombal, bell, cymbal, so Ir. ; from Lat. cymbalum, Eng. eymhal. 
ciomboU, a bundle of hay or straw (Heb.) ; from Norse kimbill, a 

bundle, kimbla, to truss, Sc. kemple, forty bottles of hay or 

straw, kirwple, a piece (Banffshire). 
cion, want ; from the root ken of gun, without. 
cion, love, esteem, Ir. eion, cean, M. Ir. een, 0. Ir. fochen, welcome ; 

root qino-, qi, I. E. qei, notice, as in eiall. Further, Gr. tiju.^, 

honour, t'im, honour, TtVio, pay penalty. The sense of honour 

and punishment is combined in the same word. See eiont. 
cionag', a small portion of land, one-fourth of a cleitig or one-eighth 

of a " farthing" land (Heb.), Ir. danJog, a small coin, a kernel ; 

cf. W. ceiniog, a penny, 
cionar, music (Arm. ; Sh. has cionthar ; H.S.D. has cion'thar 

from A. M'D., querulous music) : 
cionu, OS cionn, etc. ; this is the old dat. of ceann, head (■* qenno). 
cionnarra, identical, idem ; Ir. cionda, (dial. Gaelic clonda), for 

ceudna, by metathesis of the n. The G. -arra is an adjectival 

form of the -ar in aon-ar, etc. 


cionnas, how, Ir. cionnus, 0. Ir. cindas = co + indas ; see co and 

ciont, guilt, Ir. cionnta, 0. Ir. cintach, injustice, cin, guilt 

(* cin-at-), dat. pi. cintaib ; also G. t cion ; I. E. qin, Gr. 

Tivvfiai, punish, TTotvij, punishment, Lat. poena, punishment, 

Eng. pain. See cion. 
ciora, a pet lamb or sheep, cireag', a petted sheep, ciridh, the call 

to a sheep to come to one : all from a shorter form of the 

root ka'er or kair (i.e , kir) of caora, q.v. 
cioralta, cheerful, ciorbail, snug ; from Eng. cheerful. Cf. tlorail. 
ciorram, hurt, damage, wounding, Ir. ciorrhliadh, E. Ir. cirriud, 

cirud, * cir-thv^, root ker, destroy, Lat. caries, decay, Gr. kt/jp, 

death, Skr. Qrndti, smash. 
ciosaich, subdue : " make tributary ; '' from els, tribute, tax. 
ciosan, a bread basket, corn-skep (M'D.), Ir. cisean, cis, basket, 

M. Ir. ceiss, possibly allied to (if not borrowed from) Lat. cista 

(Stokes). See ceis. 
ciotach, left-handed, sinister, so Ir., W. chwith, *sqittu- (Stokes), 

*sqit-tvr, and sqit is an extension of sqi, sqai in Gr. o-zcatdg, 

Lat. scaevus {*sqai-vo-), left, 
ciotag, a little plaid, shawl, 0. Ir. c^taig, ace. case (Bk. of Armagh) : 
Cir, a comb, Ir. cior, 0. Ir. cir, *kensrd ; cf. Gr. Kret's, g. ktcvos 

(from sJcens), Ch. SI. ceslii. Lit. kasyti, scratch (Stokes, 

Strachau), root qes, shave, scratch ; cf. Gr. ^iui, ^vpov. Zimmer 

refers it to the root qers, to furrow, Skr. karska, a scratch, 

etc. ; but qer.i would give a G. cerr. A Celtic cera would be 

the ideal form, suggesting Lat. cei-a, wax, " honey-comft." 
cir, cud, Ir., E. Ir. cir, Manx ke^il, W. cil, Br. das-kiriat, ruminer. 

Perhaps identical with the above (Windisch). 
cis, tribute, tax, Ir. cios, 0. Ir. cis ; from Lat. census, whence Eng. 

cisd, cist, a chest, Ir. cisde, M. Ir. ciste, W. cist ; from Lat. cista. 
cistin, a kitchen ; from the Eng. 
clth, a shower, Ir. cith, doth, g. ceatha, *citu- : 
cith, rage : 

cithean, a complaining ; see caoineadh. 
cithris-chaithris, confusion (M'L.) : " hurly-burly ;" an onomato- 

poetic word. 
ciubhran, citiraii, ciurach, small rain, drizzle, Ir. cedbhrdn. See 

ciuchair, beautiful, dimpling (Sh., Arm. ; not H.S.D.) : 
ciUcharaii, ciucran, a low-voiced plaint ; from Norse kjokra, 

whine, kjokr, a voice stifled with tears, 
ciuin, mild, Ir. ci-iiin, *kivo-ni-, I. E. kivo-, keivo-, akin, dear : Lat. 

civis, Eng. civil ; Norse h'yrr, mild, Ag. S. hedre, Ger. ge-heuer, 

safe ; Ch. SI. po-fivu, benignus ; Skr. (ivd, friendly. 


eitirr, hurt, Ir. dorrhhaigim, I maim, wound ; see dorram. Cf., 
however, 0. Ir. dufiurrsa, adteram, dvr^furr, attriveris, 
vArihund, to hurt, root org as in tuargan. 

elab, an open mouth, Ir. dab ; from Eng. clap, a clap, noise, the 
human tongue. Hence claban, a mill-clapper. 

claban, top of the head, brain-pan (H.S.D.) ; cf. W. ctopen, G. 
claigionn, q.v. Possibly Pictish ? 

cUbar, filth, mire, clay, Ir. cldbar (whence Eng. clabber) ; cf . Idban. 

clabog, a good bargain, great pennyworth : 

clach, a stone, Ir., E. Ir. clock, W. clwg, a rock, detiched rock, 
clog, a rock, clogan, a large stone, *hluhd ; root kal, kl-, hard ; 
Got. hallus, stone, Norse hella, flat stone, Skr. pild, a stone. 
Usually correlated with Lat. calcultis, a pebble, Eng. calculate. 

clkA, comb wool, cl^d, a wool comb ; from Sc. claut, clauts, wool 
comb, also a " clutching hand, a hoe or scraper ;" from claw. 

cladach, a shore, beach, so Ir., * claddo-, "a score, shore;" from 
clad of eladh, q.v. 

clMan, a burr, a thing that sticks, Ir. claddn, burr, flake ; from 

cladh, a churchyard, Ir. cladh, a bank, ditch, E. Ir. clad, a ditch, 
W. cladd, clawdd, fossa. Cor. cledh (do.), Br. cleuz (do.), 
*klado-, *klddo- : root kela. Ma, break, split, hit ; Gr. 
KAa8a/)os, easily broken ; Lat. clddes ; Russ. kladu, cut. See 
further claidheamh, sword. Hence cladhaich, dig. 

cladhaire, a poltroon, so Ir. ; " digger, clod-hopper," from cladh 1 

clag, a bell, Ir. clog, 0. Ir. clocc, W., Cor. clock, Br. kloc'k, *klokko-, 
*kloggo- ; root, king, Mag, sound ; Lat. clango, Eng. clang ; 
Gr. /v-Aafo), KAayy/J, clang ; Lit. Mageti, cackle. Bez. suggests 
Bui. klucam, hit, giving the stem of dag as *Mukko-. Hence 
Eng. clock, etc. 

claideag, a lock, ringlet ; see clad, dadan. 

claidheamh, a sword, Ir. cloidkeamh, 0. Ir. claideh, W. cleddyf. 
Cor. cledhe, Br. Meze, * Madebo-s ; root Mad, Skr. khadiga ; 
Gr. KXdSos, a twig ; Ch. SI. kladivo, a hammer. Further root 
kela, kid, hit, split ; Lat. culter, Tper-cellere, etc. See cladh. 

claidhean, the bolt of a door, Ir. claibin ; from the same source as 

claldreach, a damaging, shattering : *claddo- ; root clad of claidh- 

claigionn, a skull, Ir. doigionn, M. Ir. cloicend, W. clopen, Br. 
klopenn, *cloc-cenn, from dag and ceann, " bell-head, dome- 
head." Stokes considers the Ir. borrowed from the "Welsh. 
Of. claban. 

clais, a furrow, ditch, so Ir., E. Ir. class, W. dais, *clad-s-ti- ; from 
*dad of cladk. 


claistinn, bearing, listening ; from *cl6sta, ear ; see cluas. 

claiteachd, gentle rain (Arran) : 

clambar, wrangling, Ir. clampar ; from Lat. clamor. 

clamhan, a buzzard : 

olamliradh, a scratcbing, so Ir. : *dam^ad ; see cloimh, itcb. 

clamhsa, an alley, close, so Ir. ; from Eng. close. 

cl&mhuinn, sleet : 

clann, cbildren, clan, so Ir., 0. Ir. eland, W. plant, *qlanatd : I. E. 
root qel ; Gr. teA-os, company ; 0. Slav, celjadi, family, Lit. 
kiltis = Lett, zilts, race, stock ; Skr. hila, race. Some have 
added Lat. populus. Usually regarded as borrowed from 
Lat. planta, a sprout, Eng. plant, wbence G. clannach, 

claoidh, vex, oppress, Ir. claoidhim, 0. Ir. cldim, W. cluddio, over- 
whelm, * cloid ; I. E. klei, incline, as in claon, q.v. Windisch 
and Stokes refer it to *clom6, root qlov, qlav, qlu, shut in, 
Lat. claiido, close, elavdus, lame, Gr. kAeis, kAeiSos, key. 

claon, inclining, squint, oblique, Ir. claon, 0. Ir. cldin : *kloino-; 
Lat. clvno, accllnis, leaning, Eng. incline ; Gr. kXIvio, (i long), 
incline ; Eng. lean , Lit. szleti, incline ; Skr. crayati (do.). 

clap, clapartaich, clap, clapping ; from the Eng. clap. 

cMr, a board, tablet, Ir., 0. Ir. cldr, W. claivr, 0. W. claur ; Gr. 
KXt'jpos (for KXapos), a lot, kXAw, break : root qela, qld, break, 
etc., as in elaidheamh, coille, q.v. Hence, inter alia, cl^rach, a 
woman of clumsy figure, " board-built." 

cl^rsacb, a harp, Ir. cLdirseach ; from cldr. Cf. for meaning 
fiodlicheall, chess-play, " wood-intelligence." 

clasp, claspa, a clasp, Ir. clasha. ; from the Eng. 

clathnMre, bashfulness (M'D., who writes clathnaire. H.S.D. 
gives the form in the text) : clath + ndire ; see ndire. Clath 
seems from the root qel, hide, as in ceil, q.v. (H.S.D.). 

cleachd, a practice, custom, Ir. clecLchdadh, E. Ir. clechtaim, I am 
wont, *Mcto-, root qel, as in Lat. colo, Eng. cultivate, Gr. 
TreXofiai, go, be, etc. Cf., however, eleas. 

cleachd, a ringlet, a fillet of wool, E. Ir. clechtaim, I plait (Cam.), 
W. pleth ; from Lat. pleeto, Eng. plait. 

clearc, a curl, lock of hair : 

cleas, a play, trick, feat, so Ir., E. Ir. cle&s, *clessu-, *clexu- ; root 
klek, klok, as in cluich, q.v. 

death, concealment, hiding ; also cleith {*kleti-s) ; inf. to ceil, 
hide, q.v. 

cleibe, an instrument for laying hold of fish, or of sea-fowls, Ir. 
clipe ; from Eng. clip, a gaff or cleek, a fastener, Norse kli/pa, 
to pinch, 0. H. G. chluppa, tongs. 

cleir, the clergy, Ir. cUir ; from Lat. clems. See the next word. 


cl6ireaeli, a clerk, a cleric, 0. G. clerec (Bk. of Deer), Ir. cUireach, 
E. Ir. cUrech, Br. hloareh ; from Lat. dericm, a clerk, cleric, 
from Gr. kXtjpikos (do.), from kA^/oos, a lot, office : " the lot 
(Kkfjpov) of this ministry" (Acts i. 17). 

cleit, a quill, feather, down, Ir. cleite ; 

cleit, a rocky eminence ; from Norse Mettr, rock, cliff. Common 
in Northern place-names. 

cleith, a stake, wattle, Ir. deith, death, E. Ir. cleth, tignum, W. 
dyd, sheltering, M. Br. det, warm (place) ; root qleit, qlit, 
0. Sax. hMtdan, cover. Got. hki&ra, hut, Ch. SI. kleti, house. 
Hence cleith, roof; the E. Ir. det/ie, roof, roof-pole, appears 
to be for kkitio-, the same root in its full vocalic form 

cleith, concealing, 0. Ir. deith ; see death. 

cleitig, clitig, a measure of laud — an 8th of the "penny" land : 

cleoc, a cloak, Ir. d6ca ; from the Eng. 

cli, vigour : 

oil, left (hand), wrong, Ir. di, E. Ir. di, de, W. dedd, 0. W. ded, 
Br. kleiz, *hlijo- ; root klei, incline, Got. hleidwma, left, etc. 
See further under daon. 

cliabh, a basket, hamper, the chest (of a man), Ir. diabh, 0. Ir. 
diah, corbis, *deiho-. Root klei as in diath. 

cliadan, a burr ; cf. dadan. 

cliamhuinn, son-in-law, Ir. diamhuin, G. and Ir. cleamhnas, 
affinity ; root klei, lean, Lat. diens, Eng. dient, in-dine, lean. 

cliar, a poet, hero or heroes, Ir., E. Ir. diar, society, train, clergy; 
from Lat. dSrus, as in de'ir, q.v. Hence cliaranach, a bard, 
swordsman. The Cliar Sheanachain (Senchan's Lot) was 
the mythic bardic company, especially on its rounds (Gaelic 
Folk Tales). Hence cliarachd, singing, feats. 

cliatan, a level plot of ground : *diath-t-an, a participial formation 
from diath, harrow — "harrowed, level." 

cliath, harrow, hurdle, Ir. diath, E. Ir. diath, 0. Ir. Vadum died 
(Adamnan), Dublin, W. dwpd, hurdle, Cor. duit, Br. Moned, 
Gaul. *dSta, whence Fr. daie, hurdle, *kleitd ; root klei, lean ; 
Lett, dita, wood fence, Lit. szlite, a rack (of a waggon). 

cliathach, side, the side of the ribs, Ir. diathdn, side, breast, 
*kleito-, "slope," root klei, incline; Norse hU&, a slope, 
mountain side, Gr. kAitus (i long), a slope, hill-side. 

clibeag, a trick, wile (H.S.D.) ; from deibe, dip, as dtcM from 

clibist, a misadventure ; see diob. 

clic, a hook, gaff : see the next word. 

clichd, an iron hook ; from Sc. deik, Eng. deek, didc. 


clichd, a cunning trick ; from the above. Sc. cleiky, ready to take 
the advantage, tricky, deek, inclination to cheat : " There's a 

cleek in 'im" (Banffshire), 
cliob, to stumble, cliobach, stumbling, awkward. Cf. Sc. dypock, 

a fall. See next, 
cliob, anything dangling, excrescence, cliobain, a dew-lap, Ir. 

cliob, dibin , also Ir. diobach, hairy, shaggy, dioboy, a 

(shaggy) colt, etc. Cf. Sc. dype, an ugly, ill-shaped fellow : 

origin imknown (Mun'ay) ; dip, a colt, Ger. klepper, palfrey. 
cliopach, halt in speech (H.S.D.). : 
cliostar, a clyster ; from the Eng. 

clip, a hook, clip, Ir. dipe, a gaff ; from the Eng. dip. See delbe. 
clipe, deceit (H.S.D.) ; see dibeag. 
t clis, active, Ir., M. Ir. diste, ready, quick. Cf. W. dys, impulse : 

*cl-sto- ; root kd, as in Lat. celer, swift, etc. 1 Used only in 

the phrase " Na lir chlis," the Merry Dancers. 
clisbeach, unsteady of foot, cripple ; from dis. Also clisneach. 
clisg, start, Ir. diosg (Meath Dial., dist) ; from dis. 
clisneach, the human body, carcase, outward appearance (Arm. ; 

not H.S.D.) : 
clisneach, a bar-gate (H.S.D.) : 
cliu, renown, praise, Ir., 0. Ir. dii, W. dyw, sense of hearing, dod, 

praise ; Gr. kAeos, fame ; Skr. r^ravds, I. E. kleu, hear. See 

further under duinn. 
clivichd, mend nets . 
cliud, a slap with the fingers ; from the Sc. dout, Eng. domt, a 

cuff, " clout." 
clitid, a small or disabled hand ; from Sc. doot, hoof, half-hoof ? 
cl6, cloth, broad-cloth ; from Eng. doth, dothing, etc. 
cl6, a print, printing press, M. G. do (Carswell), Ir. d6, dbdh 

{dodhuighim. Coneys ; E. Ir. dod, mark ?) ; cf . the next word. 

Also clodh. 
t clo, a nail, Ir., E. Ir. d6, W. do, key, Br. Mao, tool, * klavo- ; 

Lat. ddvus, nail, davis, key ; Gr. kX^is, key, etc. See daoidh. 
clo-chadail, slumber ; see doth. 
clobha, a pair of tongs ; from Norse kloji, a fork (of a river), a 

forked mast, snuffers, klof, fork of the legs, "cloven, cleft." 

The Ir. dobh{a) in Con. and FoL. and the domh of Lh., seems 

a Scottish importation, for Coneys says the vernacular is 

tlobh. In fact, the Ir. word is tl-d, Hugh : " lifter ;" root tl- as 

in Lat. tollo ? 
clobhsa, a close, lane, farm-yard, Ir. damhsa, W. daws ; from Eng. 

dose. Also damhsa, q.v. 
clochranaich, wheezing in the throat (M'F. ; Sh. has clochar, and 

clochan, respire) ; from Sc. dodier, wheezing, doch, cough 

feebly. It is an onomatopoetic word, like Eng. dtick, dock. 


clod, a clod, turf ; from the Eng. 

clogad, clogaid, a helmet, Ir. dogad, M. Ir. ologat, at chluic, E. Ir. 

clocatt ; from ad, hat, q v., and f clog, head, which see in 

clogais, a wooden clog ; from Eng. dogs. 
cloidhean, the pith of the box-tree or any shrub tree (Arm. ; not 

H.S.D.). Cf. glaoghan. 
cloimh, scab, itch, Ir. damh, scurvy, E. Ir. dam, leprosus, VV. 

dafr, leprosy, daf, diseased, Cor. c/a/(do.), M. Br. c^a^ (do.), 

Br. klanv, ^klamo-, sick ; Skr. klam, weary ; Gr. KXa/juapos, 

weak (Hes.) ; Lat. dSmens. 
cloimh, wool, down of feathers, Ir. diimh, down, feathers, E. Ir. 

dum, pluma, W. pluf, plumage ; from Lat. plwma (Eng. 

cloimlldicll, rub or scratch as itchy ; same as damhradh in mean- 
ing and root, 
clbimhein, icicle, snot ; from dbimh. 
clois, the herb " stinking marsh, horse tail," Ir. d6is, do-uisge 

(O.'R.), " water-nail" (Cameron). 
cloitheag, a shrimp, prawn (M'D.), Ir. doitheog. Possibly for 

daidh-, *dadi-, root dad of dadh : "a digger." M'L. has 

instead doidheag, a small shore-fish. 
clomhais, cloves ; from the Eng. 

clos, rest, sleep, stillness ; *dtid-to-, root Mu, klav ; see daoidh. 
closach, a carcase ; from dos, q.v. 
cldsaid, a closet, Ir. doseud ; from the Eng. 
cldth, mitigate, still ; from the root klav, of daoidh, q.v. 
cluain, a green plain, pasture, Ir. and E. Ir. duain : *dopni- ; Lit. 

szlapti, become wet, szlapina, a wet spot ; (Jr. /cAejras (Hes.), a 

wet muddy place (Strachau). 
cluaineas, cluain, intriguing, deceit, Ir. diiainearac/id, duain, 

*dopni- ; Gr. KXe7rru>, steal ; ICng. Lift, cattle lifting (Strachan) 
cluaran, a thistle ; cf. W. duro, whisk. 
cluas, ear, Ir., 0. Ir. duas, W. dust, *kloustd ; root kleus, klus, 

kleu, hear ; 0. Sax. Must, hearing, Eng. listen, etc. See duinn. 
clud, a patch, clout, Ir. ddd, W. dwt ; from the Eng. dout, Ag. S. 

diit (Rhys, Murray), 
cluich, play, Ir. dutdie, a game, E. Ir. cluclie, a game, 0. Ir. 

duichedi, ludibundus : * klokjo- ; Got. hlahjan, Eng. laugh, 

Ger. lachen (Windisch, Stokes). 
clnigein, a little bell, anything dangling ; from dag. 
cluinn, hear, Ir., E. Ir. duinim, W., dywed, hearing, Cor. demaf, 

audio, Br. klevet, audire, *klev6, I hear ; Lat. dueo, am 

reputed, indutus, famous ; Gr. kAvw, hear ; Eng. lotul, listen ; 

Skr. frw, hear, crdvas, sound. Hence diii,, duos, etc. 


cluip, cheat : hardly * kloppi- ; Gr. Kkkirrto. 

clupaid, the swollen throat in cattle : 

cluthaich, cover, clothe, Ir. duthmhar, sheltered, warm. Cf. E. Ir. 

clithaigim, I shelter, clith, clothing, W. clyd, sheltering ; root 

qel of ceil, q.v. Ir. cMdaim, I clothe, cover, from Eng. clothe, 

has possibly influenced the vowel both hi G. and Ir. 
cluthaich, chase, Ir. cluthaighim : *Muto-, *klu ; see elaoidh ? 
cnab, pull, haul ; see cnap. 
cnabaire, an instrument for dressing flax, Ir. cnaib, hemp ; see 

cna^, a crack, Ir. cnag ; from the Eng. crack. 
cna^, a pin, knob, Ir. cnag ; from the P^ng. knag, a peg, Dan. 

knag, a peg, Sw. knagg, a knag. 
cnaid, a scoff', Ir. (maid -. 
cnaimh, bone, Ir. cndimh, 0. Ir. cndim, *kna/m.i-s ; Gr. Kv-qfir/, leg ; 

Eng. /lam. 
CHaimhseag', a pimple, bear-berry : 
cnamh, chew, digest, Ir. cnaoi, cnaoidhim, E. Ir. cndm, gnawing, 

W. cnui; Gr. kvwSuv, a tooth, /ci/atu, scrape ; Lit. kandu, bite ; 

Skr. khdd, chew. Root qne, qnd, qen. Hence cnamhuin, 

cnap, a knob, Ir. enap, E. Ir. cnapp ; from Norse Imappr, a knob, 

M. Eng. knap. Hence also G. and Ir. cnap, a blow, Sc. knap. 
cnapach, a youngster ; from cnap. But cf. Norse knapi, boy, 

varlet, Eng. knave. 
T cnarra, a ship, Ir. cnarra : from Norse knorr, g. knarrar, Ag. S. 

cnatan, a cold : *krod-to- ; Ger. rotz, catarrh ; Gr. Kopv^a (do.). 

Also cneatan. 
cnead, a sigh, groan, so Ir., E. Ir. cnet , from the root can of can, 

say, sing. 
cneadh, a wound, so Ir., E. Ir. cned, *knidd ; Gr. Ki/ifw, sting, 

Kv'&Tj, nettle ; Ag. S. hnitan, tundere. 
cneap, a button, bead ; see cnap. 
cneas, skin, waist, Ir. cneas, E. Ir. cues ; from cen of cionn, skin ; 

see boicionn. 
cneasda, humane, modest, Ir. cneasda ; from cen as in cineal, kin. 
cneisne, slender (M'D.) ; from cneas. 
cniadaich, caress, stroke : 
cno, a nut, Ir. cno, 0. Ir. cnii, W. eneioen, pi. cwaw. Cor. cnyfan, Br. 

knoAJuenn, *knovd ; Norse hnot, Ag. S. hnutu, Eng. nut, Ger. 

cnoc, a hillock, Ir. cnoc, 0. Ir. cnocc, 0. Br. cnoch, tumulus, Br. 

kreac'li, krec^henn, hill, '''knokko- ; from knog-ko-, Norse Ivnakki, 

nape of the neck, Ag. S. hnecca, neck, Eng. reecA. Some 



have given the stem as *cunoceo-, and referred it to the root 
of Gaul, cuno-, high, W. cwn, height, root ku, be strong, great, 
as in curaidh, q.v. 

cndeaid, a young woman's hair bound up in a fillet. Founded on 
the Sc. cochernonny. 

cnod, a knot, Ir. cnota ; from the Eng. 

cn6d, a patch, piece on a shoe ; cf. Sc. knoit, knot, large piece. 

cnodaich, acquire, lay up, Ir. cn6dach, acquiring (O'E.) ; see crwd. 

cnodan, the gurnet, Ir. cn-dddn (Fol.) ; cf. Sc. crooner, so-called 
from the croon or noise it makes when landed. The G. seems 
borrowed from Sc. crooner, mixed with Sc. crout, croak. 

cndid, a sumptuous present (Heb.) ; croid : 

cnoidh, tooth-ache, severe pain ; see cnuimh. 

cnomhagan, a large whelk, buckie ; cf. cnb, nut. 

cnot, unhusk barley; from cnotag, the block or joint of wood 
hollowed out for unhusking barley. The word is the Eng. 
knot ? 

CEuachd, head, brow, temple, Ir. cruaic (O'R.) ; cf. W. cnuwch, 
bushy head of hair, cnwch, knuckle, cntich, joint, *cno%tcco-, 
'' a prominence ;" root kneu, hiu ; Norse hniikr, hnjdkr, knoU, 
peak, hnufSr, a knob. Hence cnuachdach, shrewd : " having a 

cauas, gnash, chew, crunch ; for cruas, cntain, founded on Eng. 
crush, crunch ? 

cnuasaich, ponder, collect, Ir. cnuasuighim, cnuas, a collection, 
scraping together, G. and Ir. cnuasachd, reflection, collection, 
*knousto- ; root knu, hne.vo, scrape, Gr. kvvw, scratch, Norse 
hnoggr, niggard, Eng. niggard, Ag. S. hnedw, sparing. The 
idea is " scraping together" : a niggard is " one who scrapes." 
Stokes (Diet.) gives the root as knup, and compares Lit. 
knupsyti, oppress. 

cnuimh, a worm ; wrong spelling for cruimh, q.v. 

cnumhagan, a handful (Heb.); for orohhagan, from fcrobh, the 
hand ? See crbg. 

CO, CO, who, 0. Ir. co-te, now G. ciod, q.v. ; W. pa. Cor. py, pe, Br. 
pe, quia, root 170-, qa-, qe ; Lat. quod ; Gr. tto-Oi, etc. ; Eng. who. 

CO, cho, as, so ; see cho. 

cob, plenty (Sh.) ; from Lat. copia. 

cobhair, assistance, so Ir., 0. Ir. cobir, *cohris, co + ber, root bher, 
carry ; see beir ; and cf. for meaning Gr. crv[ji,<l>epei, it is of use. 

cobhan, a coffer, box, Ir. cofra ; from Eng. coffin, coffer. 

cobhar, foam, Ir. cubhar, E. Ir. cohur : co + bur ; for bur, see tobar, 

CDC, cock, to cock ; from the Eng. 

cocaire, a cook, Ir. cdcaire, M. Ir. cocaire, Cor. peber, pistor ; from 
the Lat. coquo, I cook. 


OOchuU, husk, hood, Ir. cochal, 0. Ir cochuLl, W. ojiojoll, hood, 

cowl ; from Lat. cucullus, Eug. cowl. 
cocontachd, smartness (A. M'D.) ; see coc, gog. 
codaich, share, divide ; from codach, gen. of cuid. 
cbdhail, a meeting ; see comhdhaiL 

COgadh, war, so Ir., 0. Ir. cocad: *con-cath, " oo-battle" ; see cath. 
COgais, conscience, Ir. cogus, 0. Ir. cuncubus : con + cvlius ; and 

0. Ir. cubus, conscience, is for con-Jis, co and fiuis, knowledge, q.v. 
cogan, a loose husk, covering (H.S.D.), a small vessel ; see gogan 

for latter force. 
COguU, tares, cockle, Ir. cogal; borrowed from M. Eng. cockd, 

cohkul, now cockle. 
coibhseachd, propriety, so Ir., coibhseccch, becoming ; uf. M. Ir. 

cuibdes, fittingness, from cubaid ; see cubhaidh. 
coicheid, suspicion, doubt : 
coig, five, Ir. cuig, 0. Ir. cdic, W. pump, E. W. pimp, Cor. pymp, 

Br. pemp, GwA. pempe, *qenqe ; Lat. quinque ; Gr. irivTe ; Lit. 

penki ; Got. fimf; Skr. pdnca. 
coigil, spare, save, so Ir., E. Ir. coiclim, eocill (u.).; '''cuv^cel, root 

qel, as in Lat. colo, etc. Also cagail. The E. Ir. cocell, 

concern, thought, is for con^dall ; ciall, sense. 
coigreach, a stranger, Ir. coigcrigheach, cdigcriuch, * con-crich-ech, 

"provincial," E. Ir. cocHcA, province, boundary. See cnocli. 

The meaning is, " one that comes from a neighbouring 

coilceadha, bed materials, tcoilce, a bed, Ir. coUce, a bed, E. Ir. 

coleaid, flock bed, 0. W. cUcet, now cylclied ; from Lat. 

culcita, a pillow, Eug. quilt. 
coilchean, a little cock, water spouting ; from coileach, (\.x. 
coileach, a cock, so ir., 0. Ir. cailech, W. ceilioij, Cor. celiac, Br. 

kiliok, "^kaljdkus, the "caller;" root qal, call; Lut. calarc, 

summon, Eng. Calends ; Gr. /caAeoj, call ; Lit. kalbu,, spooch, 

coileag, a cole of hay ; from the Sc. cole, a colo or coil of hay. 

See gbileag. 
COileid, a stir, noise (Heb.) ; cf. Eug. coil, of like force. The G. 

seems borrowed therefrom. 
coileir, a collar, Ir. coile'ar ; from the Eng. 
coilioun, a candle ; see coinneal. 
coiliobhar, a kind of gun ; see cuilbJieir. 
coille, coin, wood, Ir. coill, 0. Ir. caill, W. celli, Cor. kelli, *kaldet- ; 

Gr. KXafios, a twig ; Eng. holt, Ger. holz. Further root qla, 

qela, split, hit, as in cladh, claidheamh, q.v. 
COilleag, a cockle (M'D.), Ir. coille6g (O'E.), Cor. cyligi : 
coilleag, a rural song, a young potato, a smart blow : 


coilpeachadh, equalizing cattle stock (Heb.) ; see colpach. 

coilpein, a rope : 

coimeas, comparison, co-equal, Ir. coimheas, E. Ir. coimmeas : 

com + meas. See meas. 
coimh-, CO- ; see co mh-. 
coimheacli, strange, foreign, cruel, Ir. coimhtheach, cdimhthigheach, 

c6imhightheach, strange, M. Ir. comaigtke, foreign, 0. Ir. 

comaigtech, alienigena ; for comaitc/ie (Stokes). See tatlmich. 
t Coirnhdhe, God, Ir. C6im.hdhe, God, the Trinity, 0. Ir. comdiu, 

gen. comded (Bk. of Deer), Lord, * com-medios, " Providence," 

root med, think, as in G. Toeas, esteem, Lat. modus, meditor, 

meditate. See m^as. The fanciful " Coibhi, the Celtic arch- 

druid," is due to a confusion of the obsolete Coirnhdhe with 

the Northumbrian Coifi of Bede. 
coimhead, looking, watching, Ir. cdimhe'ad, 0. Ir. comet, *com- 

entvr. For eTtiu, see didean. 
coimhearsnach, a neighbour, Ir. c6mharsa, gen. cdmharsan, E. Ir. 

comurse ; from com and ursainn, a door-post (Zimmer). See 

coimheart, a comparison; *com^bert, root ber, of beir. Of. Lat. 

coimheirbse, wrangling : com +farpuis, q.v. 
coimhliong, a race, course, Ir. cdimhling ; from com and lingim, I 

leap. For root, see leum. 
coimsich, perceive, Ir. coimsighim : com-meas ; see meas. 
coimirc, mercy, quarter, so Ir. ; see comairce. 
coimpire, an equal, match ; from Eng. compeer or Lat. compar. 
coimrig, trouble ; from Sc, Eng. cumber, cumbering. 
coimseach, indifferent (Sh.) ; from coimeas, co-equal. 
ooindean, a kit (Arm. : not H.S.D.) : 
cdineag, a nest of wild bees (M'L.), Ir. caonndg, nest of wild bees, 

tumult. See caonnag. 
coinean, a rabbit, coney, Ir. coinm, W. cvming ; from M. Eng. 

cunin, from 0. Fr. connin, cbnnil, from Lat. cuniculus, whence 

Eng. coney, through Fr. 
coingeis, indifferent, same as, no matter ; con-geas, from geas, 

desire, etc. Cf. ailleas, from ail-ges. 
coingeal, a whirlpool (H.S.D.) ; 

coingheall, a loan, Ir. coinghioll, obligation ; con+giall, q.v. 
coingir, a pair (Sh.) : 
coinlein, a nostril ; see cuinnean. 
coinn, fit of coughing : 

coinne, a supper, a party to which every one brings his own pro- 
visions (Heb.). Cf. E. Ir. coindem, coinmed, coigny, conveth, 

quartering, *kond, eat, as in cnamh, q.v. 


coinne, coinneamh, a meeting, Ir. coinne, E. Ir. conne, ^ con-nedd ; 

root nes, come, dwell, Gr. veofxai, go, vai<i), dwell ; Skr. nas, 

join some one. Stokes seems to think that Icon-d^- is the 

ultimate form here, d^ being the I. E. dhe, set, Gr. tiOtjixi,, etc. 
coinneach, moss, Ir. caonac/i, M. Ir. cdnnach, 0. Ir. coennivh, 

muscosi : 
coinneal, candle, so Ir., E. Ir. candel, W. cantvyU, 0. W. cannuill. 

Cor. cantuil ; from Lat. candela, whence Eng. candle. 
coinneas, a ferret ; *con-neas, "dog-weasel" ? See neas. 
coinnlein, a stalk, Ir. coinlin, M. Ir. coinnlin, 0. Ir. cimnall, 

stipiila, *honnaUo-; Lat. canna, a reed, Gr. Kawa. Stokes 

also joins W. canm, reed, *kdno-. 
e6ir, just, right, Ir., 0. Ir. coir, W. cywir . *ko-vero-, " co-true," 

from vSro-, now /lor, q.v. Hence c6ir, justice, right, share. 

Also in the phrase 'n an c6ir, in their presence. 
coirb, cross, vicious, Ir. corbadh, wickedness, E. Ir. corpU, wicked ; 

from Lat. corruptiis. Also see coiripidh. 
coirceag, a bee-hive (Sh., O'R.) : 
coire, fault, so Ir., 0. Ir. caire, 0. W. cared, W. cerydd, Br. carez, 

*karjd ; Lat. earinare, blame, abuse ; Let. karindl, banter, 

Ch. SI. karati, punish. 
coire, a cauldron, so Ir., E. Ir. ewe, coire, W. pair. Cor., Br. jier, 

*qerjo; Norse hverr, kettle, Ag. S. hwer ; Skr. carii ; Gr. 

Kkpvo'i, a sacrificial vessel. 
coireal, coral, from the Eng. 
coireall, a quarry, Ir. coireul, coiler (F. M.) ; from Fr. carriers, 

with dissimilation of r's (Stokes). 
coireaman, coriander, so Ir. ; founded on the Lat. curiundrum, 

Gr. Kopiavvov. 

coirioll, a carol ; from the Eng. 

coiripidh, corruptible ; from Lat. corruptus. 

coirneil, a colonel, Ir. curnel, comiel (F. M.) ; from the Eng. 

coirpileir, a corporal ; from the Eng. 

coiseunich, bless (Sh.) ; eon + seun or sian, q.v. 

coisich, walk, Ir. coiseachd (n.) ; from cos, coise, q.v. 

coisinn, win ; see cosnadh. 

coisir, a festive party, chorus. Ir. coidr, feast, festive party, coisir 

(O'R., O'B., and Keat.), feasting, " coshering" : 
coisrigeadh, consecration, 0. G. consecrad (Bk. of Deer), Ir. cois- 

reagadh, 0. Ir. coisecrad ; from Lat. consecratio. 
coit, a small boat, Ir. coit, E. Ir. coite. Cf. Lat. cotta, species 

navis, Norse kati, a small ship, Eng. cat. Stokes suggests 

that the G. and Ir. are from Low Lat. cotia, navis Indica. 

Hence Eng. cot. 
coitcheann, conunon, public, so Ir., 0. Ir. coitcJienn : * con-tech-en ? 


coiteir, a cottar, Ir. eoitedir ; from the Eng. cottar. 

coitich, press one to take something : * con-tec-, root tek, ask, Eng. 

thiff ; see atach. 
col, an impediment, Ir. colaim ; root qela, qld, break, split ? See 

call ; and cf. Gr. Kiokvw, hinder, which is probably from the 

same root. 
col, sin, Ir., E. Ir. col, W. cwl, 0. Br. col, *kido- ; Lat. culpa, colpa, 

faidt. Stokes hesitates between referring it to the root of 

Lat. mdpa or to that' of Lat. scelus, Got. skal, Eng. shall, Ger. 

schuld, crime, 
colaiste, a college, Ir. colaisde ; from the Eng. 
colamoir, the hake (Sh., O'B.), Ir. colamLir ; cf. Sc. coalmie, 

colemie, the coal-fish. 
colan, a fellow-soldier, companion ; cf. cbmhla, together. The 

Ir. cfymklach is for comAach, the lack of bglach. 
colann, a body, so Ir., 0. Ir. colinn, gen. colno, W. celain, carcase, 

0. W. celein, cadaver, *colanni- (Brugmann) ; root qela, break, 

the idea being "dead body"? Cf. for meaning Gr. vckvs, 

corpse, from nek, kill. 
COlbh, pillar, Ir. colhh, E. Ir. colba, W. celff, Br. keif; Lat. columna, 

Eng. column ; root qel, high. G. colbh, plant stalk, Ir. colmh, 

is allied to Lat. cfidrnvs. The Celtic words, if not borrowed 

from, have been influenced by the Lat. 
cole, an eider duck (Heb.) ; from Sc, Eng. colk, E. Fris. kolke, the 

black diver, 
colg, wrath, Ir. colg ; a metaphorical use of calff (i.e. cole/), q.v. 
collachail, boorish (H.S.D. ; O'R. quoted as authority), Ir. collach- 

amhuil ; from Ir. collach, boar. See cullach. 
CoUaid, a clamour, Ir. colldid ; see coileid. 
collaidh, carnal, sensual, so Ir., E. Ir. collaide ; for colnaide, from 

colann, body, flesh. 
coUaidin, codalan, white poppy (H.S.D. ; O'K. only quoted), Ir. 

collaidin, codaldn ; from eolladh, codal, sleep. 
collainn, a smart stroke ; also coilleag : 
colman, a dove ; see caiman. 
colpach, a heifer, steer, Ir. colpack, M. Ir. calpach ; apparently 

founded on Norse kdlfr, a calf. Hence Sc. colpindach. 
coltach, like ; for co-amhuil-t-ach. See amhuil, samhuil. 
coltar, a coulter, Ir. coltar, E. Ir. coltar ; from M. Eng. cultre, 

Lat. culter. 
com, the cavity of the chest, Ir. com, coim, chest cavity, waist, 

body. The G. is allied to W. cwm, a valley, " a hollow," 

*kumJ)o- ; Gr. kC^os, a hump, Lat. cumbere ; Ger. haube, hood; 

root kdhlw-, bend. The 0. Ir. coim, covering, is from the 

root Icemb, wind, as in cam, q.v. 


coma, indifferent, so Ir., E. Ir. cuma, 0. Ir. cumme, idem, is. cumma, 

it is all the same ; 
comaidh, a messing, eating together, E. Ir. commaid, *lcom-huti-H, 

" co-being," from *bwti-s, being. See h\, be. 
comain, obligation, Ir. comaoin, 0. Jr. commdin : * com-moini- ; Lat. 

communis. See maoiti. 
t comairce, protection ; see comraich. 
comanachadh, celebration of the Lord's Supper ; from comann or 

comunn, society, Lat. communio, Eng. communion. 
comannd, a command ; from the Eng. 
t comar, a confluence, Ir. comar, cumar, E. Ir. commar, W. cymmer, 

Br. kemper, confluent, * hoTn-bero- ; Lat. corir-fero. Root hher, 

as in beir. 
comas, comus, power, Ir. cumas, E. Ir. commus, *com-mestu-, 

*mestu-, from.. med, as in meas (Zimmer, Brugmann). 
combach, a companion ; a shortened form of companach. 
combaiste, compaiste, a compass, Ir. compds ; from the Eng. 
comh-, prefix denoting " with, com-, con-," Ir. comh-, 0. Ir. com-, 

*kom- ; Lat. cum,, com-, coiv-, Eng. com-, con-, etc. It appears 

as coimh^, com- (before m and h), con- (before d, g), etc. 
comhach, prize, prey : *com-agos- ; root ag, drive? 
comhachag, owl, W. cwm, Br. kaouen, 0. Br. couann ; L. Lat. 

cMvannus (from the Celtic — Ernault), Fr. chou^tte, 0. Fr. 

choue. Cf. Ger. schuku, ulm. An onomatopoetic word 

comhad, a comparison (Sh.) ; comh +fada, q.v. 
comhaib, contention about rights (M'A.) : 
comhaich, dispute, assert, contend : 
comhailteachd, a convoy, Ir. comhailtim, I join ; from comhal, a 

joining, so Ir., E. Ir. accomallte, socius, 0. Ir. accomol, cou- 

junctio, W. cyfall, *ad-com-ol. For ol, see under tional, alt. 
comhair, presence, e regione, etc., Ir. c6mliair, E. Ir. comair, W. 

cyfer, 0. W. civer : com + air, the prep, comh and air, q.v. 

comhairc, an outcry, appeal, forewarning, Ir. cdmhairce, E. Ir. 

. . comaircim, I ask : com ■{■ arc. For arc, see iomchm-c. 
comhairle, advice, Ir. cdmhairle, 0. Ir. airle, counsel, air -J- le. 

This le is usually referred to the root las, desire, Skr. lash, 

desire, Lat. lasdvus, wanton. Ascoli suggests the root Id of 

0. Ir. Idaim, mittere, Gr. cAawco. 
comhal, a joining — an Ir. word ; see comhailteachd. 
comhalta, a foster-brother, Ir. comhalta, E. Ir. comalta, W. cyfaillt, 

friend, *kom-altjos, root al, rear, Lat. alo, etc. See altrum. 
comharradh, a mark, Ir. cdmhartha, 0. Ir. comarde ; from com and 

0. Ir. airde, signum, W. arwydd, M. Br. argoez, * are-vidio- ; 

root vid, as in Lat. video, here prce-video, etc. 


comhart, the bark of a dog ; from wmh and aH, 0. Ir. artram, 

latratus, W. cyfarth, arthio, to bark, 0. Br. arton. 
comhdach, clothing, covering, Ir. ciimhdach, veil, covering, defence, 

E. Ir. comtuch, cumtach, covering, " shiine" : * corir-vd-tog ; 

root tecf, tog, as in tigh, q.v. 
cdmhdaich, allege, pro;ve: *eonv-atach; see atach? 
cbmhdhail, a meeting. Ir. cdmhdkdil, E. Ir. comddl : com + dail ; 

see dail. 
cdmhla, together, Ir. c6mhldmh : com + lamh, ■' co-hand, at hand." 

See lamh. 
comhia, door, door-leaf, Ir. cdmhla, E. Ir. comla, gen. comlad : 

* com-lor, root (?/)^a-, fold, groove (cf. Lat. sim-plv^s, 0. H. G. 

zwifal, two-fold) ; root pal, pel, as in alt, joint. 
comhlann, a cOmbat, Ir. cdmhlann, E. Ir. comlann : *com + lann ; 

see lann. 
comhluadar, conversation, colloquy, Ir. cdmhluadar, company, con- 
versation ; from luaid/i, speak (* com-luadrtro-). See Iruiidh. 
comhnadh, help, Ir. cungnamh, 0. Ir. congnam, inf. to congniu, I 

help : com + {g)n\, "co-doing." See m, do, gniomh, deed, 
cdrnhnard, level, Ir. comhdrd -. com + ard, " co-high, equally high." 
cdmhnuidh, a dwelling, Ir. c6mhnuidhe, a tarrying, dwelling, E. Ir. 

comnaide, a waiting, delay (also imaide) : *com-naide ; root 

nes, nas, dwell ; Gr. vatw, dwell, viofiai, go, vaeT'ijs, inhabitant ; 

Skr. nas, join any one. 
cdmhradh, conversation, Ir. cdmhrddh : com. -f- rddh ; see radh. 
comhrag, a conflict, Ir. cdmkrac, E. Ir. comrac, battle, 0. Ir. 

comracc, meeting, W. cyfrang, rencounter, ''' Tconwranko- ; root 

renk, assemble ; Lit. rinkti, assemble, surinTAmas, assembly. 
comhstadh, a borrowing, loan : * corti-iasad- ; see iasad? 
compairt, partnership, Ir. c6mpd/rtas ; from cojn- a.n& pdirt, q.v. 
companach, companion, Ir. c6mpdnach, M. Ir. companach ; from 

E. Eng. compairumn, through Fr., from L. Lat. compdnid, 

" co-bread-man," from p&nis, bread. Dialectic combach. 
comradli, aid, assistance : 
comraich, protection, sanctuary, Ir. cbmairce, E. Ir. comm,rche, 

M. Ir. comairce ; from the root arc, defend, as in teasairg, q.v. 
comunn, society, company, Ir. cumann ; from Lat. communio, Eng. 

con-, with ; see comh-. 

cona, cat's tail or moss crops (Sh.) ; see canach. 
conablach, a carcase, so Ir. ; for con-ablach ; see con- and ablach. 

"Dog's carcase" (Atkinson). 
conachag, a conch (M'A.) ; from the Eng. 
conachair, a sick person who neither gets worse nor better (M'A.), 

uproar (M'F.) : 


conair, a path, way (Sh., O'B.), so Ir., O. Ir. conar : 
conaire, the herb "loose-strife," Ir. conair (O'E.); see conas. 
conalach, brandishing (Sh. ; not H.S.D.) ; of. the nam Gonall, 

* Cuno-valo-s, roots kuno (see cwrcddh) and val, as in flath, q.v. 
conaltradh, conversation, Ir. conaltra (O'R. ; Sh.) : * con-alt-radh ? 

For alt, see alt, joint. 
conas, a wrangle, so Ir. (O'R., Sh.) ; from con-, the stem of cu, 

dog : " eurrishness" ? 
conas, conasg, furze, whins, Ir. conasg (O'R., Sh.) ; cf. conas above. 
condrachd, contrachd, mischance, curse, E. Ir. contracht ; from 

Lat. contractus, a shrinking, contraction. 
confhadh, rage, Ir. confadh, M. Ir. confad : con+fadh ; ior fadh, 

see onfhadh. 
conlan, an assembly, Ir. conldn. H.S.D. gives as authorities for 

the Gaelic word " Lh. et C. S." 
conn, sense, so Ir., E. Ir. cowl : * cos-no-, root kos, kes, as in G. ch\, 

see ; Gr. kovvcio, understand, koo-/xos, array ("what is seen"), 

world. See further under chk for kes. Stokes equates cond 

with Got. handngs, wise ; but this is merely the Eng. Imndy. 

It has been suggested as an ablaut form to ceann, head. Got. 

hugs, sense, has also been compared ; *cug-s-no- is possible, 
connadh, fuel, so Ir., 0. Ir. condiid, W. cynnud. Cor. cunys, 

*kondutu- ; I'oot kond, hid ; Lat. candeo, incendo ; Gr. 

KavSttjOos, coal, 
connan, lust : 
connlach, straw, stubble, so Ir., 0. Ir. connall, stipula : konncdlo- ; 

Lat. cannula, canna, a reed, canalis, Gr. Kavva, reed. See 

connsaich, dispute ; see under ionnsaich. 
connspair, a disputant : *cmv-deashair ; see deashair. 
Gonnspeach, a wasp, Ir. coinnspeaeh (Fol.) ; see speach, wasp. 
connspoid, a dispute, Ir. eonsptid ; from a Lat. * cormputatio, for 

*eondisputatio. See deaslmd. 
connspunn, conspuU, consmunn, a hero, Ir. conspullach, heroic 

(O'R.) : 
constabal, the township's bailiif (Heb.) ; from Eng. constable. 
contraigh, neaptide, O. Ir. contrac/it ; from Lat. contractus, shrink- 
ing (Zeuss, Meyer). See condracht and traogh. 
contran, wild angelica, Ir. contran (O'R.) : 
conuiche, a hornet (H.S.D.), cdnuich (Arm.), conuibhe, connuibh 

(M'L., M'A.) ; used by Stewart in the Bible glosses. Same 

root as conas. 
cop, foam, M. Ir., E. Ir. copp ; from Ag. S., M. Eng. eopp, vertex, 

top, Ger. kopf, head. 



copag, dofcken, Ir. cop6g, ewptg. Founded on the Eng. coip, head, 

head-dress, crest, tuft ; W. copog, tufted. The same as c<yp, 

copan, a boss, shield boss, cup ; from the Norse Tcoppr, cup, bell- 
shaped crown of a helmet, Eng. ewp. 
copar, copper, Ir. c&par ; from the Eng. 
cor, state, condition, Ir. cor, 0. Ir. c<yr, positio, •' jactus," *'koru-, 

vb. *l(0'ri6, I place. See cuir. 
cdram, a faction, a set (M'A.) ; from the Eng. qvorum. 
core, a cork, so Ir. ; from the Eng. 
core, a knife, Ir. core : *korkn-, *qor-go-, root qor, qer, cut; Lit. 

kirwis, axe ; Gr. Kep/xa, a chip, Keipio, cut. Allied to the root 

sqer of sgar, q.v. 
core, oats, Ir. coirce, M. Ir. corca, W. ceirch, Br. kerc'h, *h>rigo-. 

Bezzenberger suggests connection with Lettic kurki, small 

corn. Possibly for kor-ko-, where kor, ker is the root which 

appears in Lat. Ceres, Eng. cereal, Gr. ko/oos, satiety, lit. 

sz^rti, feed. The meaning makes connection with Gr. 

KopKopos, pimpernel, doubtful. 
eoreur, crimson, Ir. coreur, scarlet, 0. Ir. corcur, purple, W. 

porphor ; from Lat. pwrpurci (Eng. purple). 
cord, a rope, Ir. corda ; from Eng. cord, Lat. corda. 
cord, agree, Ir. cord ; from obsolete Eng. cord, agree, bring to an 

agreement, from Lat. cord-, the stem of cor, heart, whence 

Eng. cordial, etc. The Sc. has the part, as cordyt, agreed, 
cordaidhe, spasms (Sh.) : " twistings," from cord. 
corlach, bran, refuse of grain (M'D. ; O'E. has corlach), corrlach, 

coarsely grounded meal, over-plus. A compound of corr, 

" what is over " ? 
corn, a drinking horn, Ir., E. Ir. com, W. corn, Br. korn, *komo- ; 

Lat. comu ; Eng. horn ; Gr. Kipai, horn, 
cdrnuil, retching, violent coughing : '''kors-no- ? For kors, see 

cor on, a crown, Ir., E. Ir. cor din, cor6n, W. cor on ; from Lat. 

corona (Eng. crown). 
Corp, a body, Ir., 0. Ir. corp, W. corff, Br. korf; from Lat. corpus 

(Eng. corpse, Sc. corp). 
corpag, tiptoe (Arm.) ; seemingly founded on corr of corrag. 
corr, a crane, Ir., E. Ir. corr, W. erychydd, Cor. cherhit, 0. Br. 

corcid, ardea, *horgsd, korgjo-s ; Gr. kc/oxo), be hoarse, Ktpxvrj, 

a hawk, 0. SI. kraguj, sparrow-hawk. Cf. W. cregyr, heron, 

" screamer," from cregu, be hoarse ; Ag. S. hrdgra, Ger. 

reiher, heron, Gr. Kpi^ui, KpUe, screech. 
c6rr, excess, overplus, Ir. cnrr , G. corr, odd, Ir. cor, corr, odd ; 

also Ir. corr, snout, corner, point, K. Ir. corr, rostrum, corner. 


The E. Ir. corr, rostrum, has been referred by Zimmer and 
Thximeysen to corr, crane — the name of "beaked" bird doing 
duty also for " beak." The modern meanings of " excess, 
odd" (cf. odd of Eng., which really means " point, end") makes 
the comparison doubtful. Refer it rather to kom-, stick out, 
point, head ; Gr. K6p(rr], head ; stem keras- ; Lat. crista, Eng. 
crest ; further is Gr. Kepa?, horn, Lat. cerebrum, Norse hjarsi, 
crown of the head ; and also corn, horn, q.v. 

corra-biod, an attitude of readiness to start ; from corr, point, and 
biod=biog, start. 

corrach, abrupt, steep, Ir., M. Ir. corrach, unsteady, wavering ; 
" on a point," from corr, point, odd ? 

corra-cliagailt, glow-worm-like figures from raked embers, Ir. 
eorrchagailt ; from corr, a point, and cagailt. 

COrradJuiil, first effort of an infant to articulate. An onomato- 
poetic word. 

corrag, a forefinger, finger ; from corr, point, etc. 

corra-ghriodhach, a heron, crane, Ir. eorr-ghrian, heron ; from 
corr, and (E. Ir.) grith, a cry, scream, *grtu-, root gar, of 
goir, q.v. 

corran, a sickle, Ir. corrdn, carrdn, M. Ir. corr an, *korso-, root 
Tcors, hers, an extension of I. E. qero, Gr. Kupio, etc., as in core, 
q.v. Cf. I. E. qerpo, cut, from the same root, which gives 
Lat. carpo, cull, Gr. Kapiros, fuit (Eng. harvest). Lit. kerpu, 
cut, Skr. krpana, sword. G. may be from a korpso-, korso-. 
The Gaelic has also been referred to the root kur, round, as 
in cruinn, Ir. cor, circuit (O'Cl.). 

corran, a spear, barbed arrow (Ossianic Poems) ; from co7r, a 
point, q.v. 

corranach, loud weeping, " coronach," Ir. cordnach, a funeral cry, 
dirge : co + rdn-ack, "co-weeping ;" see rdn. 

corrghuil, a murmur, chirping (Heb.) ; see corradhuiL 

corrlach, coarsely ground meal, overplus ; see cbrlach. 

corruich, anger, rage. Ir. corruighe, vb. corrwighim, stir, shake ; 
from corrach. The striking resemblance to M. Eng. couroux, 
0. Fr. couroux (from Lat. corruptus), has been remarked by 
I)r Cameron (Eel. Celt. II., 625). 

cdrsa, a coast ; from the Eng. course. Cf. cdrsair, a cruiser. 

cor-shiomain, thraw-crook ; from cor or car, q.v., and sioman, q.v. 

COS, a foot, leg ; see cas. 

o6s, a cave, Ir. cuas, topographically Coos, Goose, M. Ir. cuas, a 
cave, hollow : *cavosto-, from eavo-, hollow ; Lat. caims. It is 
possible to refer it to *covd-to, koudh, hide, Gr. Keidoi, Eng. 
hide, hut. The Norse lg6s, a deep or hollow place, is not 
allied, but it appears in Lewis in the place-name Keose. 


cosanta, industrious ; see cosnadh. 

COSd, cost, Ir. cosdius (n.), M. Ir. costm, W. cost ; from 0. Fr. cost, 
Eng. cost. 

COSgairt, slaughtering ; see casgairt. 

eosgus, cost ; a by-form of cost. 

coslach, like, coslas likeness, Ir. cosm/mil, like, 0. Ir. cosmail, 
cosmailius (n. ) : con + samhail, q.v. 

cosmhail, like ; see the above. 

cosmal, rubbish, refuse of meat, etc. (M'A.) : 

cosnadh, earning, winning, Ir. cosnamh, defence, 0. Ir. cosnam, 
contentio, * co-sen-, root sen, Skr. san, win, sandy as, more pro- 
fitable, Gr. evapa, booty. 

costag, costmary ; from the Eng. 

cot, a cottage ; from Eng. cot. 

c6ta, a coat ; Ir. cdta ; from the Eng. 

COtan, cotton, Ir. cotiin ; from the Eng. 

cothachadh, earning support, Ir. cothuglmdh, M. Ir. cothugud, 
support ; from teg, tog, as in tigh f 

cothaich, contend, strive ; from cath, battle ? 

cothan, pulp, froth ; see omhan. 

cothar, a coffer, Ir. c6fra ; from the Eng. 

cothlamadh, things of a diiFerent nature mixed together : 

COthrom, fairplay, justice, Ir. comhthrom, equilibrium, E. Ir. 
comthrom, par : com-\-trom, q.v. 

crabhach, devout, Ir. crahhojch, 0. Ir. crdihdech, arabtid, fides, W. 
erefydd, * krab, religion ; Skr. vi-p-ambh, trust. 

crabhat, a cravat, Ir. carahhat ; from the Eng. 

cracas, conversation ; from Sc, Eng. crcuclc. 

cradh, torment, Ir. crddh, E. Ir. crdd., crdidim (vb.). Ascoli has 
compared 0. Ir. tacrdth, exacerbatione, which he refers to a 
stem acradr, derived from Lat. acritas. This will not suit the 
d of crddh. Possibly it has arisen from the root leer, cut, 
hurt {ker, krd). 

crjl-dhearg, blood-red, E. Ir. cr6-derg ; see crb. 

crag, crac, a fissure ; from the Eng. crack. 

crag, knock ; from the Eng. crack. 

craicionn, skin, Ir. croiceann, 0. Ir. croeenn, tergus, Cor. crohen, 
Br. kroc'hen, * krokkenno-, W. croen, * krokno- {1). From 
* krok-kenn : krok is allied to Ger. riicken, back, Eng. ridge, 
Norse hryggr ; and kenn is allied to Eng. skin. For it, see 

craidhneach, a skeleton, a gaunt figure, craidhneag, a dried peat ; 
for root, see ereathach, crion (* krat-ni-). 

criigean, a frog ; from crag, crbg, q.v. : " the well-pawed one." 

craimhinn, cancer, Ir. cnarnhuin ; from cndmh, q.v. 


crain, a sow, Ir. crdin, M. Ir. crdnai (gen. case) : *r.rncni,i; 

"grunter," root qreq, as in Lat. crocio, croak, Lit. kro/di, 

craiteag, a niggard woman ; likely from cradh. 
cralad, torment ; for cradh-Lot, cradh and lot, q.v. 
cramb, a cramp-iron, Ir. crampa ; from the Eng. 
crambadh, crampadh, a quarrel : 
cralaidh, crawl, crawling ; from the Eng. 
crann, tree, a plough, Ir. crcmti, a tree, lot, O. Ir. crann, W. and 

Br. prenn : *<frenno- ; cf. Gr. Kpdvov. cornel, Lat. comus, Lit. 

keras, tree stump, 0. Pruss. kimo, shrub (Bezzenberger). 

Windisch correlated Lat. quernun, oaken, but this form, satis- 
factory as it is in view of the Welsh, rather stands for 

quercnios, from qtiercus, oak. 
crannadh, withering, shrivelling, Ir. crannda, decrepit ; from 

crann : " running to wood." 
crannag, a pulpit, a wooden frame to hold the fir candles, Ir. 

crannog, a hamper or basket, M. Ir. crannoc, a wooden vessel, 

a wooden structure, especially the " crannogs" in Irish lakes. 

From crann ; the word means many kinds of wooden structures 

in Gadelic lands. 
Crannchur, lot, casting lots, Ir. crannchar, 0. Ir. cranchur ; from 

crann and cuir. 
crannlach, the teal, red-breasted merganser ; from crann and lack, 

duck, q.v. 
craobh, tree, so Ir., E. Ir. croeb, crdeh, *croih 1 " the splittable," 

root krei, kri, separate ; as tree of Eng. and its numerous 

congeners in other languages is from the root der, split ; and 

some other tree words are from roots meaning violence of 

rending or splitting (kAciSos, tmg, e.g.). For root kri, see 

craoiseach, a spear, E. Ir. croisech ; from craobh i 
craoit, a croft ; see croii. 
craos, a wide, open mouth, gluttony, so Ir., E. Ir. croes, crdes, 

0. Ir. croii, gula, gluttony. Zimmer cfs. W. troesan, buffoon. 

Possibly a Celtic krapestu-, allied to Lat. crdpula, or to Gr. 

Kpanrdkrj, headache from intoxication, 
crasgach, cross-ways, crasg, an across place ; for ctosg, from eras 

of crois, a cross, q.v. 
crasgach, corpulent (Sh. ; H.S.D. for C. S.) ;: from obsolete eras, 

body (O'Cl.), Ir. eras, for *crapso-, *krps, root krp of Lat. 

corpus ? 
crath, shake, Ir. erathadh, 0. Ir. crothim, *krto- ; perhaps allied to 

Lit. kresti, kratyti, shake. But it may be allied to crith, q.v. 

It has been compared to (jr. KpaSdw, brandish, which may be 


for a-KapSdo), root sker in a-Kaipin, spring, Ger. sellers, joke. 

This would suit G. crith, W. cryd and ysgryd. 
cr6, clay, Ir., 0. Ir. ere, g. criad, W. pridd, Cor., Br. pry. Its 

relation to Lat. creta, which Wharton explains as from crStus, 

"sifted," from cemo, is doubtful. If cemo be for *crino, Gr. 

Kpivio, we should have the root kri, krei, separate, as in 

criathar, and it is not labialised in any language (not qrei). 

The Celtic phonetics are not easily explained, however. Stokes 

gives the stem as qreid-, but the modern G. has the peculiar 

e sound which we find in gne, ce. This points to a stem 

qre-jd, root qre, which is in agreement with Lat. creta without 

doing the violence of supposing crino to give cemo, and this 

again crStus. Cf. 0. Ir. cle, left. 
cr6, creubh, body ; see creubh. 
creach, plunder, so Ir., E. Ir. crech, plundering, hosting ; cf . Br. 

kregi, seize, bite, catch (as fire). From the root ker, cut, 

ultimately. See core, knife, and creuchd. 
creachag, a cockle, Ir. creach, scollop shell (O'E.) ; cf. W. cragen, 

a shell, Cor. crogen, Br. krog. 
creachan, creachann, bare summit of a hill wanting foliage, a 

mountain : " bared," from creach ? 
creachan, pudding made with a calf's entrails (M'L.) : 
creadhonadh, a twitching, piercing pain (Heb.) ; possibly for 

cneadh-ghonadh, " wound-piercing." 
creag, a rock, so Ir. ; a curtailed form of carraig. Also (Dialecti- 

cally) craig. Hence Eng. crag. 
creamh, garlic, Ir. creamh, earlier crem, W. craf ; Gr. Kpo/xvov, 

onion ; Ag. S. hramse, Eng. ramsons ; Lit. kermiisze, wild 

creanair, sedition (Arm. ; not H.S.D.), so Ir. (O'R.) : 
creanas, whetting or hacking of sticks (M-F. ; H.S.D. considers it 

Dialectic), neat-handed (M'L.) : 
creapall, entangling, hindering, so Ir. ; it is an Ir. word evidently, 

from Lh. ; founded on Eng. cripple. 
creathach, (faded) underwood, ' firewoood, Ir. creatliach, hurdle, 

brushwood, faggots (O'R.) : *krto- ; cf. crwn. 
creathall, cradle ; from Northern M. Eng. credil, Sc. creddle, Eng. 

cradle, Ag. S. cradol. Further derivation at present uncertain 

creathall, a lamprey : 
creatrach, a wilderness, so Ir. (Lh., etc.) ; M'A. gives the word, 

but it is clearly Ir. Cf. creatliach. 
creic, sell, M. Ir. creicc, sale, E. Ir. creic, buying, 0. Ir. crenim, I 

buy, W. prynn, buy ; Skr. krinami (do.). There seems a 

confusion in G. and E. Ir. with the word reic, sell, q.v. 


oreid, believe, Ir. creidim, 0. Ir. cretim, W. credu, Cor. cresy, Br. 

cridiff, *hreddi6 ; Lat. credo ; Skr. cradrdadhdmi. From 

cred-d6, " I give heart to." 
creigeir, a grapple (M'D.) ; from some derivative of Norse krcBlga, 

to hook, krcekiil, a crooked stick, Eng. crook 'I 
creim, creidhm, gnaw, chew, nibble, Ir. crevmitn, creidhmim, M. Ir. 

mini. Ir. is also creinim, W. cnithio, end (which also means 

"gnaw"): from knet, knen, kno, ken, bite, scratch, as in 

cnhmh, q.v. The n of kn early becomes r because of the m 

or n after the first vowel, 
crein, suffer for (W. H.). Possibly allied to the 0. Ir. crenim, 

buy : " You will buy for it !" See imder creic. 
creis, grease ; from Sc. creische, from 0. Fr. craisse, cresse, from 

Lat. crassa, crasstis, thick. Eng. grease is of like origin. 
creithleag, a gadfly, so Ir. (FoL), M. Ir. crebar, W. creyr, root 

ci-eb, scratch 1 Of. Lett, kribindt, gnaw off. 
creoth, wound, hurt (Dialectic), Ir. creo, a wound (O'R.) ; from 

krevo-, root of crb, blood ? Of. Gr. Kpovui, strike, 
creubh, creubhag, cr6, the body ; cf. M. Ir. cri, *kreivo-, flesh, 

body ; Got. hraiva-, Norse hrae, body, 0. H. G. hreo, corpse. 

It is possible to refer cri, ere to *krepi-, Lat. corpus, 0. H. G. 

Iiref, kg. S. hrif, body, Eng. mid-ri^. 
creubh, dun, crave ; from the Eng. crave. 
creubhaidh, tender in liealth ; seemingly from creubh. 
creuchd, wound, Ir. cre'achd, 0. Ir. credit, W. craith, scar, creithen, 

M. Br. creizemi (do.), *crempto- ; root kerj), ker. Lit. kerpii, 

out, Skr. krjitin/j, sword (Strachau). Stokes gives the Celtic as 

krekio-s, and Bez. cfs. Norse hrekja, worry. This neglects 

the e of Gadelic. 
creud, what, Ir. creud, cread, E. Ir. cret ; for ce ret. See co and 

creud, creed, Ir. erdidh, M. Ir. credo, W. credo ; from Lat. credo, 1 

believe ; the first word of the Apostles' Greed in Lat. 
creutair, creatui-e, Ir. creatiir, W. creadwr ; from Lat. creatura. 
criadh, clay, so Ir. Really the oblique form of ere, q.v. 
criathar, a sieve, Ir., 0. Ir. criathar, 0. W. cruitr, Cor. eroider, 

M. Br. croezr, '''kreitro- ; Ag. S. hridder, hriddel, Eng. riddle 

Ger. reiter ; further Lat. (^brnm (*kri-6ro-n) ; root kri, krei, 

separate, whence Gr. Kpivw, Eng. critic, etc. 
criachadh, proposing to oneself ; from crtoch, end. Cf. Eng. 

define, irora finis, and end, used for " purpose." 
cridhe, heart, Ir. croidJie., 0. Ir. eride, W. craidd, Br. kreis, middle, 

*krdjo-n ; Gr. KpaSla, KapSia ■ Lat. cor, cordis ; Eng. heart, 

(Jer. ken : Lit. szirdu. 


crilein, a small creel (M'E.), a box, small coffer (H.S.D.), crilein 
(Arm., M'L.), a box, Ir. crilin, E. Ir. criol, coffer. Stokes 
gives the stem as krepo-, and Bez. adds Skr. fUrpa, winnowing 
basket (Cf. for j)honetics llort, and Skr. puma, full). Sc, 
Eug. creel, which appears about 1400, is usually derived 
hence ; but as the G. form itself is doubtful, and, from all 
appearance, taken from Lh., it is best to look elsewhere for 
an etymology for creel, as, through Fr., from Lat. craticida. 
The G. criol exists Oiily in Sh., who found it in Lh. 

crioch, end, Ir. crioch, 0. Ir. crich, *krika, from the root krei, 
separate, as in criathar, q.v. Stokes and Bezzenberger join 
AV. crip, a comb, and compare Lit. kreikti, strew, and, for 
sense, appeal to the Ger., Eng. strand, " the strewed," 0. Slav. 
atrana, side. It has also been referred to the root of Lat. 
circus, circle, Gr. Kp'tKos. 
criom, nibble, criomag, a bit ; see creim. 

crion, little, withered, Ir. crion, E. Ir. crin, W. crin, fragile, drj', 
Br. krin, *kreruiH ; root kre appears to belong to root ker, 
k-erd, destroy, Skr. crii.dmi, break, rend, Lat. caries, decay, 
Gr. aK-qpaTOi, pure, imtouched, (iot. hairus, sword. Stokes 
allies it to Skr. ';rdna, cooked, ';rd, cook, possibly a form of 
the root ker a, mix, Gr. KepapMi, mix. 

crioncanachd, a strife, quarrelsomeness, Ir. cr'umcdnaclid : an Ir. 
word from Lh., apparently. Perhaps crion-cdii, " small 

crionna, attentive to small thiug.s, prudent, so Ir. (crConna, Con.) ; 
also dialectic crionda, whicli shows its connection with crion. 
Cf. W. crintach, sordid. 

criopag, a wrinkle, Ir. criopog ; foimded-on Eng. cTimp, crumple. 
M'A. has criopag, a clew of yarn. 

crios, a belt, girdle, so Jr., 0. Ir. criss, fo-chridigedar, accingat, W. 
crys, shirt, E. W. crys, belt, M. Br. crisaff, succingere, Br. 
kreis, middle. Bez. suggests comparison with Lit. skritiUf/s, 
circle, knee cap, skreiste mantle. It has been referred also to 
the root krid of cridhe, heart. 

Criosdaidh, a Christian, Ir. Criosduighe, M. Ir. cristaige ; from the 
G. Griosd, Ir. Criosda, Christ ; from Lat. Christus, Gr. 
X/Dto-Tos, the Anointed One. 

criostal, a crystal, so Ir. ; from the Eng. 

criot, an earthen vessel (Dialect, H.S.D.), Ir. criotamliail, earthen, 
made of clay (O'B.), criot, an earthen vessel (O'R.) \_ 

criotaich, caress ; see cniadaich. 

criplich, a cripple ; from the Eng. cripple. 

crith, shake, quiver, Ir., E. Ir. crith, VV. cri/d, 0. W. crit, *kritu-; 
Ag. S. hritSa, fever, Ger. ritten, fever. See crath, to which 
crith has been suggested as cognate (root krt, krot, kret). 


critheann, critheach, the aspen tree, Ir. crann-critheach ; from 

cro, a sheep cot, pen, Ir. cro, M. Ir. cro caerach, ovile, cro na muice, 

pig-Stye, W. craw, hovel, pig-stye, Br. kraou, cruu, stable, 

*krdpo-s, a stye, roof ; Ag. S. ^rof, E^g. roof, Norse hrdf, a, 

shed (Stokes). The Norse krd, small pen, Se. croo, seem 

cro, the eye of a needle, Ir., E. Ir. cro, W. crati, M. Br. crdo, Br. 

t cro, blood, E. Ir. crd, crii, W. erau, Cor. crow, * krovo-s ; Lat. 

cruor, gore ; Lit. kraujas, blood ; Skr. kravis, raw flesh ; Gr. 

Kpeai, flesh ; Eng. raw. 
J cro, death, Ir., E. Ir. cro. From the same origin as cro, blood. 

This is the Sc. cro, the weregild of the various individuals in 

the Scoto-Oeltic Kingdom, from the king downwards. 
croc, beat, pound (Dialectic, H.S.D.) : 

croc, a branch of a deer's horn ; cf. Norse krokr, Eng. crook. 
crocan, a crook ; from the Norse krdkr, Eng. crook. 
croch, hang, Ir. crochaim, crock, a cross, gallows, E. Ir. crock, cross, 

,W. crog ; from the Lat. crux, crucis. 
crbch, saffron, Ir. erdch ; from Lat. crocus, from Gr. kjookos, crocus, 

and its product saffron. 
crodh, cattle, Ir. crodh, a dowry, cattle, M. Ir. arod, wealth (cattle) : 

*krodo-, I. E. qordh, qerdh ; Eng. herd, Ger. licrde ; Lit. 

kerdzus, herd (man), Ch. SI. credu, a herd ; Skr. gardhas, a 
, troop, 
crodha, valiant, Ir. tr6dha, E. Ir. croda, valiant, cruel, *crovdavo-s, 

"hardy ;" root crovd of cruaidh, q.v. 
crodhan, hoof, parted hoof, Ir. crobhdn, a little hoof or paw. See 

crog, an earthen vessel, crogan, a pitcher, Ir. crogdn, pitcher, 

E. Ir. crocann, olla, W. crochan, * krukko- ; Gr. Kpts>u(j6<i., 

pitcher {^KpinKJoi) ; to which are allied, by borrowing some- 
how, Eng. crock, Ag. S. crocca, Norse krukka, Ger. krug. G. 

and W. phonetics (G. g=W. ch) are unsatisfactory. 
crog, an aged ewe ; from the Sc. crock ; cf. Norw. krake, a sickly 

beast, Fries, krakke, broken-down horse, etc. 
crog, large hand, hand in paw form, *erobhag, Ir. crobh, hand 

from wrist to fingers, paw, hoof, 0. Ir. crob, hand. See crubh. 
crogaid, a beast with small horns (M'A.) ; from crog ? 
croic, foam on spirits, rage, difiicuhy, cast sea-weed : 
croich, gallows, Ir. crock, gallows, cross, E. Ir. crock, cross, W. 

crogbren, gallows ; from Lat. crux, crucis. 
cr6id, a sumptuous present (Heb.) ; see cnbid. 



eroidh, pen cattle, house corn ; from crb. Dialectic for latter 
meaning is crodhadli. 

croidhleag, a basket, small creel ; see erUein. 

crdilean, a little fold, a group ; from crb. 

crois, a cross, so Ir., E. Ir. cross, W. croes ; from Lat. crux. 

eroistara, cranntara, also -tara, -tarra, the fiery cross : crois + 
tara ; see crois above. As to tara, cf . the Norse tara, war 

croit, a hump, hillock, Ir. croit, W. crwtli, a hunch, harp, croth, a 
protuberant part (as calf of leg), *crotti- ; from Icrot, hurt, 
root kur, round, as in cruinn, emit, q.v. 

croit, a croft ; from the Eng. croft. In the sense of " vulva," cf. 
W. croth, Br. courz, which Stokes refers to cruit, harp ; but 
the G. may be simply a metaphorical use of croit, croft. 

crolot, wound dangerously ; ero + lot, q.v. 

crom, bent, Ir., E. Ir. crom, 0. Ir. cromm, W. crwm, Br. krom, 
0. Br. crum, * krumho- ; from the same root as cruinn 1 The 
Ag. S. crumh, crooked, Eng. crumple, Ger. krumm, have been 
compared, and borrowing alleged, some holding that the 
Teutons borrowed from the Celts, and vice versa. Dr Stokes 
holds that the Celts are the borrowers. The Teutonic and 
Celtic words do not seem to be connected at all in reality. It 
is an accidental coincidence, which is bound to happen some- 
times, and the wonder is, it does not happen oftener. 

cromadh, a measure the length of the middle finger, Ir. cruma ; 
from crom. 

cron, fault, harm, Ir. cronaim, I bewitch ; cf. M. Ir. cron, rebuking. 
The idea is that of being "fore-spoken" by witchcraft. See 

cronaich, rebuke, Ir. cronuighim, M. Ir. cronaigim,, cron, rebuking, 
E. Ir. air-chron (do.), *kruno- ; cf. Teut. hru, noise, Norse 
rdmr, shouting, Ag. S. hrdam, a din. 

cronan, a dirge, croon, purring, Ir., E. Ir. crondn. O'Curry 
(Mann, and Cust. III., 246) writes the Ir. as crdndn, and 
defines it as the low murmuring or chorus to each verse of 
the aidbsi or choral singing. Sc. croon, croyn (15th century), 
corresponds to Du. krevnen, groan, M. Du. kronen,, lament, 
M. Low G. kronen, growl, 0. H. G. chrdnan, M. L. G. kroenen, 
chatter (Murray, who thinks the Sc. came from Low Ger. 
in M. Eng. period). It seems clear that the Gadelic and 
Teutonic are related to each other by borrowing ; seemingly 
the Gadelic is borrowed. 

crosach, crossing, thwarting, Ir. crosanta ; also G. crosan (and 
crostan), a peevish man ; all from cros, the basis of crois, 
cross, q.v. 


CTOSda, perverse, irascible, so Ir. ; from the G. base cros of crois, 

crotal, lichen, especially for dyeing, cudbear : *crottal ; *krot-to-, 

from krot ; cf. Gr. Kporwvq, an excrescence on a tree. Hence 

Sc. crottle. M. Ir. crotal means " husk" (which may be G. 

crotal above), " kernel, cymbal." In the last two senses the 

word is from the Lat. erotalum, a rattle : the Irish used a 

small pear-shaped bell or rattle, whence the Ir. Eng. crotal 

cruach, a pile, heap, Ir., E. Ir. cruach, W. crug, Cor. ctuc, 0. Br. 

criu:, *kroukd ; Lit. hrduti, to pile, Icruvi, heap ; Norse hniga, 

heap. Others have compared the Norse hraukr, a small 

stack, Ag. S. Mac, Eng. rick. 
cruachan, cruachainn, hip, upper part of the hip, E. Ir. cruachait ; 

from critach, heap, hump. Stokes translates the Ir, as " chine," 

and considers it, like the corresponding Ger. kreuz, derived 

from Lat. crucem, cross. The Gaelic meaning is distinctly 

against this. 
cruaidh, hard, Ir. cruaidh, O.Ir. cruaid, *k]'ovdi-s; root kreva, to be 

bloody, raw, whence crb, blood, q.v. ; Lat. crudus, Eng. crude. 

Hence cruailinn, hard, rocky, 
crib, squat, crouch, Ir. crubadh, to bend, crook ; also G. criibach, 

cripple, Ir. do. ; from Norse krjupa, to creep, kneel (Eng. 

creep, etc.), kroppinn, crippled, root kreup, krup, as in Eng. 

cripple, Sc. cruppen thegether, contracted, bowed. Cf. W. 

crwh, bent. 
criiban, the crab-fish, Ir. cniban, W. crwhan. From cruh above, 
crubh, a horse's hoof, Ir. crobh, paw, hoof, E. Ir. crii, ""kruvo-, 

hoof ; Zend nrva, cruva, nail, horn ; further Gr. Kepas, horn, 

and com, q.v. (Stokes). 
crudha, horse shoe, Ir. crudk : seemingly from the above word, 
cruidein, the kiug-fisher, Ir. cruidin : 
cruimh, a worm, Ir. cnuimh, 0. Ir. cruim, W., Cor. pry f, Br. prenv, 

*qrmi- ; Lit. kirmis, Lett, serms ; Skr. krmis, krimis. 
cruinn, round, so Ir., 0. Ir. cruind, W. crion, Br. krenn, *'krundi-s; 

root kuro-, circle, turn, as in car, q.v. Cf. Lat. curvus ; Gr. 

Kvprds, bent, Kopuivq, ring, Lat. corona, Eng. crown. Bezzen- 

berger cfs. the form crundi- from kur to Lat. rotundus from 

crtiisgeiB, a lamp, jug, Ir. cruisgin ; from M. Eng. cruskyn, from 

0. Fr. creusequin, from Teut. knls, whence Eng. cruse. 
criisle, cruidse, a mausoleum, hollow vault of a church ; from 

M. Eng. cruddes, vault, crypt, crowd, by-form of Eng. crypt. 
emit, a harp, so Ir., 0. Ir. crot, W. cnvth, fidicula. Late Lat. (600 

A.D.) chrotta, *krotta : krot-tOr, from krot, kurt, root kur, as in 


G. cruinn, round, q.v., Gr. Kvpro's (do.) : " the curved instru- 
ment." Stokes refers it to the root hrot, strike, as in Gr. 
KpoT€to, rattle, clap. Hence Eng. crowd. 

cruithneachd, cruineachd, wheat, Ir. cruithneachd, 0. Ir. cruitk- 
necht : *krt-on-, root kert, ker, cut, "that which is cut ;" Lit. 
keriil, cut ; Gr. Kfipio, Lat. eurtus, etc. (Rhys). It has been 
compared to the Lat. Ceres, Eng. cereal, and Lat. cresco, creo, 
as in cruth. 

crftlaist, a rocky hill (H.S.D., from MSS.) ; from crv/iidh ? Cf 

CTumag, the plant skirret ; Sc. erummock. From Gaelic crom 

cruman, the hip bone, Ir. crumdn, hip bone, crooked surgical 
instrument ; from crom. 

criin, crown, Ir. crdn ; from M. Eng. crune, from 0. Fr. coronne, 
from Lat. corona. 

crunnluadh, a quick measure in pipe music : cruinn + luath. 

crup, crouch, contract, Ir. crupaim ; founded on the M. Eng 
eruppel, cripple, a root crup, appearing in Sc. cruppen, con- 
tracted. See crikhaeh. 

cruscladh, wrinkling : 

cruth, form, figure, Ir., 0. Ir. cruth, W. pryd, *qrtu-s, root qer, 
make ; Lat, cerus, creator, creo, Eng. create ; Lit. kuriu, build ; 
Skr. kar, make, krtas, made. 

cii, a dog, Ir., 0. Ir. cu, g. con, W. ci, pi. cwn. Cor., Br. ki, pi. Br. 
koun, *kv£, g. *hunos; Gr. Kxmv ; Lat. canis ; Eng. hound; 
Skr. fvd, g. funas. 

cuach, a cup, bowl, Ir. aiMchdg, 0. Ir. ciiach ; Lat. cwuctis, Gr. 
KdVKa ; Skr. koQa. It is generally held that cuach is borrowed 
from the Lat., though phonetically they may be cognate. 
The W. cawg is certainly borrowed. 

cuach, curl, so Ir. ; from the above. 

cuag, an awkward curve, kink, an excrescence on the heel ; also 
guag (Dialectic) : *kouggd, *kouk-gd ; root qevq, bend ; Skr. 
kuc, bend, Lit. kuku, hook ? 

cu'ag, cubhag, cuckoo, Ir. ciiach, 0. Ir. cuach, W. cdg, of onomato- 
poetic origin — from the cuckoo's cry of kuku, whence Eng. 
cuckoo, Lat. cucMus, Gr. kokkv^, Skr. kdkilas, koha. 

cuailean, the hair, a lock, curl, Ir. cuailen (Stokes). This Stokes 
refers to a stem *koglenno-, and cfs. Gr. koxXos, a spiral- 
shelled shell-fish, KoxAt'as, spiral-shelled snail, Lat. cochlea. 
As the Gr. may be for xdxA.os, the derivation is uncertain. 
Ir. cuailin, a bundle, faggot, suggests that a similar deriva- 
tive from cual was used metaphorically for a " bundle or cord 
of hair." 


cuaille, a club, bludgeon, Ir., E. Ir. cuaille, *kaullio- ; Gr. KavXos, 

stalk ; Lat. caulis, stalk ; Lit. Mulas, a bone (Stokes). It 

may, however, be for *c(md-s-lio-, from qovd, Lat. cUdo, strike. 
cuairsg, roll, wreathe, so Ir. ; from cwairt, with the termination 

cuairt, circuit, so Ir., 0. Ir. cAairt. Stokes gives the stem as 

*kukrti-, from hir, circle, as in cruinn. 
cual, a faggot, burden of sticks, Ir. fMaZ,.M. Ir. cual, heap, *kuglo-, 

root kitg, qeug ; Eng. heap ; Lat. cwmMlus ( = cub-lus ?) ; Lit. 

hAgis, heap. 
cuallach, herding or tending cattle : 
cuallach, society, family, Ir. cuallaidheachd, society, cuallaidhe, a 

companion : 
cuan, the ocean, Ir., M. Ir. cuan, harbour, *copno- ; Norse hofn, 

Ger. hafen, Eng. haven. 
cuanal, cuantal, a company, a band of singers : 
cuanna, cuannar, handsome, fine, Ir. cuanna ; also cuanta, robust, • 

neat : * kaunr-navos, from kaun, skaun ; Ger. schon. 
t cuar, crooked, Ir. cva,r, E. Ir. cAar, ^kvkro^, root kiie, bend ; Skr. 

kitcati, bend. Lit. kukii, hook (Strachan). But cf. cuairt. 
cuaradh, paining, tormenting ; cf. W. cur, pain, care, curio, beat. 

The Dictionaries refer the word to ciitrr, as a Dialectic form, 
cuaran, a brogue, sock, Ir. cuar6g, M. Ir. cdardn, W. cwran, a 

covering for the foot and leg, *kourano-, "mocassin" : *keu- 

ro- ; root keu, ku, as in Lat. cu-tis, skin, Eng. hide, Ag. S. h^d 

cuas, a cave ; see cos. 

ciib, a tumbril, box-cart ; from Sc. coop, coup, box-cart, etc., pro- 
bably the same as Eng. coop, basket. Dialectic coba. 
cfib, crouch, Ir. ciibaim ; founded on Lat. vuho, lie. 
cvibaid, pulpit ; ultimately from Lat. pulpitum, a speaking plat- 
form, whence Eng. •pulpit, Sc. poopit. Dialectic btibaid. 
cubair, a cooper ; from the Eng. 
cubhag, cuckoo ; see cu'ag. 
cubhaidh, fit, so Ir., 0. Ir. cobaid, fit, cuhaithiu, concinnior : *eon- 

vedo-, " suiting ;" root ved, bind, as in feadhainn. 
cubhraidh, fragrant, Ir. cumhra, cwmhra, M. Ir. citmra, cumrae, 

E. Ir. cumrai (i n-aballgort chumrai) ; *com-rae : 
cubhraig, cubhraiiiii, a coverlet ; founded on the Eng. cover, 

coverlet. Dialectic cuibhlig. 
cuchailte, a residence (Arm. ; not H.S.D.), Ir. cuclaidhe ; * con- 

cladh- ; from cladh, q.v. 
cudaig, the fish cuddy, young of the coalfish, Ir. cudbg, c6dog, 

haddock, *cod-do- ; Eng. haddock ? Sc. cuddy, cudden, may 

be of G. origin (Murray). Also cudainn. 


cMainn, a large bushel or tub; of. Norse Mtr, cask, So. coodie, 
quiddie, small tub. M. Ir. cuidin, coithin, catinus, is probably 
from a Celt, kotino-, Gr. kotvXt), cup, Lat. cattmis, a deep 

cudrom, cudthrom, weight : * eorirtrom-, "co-heavy;" 0. Ir. 

cutrumme, similis. See trom. Dialectic cnideam. 
cugainii, delicacy, " kitchen," E. Ir. cuicen ; from Lat. coquina. 
cuibheasach, tolerable, middling, Ir. cuibheasach, decent, cuibheas, 

decency, cuibhe, decent. See cuhhaidh for stem. The Ir. 

cuibhe shows that it is possible to derive the word from 

* con-vesu-, root vesu of feabhas. 
euibhle, cuibhill, a wheel ; from Eng. wheel. 
ouibhne, deer's horn (Arm., M'L.), deer's tibia (H.S.D.) : 
cuibhreach, a bond, chain, so Ir., 0. Ir. cuimrech, vb. cfmriug, ligo, 

W. rhwym, vinculum, Br. rum, hevre, *kom-rigo-n ; rigo-, a 
bond ; Lat. corrigia, shoe-lace ; M. H. G. ric, band, string. 

cuibhrig, cover, coverlet ; see cubhraig. 

cuibhrionn, portion, so Ir., E. Ir. cuibrend, W. cyfran : *com-rann; 
see rann. 

cuid, share, part, Ir. cuid, g. coda, 0. Ir. cuit, W. peth, res, pars, 
Cor. peth, Br. pez, *qezdi-, *qozdi- ; qes, qos, seemingly from the 
pron. root qo, qe (see co). Cf. Lat. quotidie, qaota, Br. ped, 
how much. Bezzenberger compares Lit. kedeti, burst, SI. 
c§sti, part ; root qed. Hence Eng. piece. 

cuideachd, company, Ir. cuideachda, 0. Ir. eotecht, coitio, conventus : 

* con-techt ; see teacht. 

cuideag, a spider (H.S.D.), Ir. cuideog (O'R.) : 

cuideal, pride (Arm.), cuidealas (M'A.) ; from cuid? 

cuideam, weight ; see cudrom. 

cuidh, cuith, inclosure (Barra) ; from Norse kvi, Orkney quoy, a 

pen, Orkney and Shetland qiiep, qvM-y, enclosed laud. 
cuidhe, wreath of snow ; see cuith. 

cuidhtich, quit, requite, Ir. eaitighim ; from Eng. quit 1 
cuidich, assist, Ir. cuidighim, M. Ir. cuitigim, share ; from cuid. 
cuidtidh, common (Sh. ; not H.S.D.), Ir. cuidri{dh), entertain- 

meut, commons : *con-trebi-, as in caidreabh ? 
cuifein, the wadding of a gun ; from Sc. colfin. 
cuigeal, a distaff, so Ir., M. Ir. cuigel, W. cogail. Corn, cigel, Br. 

kegel ; from M. Lat. conucula, for colucula, from colus. From 

Lat. conucula comes Ger. hunkel, Fr. quenouille. 
ciiil, corner, recess, Ir. oAil, 0. Ir. cuil, W. cil, * kCdi-. See ciil. 
cuilbheart, a wile, trick ; from ciiil + beart. 
cuilbheir, a gun ; from the Eng. eulverin. 
cuilc, reed, cane, Ir. aidlc, *kolki- ; root kol, as in Lat. culmus, 

stalk, Gr. KciAa/ios, reed, Eng. haulm. 


cuile, au apartment where stores are kept ; from *kul-iij-, root qei 

of ceall. 
cuileag, a fly, Ir. and E. Ir. cuil, W. cylion, flies, Cor. helionen, Br. 

guelyenen, *kuli-s, kulidno-s : Lat. cukx. 
cuilean, a whelp, Ir. cuileann, E. Ir. culen, W. colwyn. Cor. coLoin, 

catulus, Br. kolenn, young of quadmpeds ; Cr. KvkXa = crKvka^^ 

whelp (Bez.). It may be from ca, ^kun, dog. 
cuilionn, holly, so Ir., E. Ir. cuilenn, W. celyn. Cor. celin, Br. 

kelenn (pi.), *kolenno- \ Eng. Iwlly, Ag. S. holegn. 
Ciiilm, a feast ; Dialectic for cuirm, q.v. 
cuimein, the plant cumin, Jr. cuiiain ; from Lat. cuminum, Eng. 

cuimhne, remembrance, so Ir., 0. Ir. cuman, cuimnech, memor, W. 

cof, Cor. eov, M. Br. couff, * co-men ; root men, as in Lat. 

memini, I remember, Eng. mention, mind, etc. 
cuimir, brief, handsome, so Ir., E. Ir. cwmbair, * com-berro- ; for 

berr, see bearr. 
cuimrig, trouble ; see coimrig. 
cuimse, a mark, aim, moderation, Ir. cuimse ; from com + meas ; 

see meas. Cf. eirmis. 
cuin, when, E. Ir. cuin, W., Br. ^)a» ; Lat. quum; Eng. when ; see 

CO. The Ir. ca7i (O'Cl.) is allied to Lat. quando, and more 

nearly than cuin to W., Br. pan. 
cuing, a yoke, Ir., E. Ir. cuing : * con-jungi-, root jung, jug, as iu 

Lat. jvmgo, Eng. joke ? For phonetics, see next, 
cuinge, narrowness, 0. Ir. cum^e ; see cumkang. 
cuinn, coin ; from the Eng. 
cuinneag, a pail, milk pail, Ir. cuinneog, M. Ir. cuindeog, W. 

cunnog, cynnog ; cf. Lat. congius, a quart. 
cuinnean, a nostril : 
cuinnlein, a stalk of corn, a nostril ; for the first meaning, see 

connlach ; for the second, cuinnean above. 
cuinnse, a quince ; from the Eng. 
cuinnsear, a dagger, sword ; from the Eng. whinger. 
cuip, a whip ; from Eng. whip. 
cuir, put, Ir., E. Ir. cuirivi, 0. Ir. cuiriur, W. hebgor, put aside, 

*korid, I put. The root is likely ker, kor, of cruth, q.v. 

For meaning cf. Lat. facio and Gr. Ttd^ij/xt. Bezzenberger 

compares it to Skr. kaldyati, drive, bear, do. Lit. karta, 

position, lie. 
cuircinn, a particular kind of head-dress for women, Ir. cuircin, 

head, crest, comb (O'R.) ; from currachd ? Sc. courche, curges 

(pi.), a covering for a woman's head, Eng. kerchief. 
cuireadh, an invitation, so Ir. ; from cuir, q.v. 
cuireall, a kind of pack-saddle (H.S.D. from MSS.) : 


cuireid, cuirein, txirn, wile ; from car, q.v. 

cuirinnein, the white water-lily (H.S.D., which quotes only O'K), 

Ir. (ymrinin (O'R.) : 
cuirm, a feast, so Ir., E. Ir. coirm, cuirm, M. W. cwrwf, W. cwrw, 

beer, Cor. core/, Gaul. KovpiJ.1,, cervisia ^kwrmen ; Lat. cremor, 

broth (Eng. cream) ; Gr. Kepavvvfui,, mix ; Skr. grd, gr, cook ; 

I. E. kera, kra, mix. 
cuirnean, a small heap of stones, dew-drop, ringlet, Ir. cuirnedn, 

head of a pin, brooch, ringlet. In the first sense, it is from 

chrn, and possibly also in the other two senses, the idea being 

"cluster, heap." 
cuirpidh, wicked, corrupt ; see coirbte, coirb. 
cdirt, court, Ir. cuirt ; from the Eng. 
ctiirtein, a curtain, ciirteir, plaiding (Dialectic) ; formed on Eng. 

Otis, cause, matter, Ir., E. Ir. cAis, 0. Ir. c6is ; from Lat. causa. 
cuisdeag, the little finger (Sh., H.S.D.), Ir. cuisdeog (O'E.) : 
cuiseag, a stalk, kind of grass, Ir. coisin, a stem, stalk, little foot ; 

from cas, foot. But see next. 
cuisle, pulse, vein, pipe, Ir. cuisle, E. Ir. cuisli, g. pi. cuislend, a 

pipe for music, 0. Ir. cusle, g. euslen, cuislennach, a piper. It 

has no connection with Lat. pulsus, and its etymology is 

obscure (Stokes). Cf. Eng. hose. 
cuiste, a couch, Ir. eiiiste, cidste (O'B.) ; from Eng. couch. 
cuith, a wreath of snow, a pit, Ir., E. Ir. cuithe, a pit, W. pydew ; 

from Lat. puteus, Eng. pit. 
ctlitich, quit, requite ; see cuidhtich. 
Ctil, back, Ir., 0. Ir. cAl, W. cil. Cor. chil, Br. kii, *k'dlo- ; Lat. 

culadh, a good condition of the body, culach, fat, sleek : " well- 
covered," from cul of cidaidh ? 

culaidh, apparel, so Ir. ; root qel, qol, cover ; Ger. huUe, a cover- 
ing, Lat. occulo. See ceil. 

cfllag, turf for the back of the fire, sitting behind another on 
horseback, a collop ; all from ciil. 

ciilan, tresses, hair ; from cul. 

culaobh, behind, the back ; E. Ir. cdlaib (dat. pL), ciilu (ace. pi.) ; 
from cul. The dat. (and ace.) pi. of ciil used locatively — for 
rest (and motion). Compare beulaobh. 

cularan, a cucumber, Ir. culardn, W. cylor, earth nuts, Br. colore7i, 
earth nut. Eniault makes the Celtic word to be *carul-an-, 
and compares Gr. Kapvov, nut. 

cuUach, a boar, Ir., E. Ir. cullach, 0. Ir. callach, cullach, caullach, 
Br. kalloc'h, " entire," qellecq, epithet for stallions and boars, 
* kalludko-s, from *kalljo-, testicle, W. caill, testicuius, M. Br. 


qv^ll ; root hd, hard, as in clach, q.v., Norse hella, flat stone, 
etc. (Bezzenberger). Cf. Lat. culleus, bag, scrotum, whence 
0. Fr. couillon, Eng. cullion, testiclus, Sc. culls. Hence 
cullbhoc, wether-goat, Ir. culbhoc. 

cullachas, impotence, cullach, eunuch ; from cull, call ; sec call. 

culraoinidh, goal-keeper (Suth.) ; from cid and raon '/ 

culuran, birth-wort, cucumber ; see cularan. 

cum, keep, hold, Ir. congbhaighim, inf. congmhail, 0. Ir. congahin ; 
from con and gabh, take. The G. cum is for congv or congbh, 
and the gv becomes m as in Im, ciomach, turn, etc. 

cuma, cumadh, shape, form, Ir. cunia, E. Ir. cumma, vb. cummaim : 

cumail, keeping, Ir. cumail, congmhail ; inf. to cum, i.e., cuvi- 

cuman, a mUking pail ; Ur. KVfjifirj, KVfjifio^, cup ; Ger. humpen, 

cumanta, common, Ir. cumann ; from the Eng. common. 

cumha, mourning, so Jr., E. Ir. cuma : I. E. root qem, qoni ; Eng. 
hum, Ger. humrnen. 

cumha, a stipulation, Ir. cumha, E. Ir. coma, bribe, gift, condition : 
*comHijo-, " co-saying," 0. Ir. ai, a saying, Lat. ajo 1 See 
adhan. Cf. cunnradh. 

cumhachd, power, so Ir., 0. Ir. cumachte, W. cyfoeth, power, riches, 
*kom^akto-, root ag, drive, carry, Lat. ago, Gr. oiyw, Eug. act, 
etc. (Stokes). The 0. Ir. eumang, potestas, is doubtless a 
nasalised form of the root ag { = ang) ; it has been referred 
to the root ang, Lat. angere, etc., as in cumhang below, but 
the meaning is unsatisfactory. The word cumhachd has also 
been analysed as co-mccg-iu-, where mag has been variously 
referred to I. E. meg, great (Gr. jneyas, Eng. mitch), or I. E. 
7negh (Eug. m,ai/, Lat. machina, machine). 

cumhang, narrow, Ir. ciimhang, 0. Ir. cumang, W. cyfymj, *kum- 
ango-s ; root ang ; Gr. ayyu), choke, ayx', near ; Lat. angu, 
angustus ; Ger. eng. 

Ciimhliant, covenant ; from M. Eug., Sc. conand, couenant, Eug. 
covenant, from 0. Fr. convenant, Lat. convenire. M. Br. has 
comanant, W. cyfammod. 

cumraich, cumber ; from the Eug. 

cunbhalach, constant, steady, Ir. cungbhailleaeh, firm, miserly ; 
from cungbhail, keeping, Ir. inf. of cuin, q.v. 

cungaidh, instrument, accoutrements : * con-gen-, root gen of 
gnwmh, deed. See next. 

cungaisich, help, co-operate, Ir. cunghas, co-operation, vb. 
cungnaighim, I help, cungantach, helpful, E. Ir. cungnam, 
assistance : *con-\-gniorm ; see cbmhnadh. 



cunnart, danger, M. G. ewmtahlmrt (MT.), Ir. cuntahhairt, con- 

tabhairt, danger, doubt, 0. Ir. cumlmbart, cv/ndubart, con- 

tubart, doubt, * con-to-bart, root ber, of beir, q.v. (Cam.). 
cunnradh, cfinradh, bargain, covenant, Ir. connradh, cunnradh, 

0. Ir. cundrad, cunnrath, Manx coonrey : *con-rdbdh; see radh, 

cunnt, count, Ir. cunntas, cuntas, reckoning, cuntaim, I count ; 

from the Eng. 
cunnuil, an objection (Sh.), Ir. cuwvbil (Lh.) : 
Clip, box-cart, coup ; see mih. 
cupa, a cup, Ir. c^dn, W. cih ; from Lat. cApa, tub, Eng. cup, 

coop, etc. 
cupull, a couple, Ir. eiipla, cupall, W. cwpl ; from M. Eng. couple. 
cur, a placing, setting ; inf. to cuir, q.v. 
curach, a boat, coracle, Ir., E. Ir. cwajch, Irish Lat. cwnicis, dat. 

pi. (Adamnan), W. corwc, cwrwg, cwrwgl, *kuruko- (Stokes) ; 

Armen. Jcur, a boat, 0. SI. korici, a kind of vessel. The Lat. 

carina has been compared, but the vowels are unsuitable. 

Hence Eng. coracle. 
Cttradh, affliction, obstacle, curabh (Lh.), obstacle. In the sense 

of affliction, cf. euaradh. 
curaideach, frisky, cunning ; see cuireid. 
curaidh, a champion, Ir. cv/radh, E. Ir. cur, g. curad, caur, W. 

cawr, Cor. caur, gigas, Gaul. Kavapoi (Polyb.), Cavarillus, etc., 

*kavaro-s, a hero, mighty, root keva, kit, be strong ; Skr. 

favtra, mighty, g-dra, hero ; Gr. Kv/aios, lord, Kvpos, might. 
ciiraing, c&rainn, a coverlet (Dialectic, H.S.D.) ; founded on Eng. 

covering. M'A. has ctirainn, plaiding (felt) ; of the same 

cdram, care, Ir. ciiram ; from Lat. cura. 
cnrcag, sandpiper, M. Ir. cuirrcech, plover ; from currech, a marsh 

(K. Meyer). See next, 
curcais, bukush, so Ir. (O'B., etc.), E. Ir. eurcas, 0. Ir. curchas, 

0. W. cors, cannulos, W. corsen, reed, Br. corsenn, reed, 

* korokasto-, Icorkasto ; Lat. cdrex (Stokes, Emault). The 

E. Ir. currech, a marsh, is allied {*korseko-1). 
gUtt, comer, pit, Ir. curr, Keat. curr, pit, corr, well, cistern ; cf. 

W. cwr, corner, 
curracag, a bubble on the surface of liquids ; see currachd. 
corrachd, hood, cap, night-cap, Ir. currach (O'K.), M. Ir. curracach, 

cuculatus (Stokes, Ir. Gl. 598, who suggested connection 

with W. pyrchwyn, crest of a helmet). Sc. curch, courchie, 

Eng. kerchief, seem to be the origin of the G. word. 
currachdag, peat-heap (M'A.) ; cf. gurra^ag. 
cnrradh, a crowding together (Macpherson's Ossian) : 



curraidh, exhausted (H.S.D.), currtha (Sh., O'B.), Ir. currtha ; of. 

curran, curral, a carrot, root, radish, Ir. currdn, any kind of tap- 
rooted plant (O'E., Sh.) : *cors, head, as in corr ? Of. Eng. 
carrot, ultimately from Gr. Kapotrov, carrot, from Kapa, head, 
top ; *cors and kar of Kapa. are ultimately from the same 

curran, curral, horse-panniers for heavy loads ; cf. Sc. currack, 
corrack (do.), Eng. crooks. 

currucadh, cooing of pigeons, Ir. currAcadh (O'R.), Sc, Eng. oirr, 
cmring. The word is onomatopoetic. 

currucag, the lapwing ; see cwrcag. 

currusan, a milk-pail : 

ciirsa, course, manner, Ir. e&r&a ; from the Eng. course. 

curta, bad (Sh. ; not H.S.D.), ev^sta (O'E.) ; from Eng. curst, 

cus, sufficiency, overplus : 

cusag, wild mustard (Sh., Arm. ; not H.S.D.) : 

cusp, a kibe : 

cuspair, an object, mark, Ir. cuspoir, M. Ir. cuspdir (Keat., Oss.° 
296). Dialectic cuspair, a customer (see ctcspunn). 

cuspunn, custom, tribute, also cusmunn ; founded on Eng. custom. 

cut, hank of yam, Ir. cuta, one-twelfth of a hank of yam ; from 
Eng. cut. 

cut, to gut (fish) ; from Eng. gut. 

cutach, bobtailed, so Ir., E. Ir. do-chotta, they cut short, W. avta. 
The relationship, if any, existing between cut, cutach, and 
Eng. cut, is one of borrowing ; the history of Eng. cut is 
obscure, and the Celtic words mean " short, shorten," not "to 
cut" with a knife. Besides, the E. Ir. appears a century and 
a half eariier than the Eng. (1139 v. 1275). Stokes has 
suggested a borrowing from Fr. couteau ( = cndteUus, knife) for 
the E. Ir. form. 

cuthach, caothach, rage, Ir. cuthach, * koti-aca- ; root kot, Gr. 
KOTOS, wrath. See cath. 


da, two, Ir. dd, 0. Ir. dd (m.), di (f.), da n- (n.), W. dau (m.), 
dwi/ (f.), Cor. dou, diu, Br. dccou, diou (f.), *dvd, *dvdu (m.), dvei 
(f.), dvabin (dat.) ; Skr. dvau, dvd, dve (f., n.) ; Gr. Svw; Lat. 
dmd ; Got. tvai, Eng. two. 

dabhach, a vat, a measure of land (either one or four plough- 
gates, according to locality and land), 0. G. dahach (Bk. of 
Deer), Ir. dabhach, a vat, *dahdkd , Gr. ^airrco, bury, Ta<^os, 


grave ; root dhahh, dhdbh, deepen, dig out. Cf. Lit. d'^iit, 
hollow out. Bezzenberger suggests alliance with Eng. top, 
Ger. topf. Eng. tub, if allied to the Ger. zuber, is from the 
root of two, "a two-eared" vessel. Also dabhoeh, and in 
place-names Doch-. 

dacha, more likely ; see dbcha. 

dachaidh, home (adverb), a home, Ir. do thigh, M. Ir. dia tig, 
home, E. Ir. dia thaig ; from do and tigh. In Ir. the phrase 
is a prepositional adverb ; in Gaelic it ceases to be a phrase 
and becomes a welded noun. 

dad, anything, aught, tittle, M. G. dad, mote (in sunbeam), Ir. 
dadadh, dadamh, aught, a jot, etc., *darZ-dho-, root da, divide, 
Lit. dahs, part, Gr. Scwiws, division ? See t dail. Hence 
dadmun, a mote, and dadum = dad. 

dag, a pistol ; from M. Eng. dag, a pistol, from Fr. dague, a 
dagger, whence Br. dag. The change of meaning from 
" dagger" to " pistol" is one which occurs in the history of 
"pistol" itself, for it originally meant "dagger." Eng. 
dagger is allied. 

daibhir, poor, Ir. daidhhhir, M. Ir. daidber : *do-adberi-, from do- 
and adber, *dd-bher6, Lat. adfero. See saoibhir. 

d^icheil, handsome, Ir. ddigheamhuil, well appointed, decent; see 
dacha, dbcha, dbigh. 

daidein, daddy, Ir. daidin, daiJ, M. Ir. datdn, foster-father, datnait, 
foster-mother, W. tad, Cor. tat ; Lat. tata ; Gr. reTra ; Lit. 
tetf/tix, Ch. SI. teta , Skr. tatds. Eng. dad is borrowed from 
the Welsh (Skeat). 

dail, a wooden collar for cattle ; cf. W. dal, a hold, catch, Br. dal, 
a holding ; root dM, dhd, set 1 Cf. Gr. OrjKri, repository, 
TLdrjixi, place, Lat. facio, etc. But see dail, delay. 

dail, a dale, meadow ; from Norse dalr, Eng. dale. 

d^il, delay, credit, Ir. ddil, M. Ir. ddl, gen. ddla, respite, * ddli- ; 
from dvol, dvel, whence Eng. dwell, Norse dvol, delay. 

dail, a meeting, so Ir., 0. Ir. ddl, 0. W. datl, forum, W. dadl, 
sermo, 0. Br. dadlott, curiae, Br. dael, *datld, root dha, dhe, 
set, as in dail (Ernault). Stokes suggests connection with 
0. SI. de-, dicere. 

t dail, t dAl, portion, tribe, Ir. and 0. Ir. ddil, ddl, Bede daal = 
part, Dalreudini, later Ddl-riata, Dalriada, the early Scotic 
kingdom of Argyle, etc. : * ddlo-, root dd, divide, Gr. Sareo/Aot, 
divide, Sacr/Aos, division, Lit. dalis, a part, Skr. ddti, cut off, 
dalas, part. The verb dailich, distribute, is given In H.S.D. 
as a Dialectic form ; the Ir. is ddilim. Zimmer thinks dail, 
meeting, and ddil, part, are originally the same. 


dMmh, relationship, Ir. ddmh, tribe, family, E. Ir. dam: *ddmd, 
tribe, company; Gr. S^pos, Dor. Sa/ios, people, tribe, Eng. 
(democracy. It is usual to compare 0. W. dauu, cliens, W. 
daw {dawf), son-in-law, M. Br. deuff, Br. den (do.) ; but these 
words may be allied to Gr. 8d[mp, spouse, and be from the 
root dam, dom, house. 

daingean, strong, firm, so Ir., 0. Ir. daingen, W. dengyn, barbarous, 
*dangeno-, firm, hard, verb *deng6, E. Ir. dingim, press. 
Bezzenberger compares Norse tengja, fasten, tie together, 
Ag. S. tengan, press, O.H.G. gi-zengi, conjunctus. Thumeysen 
compares W. tengyn, obstinate, and Fr. tarigoner, press. It 
is possible to connect daingean with Norse dyngja, heap, 
women's apartment, Ag. S. ding, career. Lit. dengiu, cover ; 
perhaps O. H. G. tunc, earth-house, Eng. dung. 

d^ir, inire vaccam, Ir. ddir, M. Ir. dair, *ddr6, root dhf-, dhoro, 
Gr. dpdxTKd), spring, dopo^, semen viri, Skr. dhdra, stream, 

dairireach, rattling noise, E. Ir. der-drethar, cries, W. ddr, noise, 
daredd, tumultuous noise, root der, dher, as in Gi". Oprjvo's, 
dirge, Skr. dhran, sound, Eng. drone. See diird and 

dais, a heap of hay or peats, 0. Ir. dais, a heap, W. dds, 0. AV. 
das, M. Br. dastum, to mass, *dasti- (for G. and W.) ; Ag. S. 
toss (whence Fr. tas). Bezzenberger and Stokes correlate it 
with Norse des, hay heap, Sc. dass. 

dais, dois, a blockhead (H.S.D.), daiseachan, insipid rhymer 
(Arm.) ; seemingly borrowed from the Sc. dawsie, stupid, 
dase, stupefy. For root, see ddsachd. 

daithead, a diet ; from the Eng. See dwt. 

dala, one of two ; see under dara. 

dall, blind, Jr., E. Ir. doll, W., Br. dall, Cor. dal, *dvalno-, I. E. 
dhvl-no- ; Got. dvals, foolish, Eng. dull ; Lat. fallo, cheat 
( = dhalni)) ; Gr. doXtpo's, turbid. Hence, inter alia, dallag, 
a field shrew, a mole, Ir. dall6g. 

dallanach, a winnowing fan ; from dall. 

dalma, bold, forward, obstinate : " vigorous ?" root dhl in duille. 

dalta, foster-son, god-son, 0. G. dalta (Bk. of Deer), Ir. dalta, 
0. Ir. dalte, *daltaio-s, root dhi, dhil, suck ; Gr. dr/Xvs, 
female ; Lat. fUo, suck, femina ; etc. (Stokes, Strachan). See 
deoghail. It has been usual to refer dalta to the root al of 
altram, the d being considered as the remains of de, the pre- 
positional prefix {* de-altjo-s). 

d^m, a dam ; from the Eng. 

d^inais, draughts, bord dekmais, draught board ; from the Sc. dams, 
dambrod, Ger. damhrett, from Fr. dame, dame, draughts, Lat. 


damh, ox, stag, so Jr., 0. Ir. dam, Cor. da, dama, M.. Br. dauat, 

sheep, Br. danvad, sheep, demm, roe, *damo-» ; Lat. ddma, 

damma, deer ; Gr. Sa/jtaXr/s, a stier, Sa/xaA.ts, a calf ; Skr. 

damya, untamed stier. AUied is Eng. tame, Lat. domare, 

Eng. domestic, etc. 
d^mhair, rutting time ; for damh-dhair, from damh and dair 

dimhair (H.S.D.), damhair (Sh., Arms.), earnest, keen : 
damhan-allaidh, spider, Ir. damhdn-alla, O. Ir. damAn n-allaid 

(g. pi.), "wild little deer ;" see damh and allaidh. 
damnadh, cursing, condemnation, so Ir., M. Ir. damnad ; from 

Lat. damnatio. 
d^n, fate, destiny, Ir. ddn ; cf. M. Ir. ddn, gift, W. dawn, gift, 

talent, Lat. ddnum, root d6, Gr. StSw/xt, give, Skr. ddr, give. 
din, a poem, Ir. ddn, song, 0. Ir. ddn, g. c^rfreo, ars, *ddsnu-, root 

ddZs, know ; Gr. Sijvea, plans, arts, Ba-qnov, skilful ; Ch. SI. 

danhanh, wisdom ; Skr. daaisdna, miracle (Stokes). 
din, bold, Ir. ddna, 0. Ir. ddne, ddna, *ddsnavo-s, from the root of 

dan above (Stokes). 
danns, dance (thou), dannsa, damhsa, a dance, Ir. damhsa, W. 

dawns ; from the Eng. 
dao, obstinate, 0. Ir. doe, g. doi, tardus, *dav.sio-s ; Ag. S. dysig, 

foolish, Eng. dizzy, 0. H. G. tudc, stultus, Ger. thor, foolish 

(Stokes, Windisch). 
daobiaidh, wicked, perverse (Heb.) ; see dao. 
daoch, strong dislike, horror, daochan, anger (Sh.) : 
daoi, wicked, a wicked man, Ir. daoi, a wicked or foolish person ; 

opposite of saoi (with do-, *du-), which see for root. 
daoimean, a diamond ; from the Eng. 
daoi, daolag, a beetle, Ir. daoi, E. Ir. dael, doel, dail : *doilo-, root 

dei, di, as in dian, q.v. 
daolair, a lazy man, a niggard, Ir. daoi, lazy (O'R.) : 
daonnan, daondan, continually, always, * d' aon-tan (?), " from one 

time." Cf. ffreis. 
daor, enslaved, so Ir., 0. Ir. d6ir ; opposite of saor (with negative 

do-, *du-), which see for root, 
daor, dear, Ir. daxyr, daoradh, making dear (Four Masters) ; from 

M. Eng. deere, deore, dear (Stokes), 
daorach, intoxication ; cf. Sc. deray, mirthful noise at a banquet, 

M. Eng. derai, disorder, from Fr. desroi, dis-array. 
dara, second, so Ir. ; M. G. darle (Oss. Ballad, Fernaig MS.), 

*ind-araile, " the other," from ind = an, the, and 0. Ir. araile, 

alius = ar + aile, air + eile, q.v. Also an dala, the one of two, 

0. Ir. indala, from ind and aile, that is, an and eile. Further, 

dirna { = dala), E. Ir. indarna, *ind-araile n-ai, the one of 


them (two), 0. Ir. indain n-ai, vviieie di, coram, is tlie pi. of 

a, his. 
darach, oak, Ir. dair, daiack, E. Ir. daw, gen. darach, W., Cor. 

dar, *darik-; Lat. larix, Eng. larch ; Gr. (Maced.) SapuXXos, 

oak, 6/ous (do.), Sd/ov, spear ; Eag. tree ; etc. Hence darach, 

body of a boat. 
darcan, the hollow of the hand (Dialectic, H.S.D.) ; cf. dmrna. 
darcan, a teal : 

darna, one of two ; see under dara. 
darnaig, darn, darning ; from the Eng. darning, which is itself 

from W. dam, piece, patch (root dera, split, Eng. tear). 
djtsachd, rage, madness, M. G. ddsacht (M'V.), Ir. ddsachd, 0. Ir. 

ddsacht, insania / Ag. S. dwdes, foolish, Sc. dawsie, Du. dwaas, 

senseless (Strachan). 
dath, colour, Ir., E. Ir. dath, *datu-; from the root dha, dlie, 

place, as in dail, etc. ? 
dath, singe, Ir. doghaim, E. Ir. dothim, inf. doud, daif (n.), Br. 

deuiff, to burn, *david, I burn ; Gr. Sato, burn ; Skr. du, 

dundti, burn, davas, a brand, 
dathas, fallow deer ; damhasg, dabhasg ; from damh + seasg (?). 
de, of, Ir. de, 0. Ir. de., di, 0. W. di, W. y. Cor. the, Br. di, *de, 

*di, *de; Lat. de ; from dve, a case-form from dvo, two. 

Gaelic and Irish confuse this prep, with do, to ; a confusion 

which even extends to 0. Ir. in pre-accentual de compounds. 

Hence do of the past tenses : do chaidh, went, i.e., deach; do 

rinn, did, from do-gniu, I do, etc. 
d6, what ; also gu de ; a curtailed form of ciod e, " what is it ;'' 

fromi ciod and e, q.v. 
d6, an de, yesterday, Ir. ane, {andi), 0. Ir. indhd, W. y ddoe, Br. 

deae^h, M. Br. dech, * sendi-gesi, art. an and *gesi ; Lat. heri 

( = *hest); Gr. x^^s j 'Eng. yesterday. The Celtic forms are 

all influenced by the word for "to-day," G. an diu, O.Ir. inditi, 

W. lieddyw, dyw , from diu, * divo, day, q.v. Zimmer in fact 

refers the word to the root of diu (Zeit.^" 17). 
d6abh, drain, dry up, d^abhadh (pronounced dje-v), shrinking (as 

the staves of a wooden vessel). Dialectic deo' ; I. E. dhevo-, 

run, Eng. dew, Gr. dkbi, run, Skr. dhav, run, flow. 
deacaid, boddice, jacket ; from Eng. jacket. 
deacair, difiioult, surly, Ir. deacair ; for di-acar : prep, de and acar, 

as in socair, q.v. 
deach, went ; the post-particle or enclitic form of do chaidh, q.v., 

Ir. deachaidh, 0. Ir. dechud. 
deachd, dictate, so Ir., deaclidadh (n.) ; from Lat. dicto, dictatio, 

whence Eng. dictation. 
deadhan, a dean ; from the Eng, 

112 Etymological bicTiONAKir 

deagh, good, Ir. deagh, 0. Ir. deg-, dag-, W. da, Cor. da, bonum 
(gl.), Gaul. Dagn-, * dago-, * dego; "good, acceptable;" Gr. 
tkx&rdai, receive. Further allied to Gr. Series, right, B'eKOjxai, 
receive ; Lat. dexter, right, decus, doceo ; Gaelic deas, 0. Ir. 
deck, best (superlative to deagh or maith). 

deaghad, living, diet, morals (Uist) ; see dhot. 

deal, friendly (H.S.D., M'E.) ; see dUeas. 

deal, deala,' a leech, Ir. deal, a blood-sucker (O'R.) ; from I. E. 
root dhe, suck, as in deoghail, q.v. Cf. Lit. dele, leech ; also 
Ir. (and G. in Diet, therefrom) deala, teat, E. Ir. del. 

dealaich, separate, Ir. dealuighim, E. Ir. deligim, deil, separation ; 
I. E. delo-, to split, Skr. dalitas, split, Gr. SeAros, tablet. Lit. 
dalis, part. Cf. ^dail, part. 

dealan, dealanach, lightning, Ir. dealdn, a spark, flaming coal, 
*dilo- : root di, dei (dSi), deya (Fick), shine ; Gr. SeeAos 
( = 8£;-eAos), conspicuous, S'^A.os, clear ; Skr. di, shine ; further 
is *dei-vo-s, whence G. dia, etc. 

dealan-d6, butterfly, Ir. daldn-de, dealdn-de. The G. also means 
the phenomenon observed by whirUng a stick lighted at the 
end. Apparently the nieaning is " God's fire." For de, see 

dealan-doruis, door-bolt (Sh., O'R.) ; see deil. 

dealas, zeal, dealasach, zealous ; from the Eng. seal, zealous. 

dealbh, form, so Ir., 0. Ir. delh, W. delw, Br. -delu, *delvo-, root 
del ; Lat. dolare, hew, dole, a pike ; Gr. SaiSdXXoi, embellish, 
work cunningly ; 0. H. G. zol, log ; Ch. SI. delt/, vat. 

dealg, a pin, skewer, so Ir., 0. Ir. delg, M. W. dala, sting, fang, 
W. dal, a catch. Cor. dele, xnonile, * delgos ; Ag. S. telgan, 
virgultum, twig, Du. telg, M. H. G. zelge, Norse tjdlgr, a 
prong ; Lit. dalgis, scythe (?). Bezzenberger compares Norse 
ddlkr, a cloak pin ; cf. Ag. S. dale, buckle. 

dealradh, brightness, so Ir., E. Ir. dellrad, jubar ; from deal-, as 
in dealan, q.v. 

dealt, dew, Ir. dealt, M. Br., Br. delt, moist, damp : 

dealunn, loud barking (H.S.D.) ; see deileann. 

deamhan, a demon, so Ir., 0. Ir. demon ; from Lat. daemon, from 
Gr. Saifiiiiv, Eng. demon. 

deamhais, deimheis, shears, Ir. d^imheas (pronounced dios), E. Ir. 
demess, *di-mess, " two-edged ;" from di of da, two, and E. Ir. 
mess, edge (Cormac's Gl.), " cutter," from root met, mow, cut, 
as in meath, meith, cut, prune, Lat. meto. 

d^an, do, Ir. dSan (imper.), 0. Ir. den, d^nim : enclitic or post- 
particle form of 0. Ir. dogniu,G. nl, I do ; from de, of, and 
gnt of gnlomh, q.v. Inf. d6anamh ( = de-gnimvr). 


deann, haste, speed; cf. E. Ir. denmne, haste, which Cormac 
explains as di-ainmne, "non-patience," from ainmne, patience; 
root Tnen, wait (Lat. maneo, etc.). 

deannag, a small pinch, a grain, deannach, mill dust, Ir. deanog, 
a pinch, grain : 

deannal, conflict, stir, so Ir. (O'K.) ; from deann. In the sense of 
"flash" (H.S.D.), deannal seems a metathetical form of 

deanntag, a nettle, Ir. -neantdg, M. Ir. nmntdg, E. Ir. nenaid, 
*nenadi-, for *ne-nadi-, a reduplicated form ; Ag. S. netele, 
Eng. nettk ; Lit. nindre, pipe, tube. The t of G. and Ir. is 
due to the same phonetic law that gives teine the pi. teintean. 

dearail, poor, wretched, Ir. deardil, E. Ir. derail, feeble, 0. Ir. 
derail, penuria, from der-, privative prefix (see deargnaidh), 
and oil, abundance, which Windisch has referred to *pdli-, a 
form of the root pi, pel, full, as in Idn. 

dearbadan, dearbadan-de, butterfly (M'D., H.S.D.) : 

dearbh, certain, so Ir., 0. Ir. derb, *dervo-; I. E. drevo-, whence 
Ag. S. tre6we, Bug. tme, Ger. treu. 

dearc, dearcag, a berry, so Ir., 0. Ir. derc, *derkes-, Skr. drdksM, 
grape, vine (Stokes) ; root derh, see, the idea being " con- 
spicuous." Cf. Gr. SpaKiav, dragon, Sop/cas, gazelle, from the 
root derk, see. See dearc, behold. The 0. Ir. derucc, g. 
dercon, glans, is, like Ger. eic/iel, glans (from eiche, oak), fron 
the root of darach, oak (Zimmer). 

dearc, dearc-luachrach, a lizard, Ir. earcluachra, the " earc of the 
rashes," M. Ir. ere, speckled, red, Ir. earc, salmon, W. erch, 
fuscus, darkish, *erko-s, for *perko- ; Gr. rrepKvos, dark-blue, 
TrepKT], a perch ; Skr. pr-Qnis, speckled ; Ger. forelle, a trout, 

0. H. G. forhana. For meaning, cf. breac, a trout, " the 
speckled one." The d of G. dearc belongs to the article. 

t dearc, an eye, a cave, hole, Ir. dearc (do.), 0. Ir. derc (do.) ; from 
the root derk, behold. See verb dearc : " eye-pit" gives the 
meaning " cave." 

dearc, behold, see, Ir. dearcaim, 0. Ir. dercaim, video, derc, eye, 
*derk6, I see, perfect *dedorka (cf. ehunvMirc = con-dare) ; 

1. E. derk, see ; Gr. SepKo/iai, SeSopKa, have seen ; 0. H. G. 
zoraht, bright ; Skr. darg, see. 

dearg, red, so Ir., 0. Ir. derg, *dhergo-s ; Eng. dark, Ag. S. deorc. 
deargad, deargant, a flea, Ir. deargdn, dreancuid, deargnuid, E. Ir. 

der gnat : *derg-nat, "reddener," from dearg, red 'I 
de^gnaidh, unlearned (Arm. ; M'A. says "Irish"), Ir. deargnaidh, 

*der-gnadi- ; from der-, privative prefix (di -f air, see de and 

avr), and root gn&, gen, know, as in aithne. 



de&rlan, brimful; *der-ldn ; from intensive prefix der { = de + ro) 
and Iciti, full. 

dearmad, neglect, forgetfulness, so Jr., 0. Ir. dermet, * der^n^t ; 
from der-, priv. particle (see deargnaidh), and mdt, *m,ento-, 
mind ; root men, think ; Lat. mens, mentio, comm^ntum ; Eng. 
mind; etc. 

dearmail, anxiety (M'D.), anxious (H.S.D.) : 

de^rn, do, Ir. dedrnaim, 0. Ir. deminn, facerem, *di-ro-gni-, a side 
form of dean with infixed to. See d^an. 

de^rna, the palm of the hand, Ir. deama, E. Ir. dema ; Gl. Gr. 
Biopov, palm, handbreadth, Sapis, the distance between the 
thumb and little finger, a span (Hes.), Sapetp, the distance 
between the big and little fingers (Hes.). It is further 
referred to the I. E. root der, split, open (Fick, Prellwitz). 
Hence deamagan, a small oaten or wheaten cake, a hand. 

dearras, keenness, obstinacy ; see diarras. 

dearrsadh, radiance, eflftilgence, Ir. dearsgaim, dearsgnaim, I 
polish, burnish, M. Ir. derscnaigim, explain, make clear, 
*de-ro-see-, root sec, see, Eng. see ? Hence de^rrsgnuidh, 
burnished, brilliant. The word tded,rsgnaidh, excellent, is 
allied to 0. Ir. dersigem, prseceUimus, dirdsci, excels, doroscai, 
praestet, *di-Toscag- (Thur.), *roscag = ro-od-sec-, root sec, pass, 
as in seach ? 

deas, right, south, Ir. deas, 0. Ir. dess, W. deheu. Cor. dyghow, 
M. Br. dekou, *dekso-s, *deksivo-s (Stokes) ; Lat. dexter ; Gr. 
Se^ids ; Got. taihsva ; Lit. deszine (n.), Ch. SI. desinic, right ; 
Skr. daksina-s. 

deasbair, a disputant, deasbaireachd, disputation, Ir. deaspoirim 
(O'R., Sh.) ; cf. cuspair. 

deasbud, a dispute ; from the Eng. dispute, Lat. dispute. 

deasgainn, rennet, banna, deasgadh, lees, yeast, Ir. deasgadh, lees, 

0. Ir. descad, faex, fermentum, leaven, *desc-dtti:- (Z. 803) : 
deasgraich, a heterogeneous mass ( = dreamsgal, H.S.D.) : 
deasmaireas, curiosity, deasmas (Sh.), Ir. deismireach, deismis, 

curious (O'B., O'R.) : 
deasoireach, spicy (Sh., H.S.D.) : 
deat, an unshorn year-old sheep or wedder, deathaid, *det-anti-, 

"sucking one ;" from det, de, suck. See deoghail. 
deathach, deatach, smoke, Ir., M. Ir. deatach, O. Ir. de, g. diad, 

E. Ir. dethach, detfadach, smoky, W. dywy, vapour. From 

1. E. root dMu, dheu, dhu, dhve, smoke, air : Lat. fumus, 
smoke ; Gr. dv[ii6.(o, to smoke ; Ch. SI. dymu (n.) ; Skr. 
dkumds. Ir. de' is for dlvd, from dheu or dkev ; the gen. diad 
is phonetically like the nqm. hiad, food (*6i'WO«o-»). The 


form deataeh is probably for * dett-acos, dett being from dkve 
(cf. Gr. ^£05, for 0«r-os, from dhve-s-). The t { = tt) of deataeh 
is difficult to account for. 

deatam, anxiety ; cf . 0. Jr. dethitiu, dethiden, care. For root, see 
didean. M'A. has also deatamach, necessary, which seems 

d^ibhleid, a feeble or awkward person, M. Jr. deblen, E. Jr. dedblen, 
weakling, from dedbttl, weak ; the opposite of adhhhal, q.v. 
(di-adbul). Stokes allows the alternate possibility of its 
being from Lat. dihilis ; see d\hlidh. 

dele (cha deic), convenient ; cf. 0. Jr. tecte, becoming, anas tecte, 
quod decet : 

deich, ten, so Ir., 0. Ir. deich n-, 0. W. dec, W. deg, Cor. dek, Br. 
dee, *dekn ; Lat. decern ; Gr. Seico ; Got. taihun, Eng. ten ; 
Skr. ddcan. Deicheamh, tenth, 0. Ir. dechmad, W. decvet, 
Cor. degves, Br. decvet, * dekrifimeto-s (Brug.), an extension (by 
the superlative suffix -to-) of * dehnmo-s, Lat. decimus. 

d^ide, deideadh, toothache, Ir. deideadh. See deud. 

d^ideag^, a pebble, toy ; cf. eiteag. 

d^idh, desire ; a noun formed from the adverbial phrase an deidh, 

deidh, an deidh, after, Ir. a n-diaigh, 0. Ir. i nrdead, post, E. Ir. 
i n-diaid, from 0. Ir. de'ad, finis, W. diwedd, finis. Cor. deweth, 
Br. diimz, *de-vedvn (Stokes) ; from the root ved, lead, as in 
toiseach, q.v. (Stokes prefers ved of feadhainn). Also deidh, 
d^igh, the latter a bad form etymologically. The 0. Ir. had 
also the form degaid ( = di-agaid), the opposite of i n-agid, 
now an aghaidh, against, adversus. 

deidhina, mu dheidhinn, concerning, of ; cf. E. Ir. ddgin, daigind, 
im ddgin, because of, because, ddig, deig, for the sake of, 
because (prep, and conj.), 0. Ir. deg, quia. See dbigh. 

deifir, haste, speed, Ir. deifir, deithfir, M. Ir. deithbhireach (O'CL), 
speedy, busy ; to which Stokes and Ernault compare W. 
difrif, serious, M. Br. adevry, seriously. 

deigh, ice, Ir. oighear, snow, leac-oighir, ice, 0. Ir. aig, g. ega, 
aigred, W. ia. Cor. iey, glacies, Br. yen, cold, *jagi^, ice ; 
Norse jaki, piece of ice, jokull, iceberg, Ag. S. gficeZ, piece of 
ice, Eng. icicle ( = is-gicel) ; Lit. izas, ice lump. The d of G. 
is prothetic, arising from the art. : 0. Ir. indraig. 

deighlean, a quire of paper (Sh., O'B.), Ir. deighledn : 

deil, an axle, Ir. deil, an axle, rod, turner's lathe, 0. Ir. deil, rod, 
Cor. dele, antempna, 0. Br. deleiou, antemnarum, Br. delez, 
* deli-, * deljo- ; I.E. root del, split. See dealaich. Stokes 
refers it to the root d?iel, whence Ger. dolde, umbel, 0. H. G. 
tola, racemus, Gr. 6oA.os, a short twig ; as in duileag, q.v. 


deil, leech ; Dialectic for deal. 

dellbh, a forming, warping (for weaving), so Ir. ; see dealhh. 

d^ile, a plank, deal ; from the Eng. deal. 

deileann, loud, sharp barkings, E. Ir. deilm, stem delmen, noise, 
alarm : 

deileas, a grudging, eagerness ; see dealas. 

deilgneach, thorny, prickly, Ir. deilgneach, thorns ; from dealc/. 
Cadal-deilgneach, the prickly sensation in a numbed limb. 

dSilig, deal with, a dealing ; from Eng. dealing. 

deillseag, a slap with the open hand, d^iseag : 

deiltreadh, gilding, lacquering ; * deiUrrad, from t deilt, separa- 
tion, root del of dealaich ? 

deimheis, a shears ; see deamhais. 

deimhinn, certain, Ir. deimhin, 0. Ir. demin, demnithir, certius, 
*demeni-, I. E. root dhg, set, fix, dhemerir, setting, Gr. 
OkfLivai, set, defxa, a pledge, theme, Okf^is, . law, " something 
laid down;" Eng. doom, deem; etc. 

d^ine, eagerness ; see dian. 

deir, a deir, says (said), inquit, Ir. deirim, 0. Ir. adbeir, dicit ; deir 
is the root-accented form {*ad-b4r6) of aJ)air (the preposi- 
tional accented form, *dd-bero). See abair. The a of a 
deirim belongs to tlie ad-, while the d of it takes the place of 
h in the root {ber). 

deirc, alms, so Ir., M. Ir. diare, desheirc, 0. Ir. dearc, deircc, 
d^seree (caritas), for de-shercc ; see searc, love. 

deireadh, end, so Ir., 0. Ir. dered, 0. G. derad (Bk. of Deer) : 
* der-ved.o-n, root ved as in deidh, q.v. 1 Ascoli suggests that 
der is the basis, the opposite of er, front, from the preposition 
air {*pare). Hence deireas, injury. 

deis, an d6is, after, so Ir., 0. Ir. di eis, retro, 0. G. daneis, after 
them {* di-an-dis), 0. Ir. eis. footstep, track, *in-sti, root sto, 
sta, stand, Lat. instare ? Strachan gives the stem as *encsi-, 
from enff, footstep, as in eang, q.v. ; Stokes takes it from 
*pend-ti-, root ped, as in eadh, Eng. foot. 

deisciobul, a disciple, Ir. deisciobal, 0. Ir. descipul, W. dysgyhl, 
Br. diskibil ; from Lat. discipulus. 

deise, a suit of clothes ; from deas. Cf . for meaning Eng. suit. 

d^iseag, a slap ; see deillseag. 

deiseil, southward, sun-ward, E. Ir. dessel ; from deas and sel 
l*svel), W. chwyl, versio. See deas and seal. 

deismireach, curious ; see deasmuireas. 

d^istinn, d^isinn, disgust, Ir. dSistion, edge (set the teeth on 
edge), disgust. Cf. M. Ir. ddistiu, refuse of everything, 
posterity, from ddis ? 

deithneas, deithneamhach, etc. ; from d^ine, from dian. 


deo, breath, Ir. ded in gu deo, ever, *dveso- ; I. E. dhves, breathe ; 

Lit. dvesti, breath, dvdse, spirit, breath, Russ. dvochati ; Gr. 

6eos, god ( = ^eo--6s) ; M. H. G. getwds, ghost. 
deoch, a drink, Ir. deoch, g. dighe, 0. Ir. deug, g. dige, *degv,-. 

To degu- Bezzenberger cfs. Lit. dazyti, dip, wet, tinge. W. 

died, M. Br. diet, are referred by Stokes to the root dhe, 

suck, as in deoghail, or to *de-patu (Lat. potus). 
de6dhas, deothas, eagerness, desire (deothas, M'F., O'R.) ; from 

dhevo-, Gr. Oew, run, dvfws, soul, etc. See deathach. 
deoghail, suck, Ir. diidlim, deolaim, M. Ir. diul (n., dat.). *delu-, 

root del as in deal, leech ; I. E. dhe, suck ; Lat. fSlare, suck, 

femina, woman, "suck-giver j" Gr. drjXvs, female, OtjXt^, teat, 

drjXa^ii), suck ; Skr. dhdyati (do.). The Breton forms show 

n ; Br. dena, suck. See dionag. 
deoidh, fa dhe6idh, at last, finally, Ir. fd dheoidh, 0. Jr. fo diud, 

postremo ; dat. case of 0. Ir. d^ad, end. See deidh for 

deoin, assent, Ir., E. Ir. dedin, *degni- ; I. E. root dele, degh ; Gr. 

SoKeo), seem, 8o^a, opinion, fiiSax^, teaching, Lat. doceo, 

doctrina, etc. See deagh, good, 
debradh., an alien, Ir. dedraidh, a stranger, exile, M. Ir. deorad. 

Stokes thinks the word is borrowed from Brittonic — Br. 

devroet, depayse, " dis-countrified" (di-brog-, see brugh). Cor. 

diures, exul. Hence the name Bewar. 
detheine, a heated boring iron : *di-theine, the accent being on 

the second portion teine, f5re. For de, see dealan-de. 
detheoda, henbane (M'D.) : 

detiach, deteigheach, the gullet, weasand (M'D., Sh., etc.) : 
deubh, shrink ; see deabh. 
deubhann, a fetter for a horse : 
deuchainn, diachalnn, a trial, attempt, Ir. d' fMacliain, to see. 

See fe%tch, feuchainn. 
dead, a tooth, Ir. dead, 0. Ir. del, W. dant, Cor. dans, Br. dant, 

dntd (Stokes) ; Lat. dens (dentis) ; Gr. dSous (g. oSovtos) ; Eng. 

tooth. Got. tunjms ; Lit. danCia ; Skr. dant-. 
deug, diag, -teen, e.g., coig-deug, fif-teen, Ir. deag, 0. Ir. d^c, 

dea^, W. deng, ten (?). The exact relationship of deug to 

deich is difficult to decide. The other I. E. languages, as a 

rule, make 13 to 19 by combining the unit numeral with 10, 

as Ger. drei-zehn, Ag. S. SHtene, Lat. iridecim. 
deur, diar, a tear, drop, Ir. dear, dedr, 0. Ir. der, W., Cor. dagr, 

0. Br. daci; M. Br. dazrou, tears, * dalcru , Gr. 8a.Kpv ; Lat. 

lacrima, for dacrima ; Eng. tear. Got. tagr. 
Di-, -day ; the prefix in the names of the days of the week, Ir., 

0, Ir. dia, die (0. Ir.), W. dydd, Cor. det (for dedh), Br. dez, 


*dijas (*dqjes-?); Lat. diSs ; Skr. di/d4s, day, sky; Gr. Zew, 
Atos, Jove. Allied to dia, god. Di-domhnuich, Sunday, Ir. 
Domhnach, E. Ir. domnaeh, from Lat. (dies) dominica, Lord's 
day — domimis, lord ; Di-luain, Monday, Ir. Dia-luain, M. Ir. 
liMii, W. Dydd Llun, from Lat. dies Lunce, "day of the 
moon ;" Di-mairt, Tuesday, Ir. Dia-mairt, E. Ir. mdirt, W. 
Dydd mawrth, from Lat. dies Martis, "day of Mars;" Di- 
ciaduinn, Di-ciadaoin, Wednesday, Ir. Diorciadaoine, 0. Ir. 
cetdin, cdt6in, de cetain (rfe = dia = Lat. die), dia, cetdine, from 
cevd, first, and anine, fast, q.v., E. Ir. dine : " day of the first 
fast," Friday being the second and chief day; Diardaoin, 
Thursday, Ir. Bia-dhardaoin, E. Ir. darddeti = etar dd oin, 
"between two fasts" — the day between the two fasts of 
Wednesday and Friday ; Di-haoine, Friday, Ir. Dia-aoine, 
Dia-haoine, E. Ir. dine, dia dine, 0. Ir. dia oine didine (day of 
the last fast): "day of the fast," from aoin, fast, q.v.; 
Di-sathuirn, Saturday, Ir. Dia-sathuim, M. Ir. satham, dia 
satliaim, from Lat. dies Saturni, day of Saturn. The days 
of the week were originally named (in Egypt) after the seven 
planets of the ancients— Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jove, 
Venus, Saturn. 

di-, negative prefix, Ir. di-, dio-, 0. Ir. di-, W. di, *de ; Lat. dS, 
of. See de. Also dim-, diom- (dlmeas, dimljrigh, diombuaidh, 

dia, a god, so Ir., 0. Ir. dia, W. duw, 0. W. duiu. Cor. duy, Br. 
doe, Gaul, devo-, Aetouova = Divona, '^d-eivo-s; Lat. divus (for 
deivos), deified one, deus ; Gr. 8tos, divine ; Norse tivar, gods, 
Eng. iT'ttes-day, "day of yiic," the war-god; Lit. devas, Pruss. 
deiwas ; Skr. devd. Hence diadhaidh, pious, Ir. diadha, 
0. Ir. diade, divinus. 

diabhol, devil, Ir. diabhal, 0. Ir. diabul, W. diawl, Br. diaoul ; 
from Lat. diabolus, whence also Eng. devil. 

diachadaich, especially (Heb.) : 

diallaid, a saddle, so Ir., M. Ir. diallait, cloak, 0. Ir. dillat, 
clothes, W. dillad, M. Br. dillat. 

dialtag, a bat, Ir. ialtdg. See ialtag. 

diamhain, idle ; see diomhain rather. 

diamhair, secret, Ir. diamhair, M. Ir., E. Ir. diamair, 0. Ir. 
diamair, dimair : 

dian, keen, hasty, so Ir., 0. Ir. dian, *deino-s; root dei, di, hasten ; 
Gr. 8Ufj.aL, hasten ; Skr. di, diyati, hurry, allied to the root 
dl, div, shine. 

dianag, a two year old sheep ; cf. 0. Ir. dinu, lamb, from the root 
dhe, suck. See deoghail. 

Diardaoin, Thursday : see Di-. 


diardan, anger, Ir. diardain, E. Ir. diartain; from di-, intensive 

prefix (E. Ir. di-, as in dimor, excessively great), from de, and 

ardan, pride, 
diarras, diorras, stubbornessjf vehemence, Ir. diorruisg, fierceness, 

rashness : 
dias, an ear of com, so Ir., 0. Ir. dias, W. twys (pi.) : *steipsd, 

root steip, stifii Lat. stipes, stake, stipula, Eng. stiff? Cf. 

geug and W. cang, ysgaine, for phonetics. 
dibheach, an ant (H.S.D. quotes only O'E., while Arms, makes it 

obsolete; M'A. has it), Ir. dihheach : *de + beach ? 
dibhfliearg, vengeance, indignation, Ir. dibhfhearg, dibhfearg 

(Keat.), E. Ir. diberg ; from dim and fearg ; see di- of 

dibhirceach, diligent (Sh. ; H.S.D., which refers to C. S., but 

neither in M'A. nor M'E.), Ir. dibhirceach, diligent, violent 

(O'B., etc.) : 
dibir, forsake ; see d\obair. 
diblidh, abject, vile, Ir. dibligh, 0. Ir. diblide, senium ; semingly 

from Lat. debilis, weak, feeble (Eng. debilitate, etc.). Zim. 

(Zeit. ^*) has suggested *di-adbul, " un-great," from adbul, 

i.e. adhbhal, q.v. 
dibrigh, dimbrigh, contempt, Ir. dimbrigh , from dim-, di-, and 

bmgh, q.v. 
dicMoll, diligence, Ir. dithchioll : *di-cell- ; for cell, see tim^hioll. 

Or from dall, sense ; " attention to" ? 
Di-ciadaoin, Wednesday ; see Di^. 
did, a peep ; an onomatopoetic word. 
dldean, protection, a fort, Ir. didean, 0. Ir. ditiu, g. dilen, * di- 

jem,tion- (Stokes) ; root Jem, cover, protect, Lett, ju'mju, ju'mt, 

cover a roof. The 0. Ir. verb is do-emim, tueor. Ascoli 

makes the root em, as in Lat emo, buy. Cf. eiridinn. 
Di-domhnuich, Sunday ; see Di-. 
difir, difference, Ir. dtfir, dithflr, M. Ir. dethhir ; from Lat. differo, 

Eng. differ. 
dig, a wall of loose stones, a dike ; from the Sc. dike, Eng. dike. 
dil, dile, dilinn, a flood, Ir. dile, pi. dileatma, E. Ir. dili, g. dilenn, 

diluvium ; from Lat. diluvium (Stokes), whence Eng. deluge. 
dile, dill (M'D.); from the Eng. 
dileab, a legacy, Ir. dilb (O'E.) : 
dileag, a small drop ; from dMe, flood, 
dileas, dear, faithful, Ir. dileas, 0. Ir. diles, proprius, own, *delesto-, 

dil, I. E. dhel, dhS, suck, Lat. filius, femina, etc. See deoghal. 

Zeuss has suggested di + les, from leas, advantage. 
dileum (accent on Uum), a shackle ; di + leum, q.v. 
dilinn, leac dMlinn, a stone in situ, a rock appearing above 

ground : " natural," from dM- as in dileas. 


dilleachdan, an orphan, Ir. dilleachda, 0. Ir. dilechtu, orfani : 

" derelict," from di- and leig, let go {di-lec-, let go). 
dimbrigh, contempt ; see dibric/h 
dimeas, contempt, Ir. dimlieas, 0. Ir.'dimess ; from di-, dim-, and 

dinn, press, force down, squeeze, Ir. dingim, ding, a wedge, E. Ir. 

dingim, perf. dedaig, *deng6; Ag. S. tengan, press, Norse 

tengja, fasten (Bezzenberger). See daingean. Brugmann 

refers it to *dking/i6, Lat. Jingo, mould, feign, I. E. dheigh, 

Eng. dough. 
dinnein, a small heap, Ir. dinn, a hill, fortified hill, E. Ir. dinn 

dind (do.), *dindvr- ; Norse tindr, spike, peak, Ger. zinne, 

pinnacle, Eng. tine. But cf. Gr. Qk, 6iv6s (c long), a heap, 

Skr. dhanvan. 
dinneir, a dinner, Ir. dinnear ; from the Eng. 
diobair, forsake, Ir. dibirim ; for dk + \ohair, q.v. 
diobhail, loss, Ir. dioghabhail, 0. Ir. digbail, deminutio ; dV and 

gabhail, q.v. 
diobhargadh, persecution, diobhargach, fierce, keen, Ir. dibhear- 

gach, vindictive ; see dibhfhearg. 
diobhuir, vomit : *de + beir, Lat. defero ; from de and beir. 
dioeail, lower, diminish (H.S.D., which quotes MSS. only) ; 

di + ad-cal ; from cail ? 
diochain, forgetfulness ; Dialectic for dichuimhne, that is di- 

and cuimhne. 
diod, diodag, a drop ; from the Eng. jet ? 
diog, a syllable, Ir. digim, ditigam, cluck as a hen : G. diug, the 

call to hens. Onomatopoetic. 
diogail, tickle, Ir. giglim, 0. Ir. fogitled (for fogicled ?). The G. 

seems borrowed from the Eng. tickle, kittle ; and possibly all 

are onomatopoetic, and reshaped in later times. Cf. Eng. 

giggle, Lat. cachinnus. 
diogair, eager, Ir. diogar (O'E.), E. Ir. digar (?) : 
diogan, revenge, Ir. diogan (O'B., etc.) ; the word is Irish (not in 

M'A. ; M'E. marks it doubtful) : ' 
dioghail, diol, avenge, pay, Ir. dioghalaim, dktlaim, 0. Ir. digal 

(n.), W., Cor. dial, *de-gald. See gal, valour, etc. 
dioghluim, glean, diogbluim, a gleaning, Ir. dioghluim (n.) : 

*de-glwim; ior gluim, seefoghlum. 
diol, pay, Ir. diolam, M. Ir. dilaim ; see dioghail. 
diolan, illegitimate, M. G. diolain (M'V.), Ir. diolanlas, fornication 

(O'B.): * di-ldnamnas " non-con]ugmia" 1 See Idnain. 
diomadh, discontent, pain, Ir. diomadh, diomdha ; see diiimach. 
diomarag, clover seed : 


diomasach, proud, Jr. diomus, pride, M, Ir. diumus, pride, "too 

great measure " : dim-, excess, and meas. Cf. comas, " equal 

measure," power (Atk.). 
diombach, diombuidheach, displeased, Ir. dinmhuidheach, unthank- 
ful ; from diom,-, dim-, un-, and buidlieach, thankful, q.v. 

Confused with diiimach, q.v. 
diombuaidh, unsuceessfulness, diombuan, transitory : negative 

compounds of bvmdh and huan, q.v. 
diomhain, idle, Ir. diomhaoin, 0. Ir. dimdin , from di- and maoin, 

" office-less ;" see maoin. 
diomhair, secret ; see diam/iair. 
dion, protection, Ir. dion, E. Ir. dm, g. dina, *denu- ; root dhe, 

diong, match, equal, pay, E. Ir. dinybain, ward off, dinghdla, 

v/oithj : * din-c/ab, " ofF-give." See gabh. 
diongmhalta, perfect, Ir. diongmhalta, perfect, sure. See diong 

dionnal, a shot, fight ; see deannal. 
dioraclid, ability (H.S.D.) : 

diorras, vehemence, vehement anger ; see diarras. 
diosd, a jump, kick with the heels (Dialectic) ; from Sc. jisk, caper. 
diosg, barren, diosgadh, barrenness, not giving milk, Ir. dioxc, 

diosg : * dl-sesc- ; see seaag. For its composition, see ddirc. 
diosg, a dish ; from Lat. discus, Norse dish; Ag. S. disc, Eng. dish. 
diOSgan, a creaking or guashiug noise, Ir. diosgdn. See giosyan. 
diet, a meal, diot mhor, dinner, E. Ir. dithait , from Lat. diaeta, 

Eng. diet. 
dipin, a deepening (in a net), a certain measure of a net ; from 

Sc. deepin, a net, Eng. deep. 
dir, ascend ; curtailed from dlrich. 
direach, strait, Ir. direaek, 0. Ir. direck, *de-reg, root reg, stretch; 

Lat. rego, directus, Eng. direct, etc. The root is found also 

in ^irigh, rarh, etc. Hence dirich, straighten, ascend, 
dis, susceptible to cold, Ir. dis, poor, miserable, E. Ir. diss, dis, 

weak, *de-sti- ? Root uta. 
disleach, stormy, uncouth, straggling, Ir. disligheach, deviating, 

dirslighe, slighe, path, q.v. In the sense of " stormy," the 

derivation is doubtful. 
disne, a die, dice, Ir. disk ; from M. Eng. dys, dice, 
dit, condemn, Ir. diotach, condemnatory, diot&il, an indictment ; 

from the M. Eng. dtten, indict, Sc. dite — a parallel form to 

indict, endite, from Lat. indicto, dicta, dictate, dicu, say. 
dith, press together, dithimh, a heap (Sh.) : 
dith, want, defeat, Ir. dith, 0. Ir. dith, destruction, *dgto-, from de 

(as in de, of, d\-, un-) ; Lat, Utv/m ( = ditwn), death (Stokes). 



dithean, daisy, darnel, blossom. M. Ir. dithen, darnel, Manx jean 

dithis, a pair, two, Ir. dis, 0. Ir. dias, g. desse, dat. and ace. d%ts 

(also dias, diis), duitas, *dveistd, from the fern. *dvei, 0. Ir. 

di, two. See ddi. 
dithreabh, a desert, Ir. dithreabh, 0. Ir. diihrvh ; from d%- and 

treh ; see treahh, aitreahh. 
diu, diugh, (to)-day, an diu, to-day, Ir. andiu, aniu, 0. Ir. indiu, 

W. heddyw, M. Br. Aizw, Br. Airio, *divo- (Stokes) ; Skr. 

divd ; Lat. di'A. See i)i-, day. The an (0. Ir. in) is the 

did, worthwhile: *do-jm; seefiic. 
ditibhaidH, diugha, refuse, the worst, dit (M'F., M'E.), Ir. 

dioffha ; opposite of rogha. See roghainn. 
ditibliail, mischief, loss ; see dwbhail. 
ditibhras, difference, diubhar (Arm.) : *divr, *difr, from differ of 

Lat. differo. See difir. 
diuc, the pip, a sickness of fowls : 

diiic, a duke, Ir. diuhhce, diuic (Keat.) ; from the Eng. duke. 
diticair, a ducker, a bladder for keeping nets at the proper depth 

under water ; from the Eng. ducker. 
diucbaidh, addled : 
diiidan, giddiness, diudan (Arm.) : 
diug, an interjection to call hens, cluck, Ir. diugam, cluck : 

onomatopoetic. See diog. 
dlugan, mischance (H.S.D., which marks it as Dialectic) : 
diagh, to-day ; see diu. 
ditlid, tender-hearted, a spiritless person, Ir. diuid, 0. Ir. diuit, 

simplex : 
ditilanas, bravery, Ir. dioMntas, earlier diolmhaineach, soldier, 

mercenarius ; from d\ol, pay. 
didlt, refuse, Ir. diultaim, E. Ir. dluUaim, 0. Ir. diltuch, refusing, 

doriltiset, negaverunt, *di-ilt (Thu.). Zimmer suggests the 

root of Lat. lateo, lurk, Stokes gives *de-laudi (" Celt. Dec"), 

and Ascoli hesitates between *di-la- {la, throw, Gr. eAavvw) 

and *di-shlond. Possibly an active form of till, return. 
difunach, displeased, Ir. diomdhach, M. Ir. dimdach, dimmdach : 

*dim-7nedr, root med, mind, as in meas. 
dleas, dleasnas, duty, Ir, dlisdeanas, legality, E. Ir. dlestanas (do.), 

*dlixo-, * dig-so-, right ; see dligheadh. 
dligheadb, law, right, Ir. dligheadh, 0. Ir. dliged, W. dyled, died, 

debt, *dligeto-n. Cor. dylly, debere, Br. die, debt, *dlgd, I 

owe ; Got. dulgs, debt ; Ch. SI. dlugw (do.). 
dlo, a handful of corn, dlb (M'L., M'E.), Ir. dlaoigh, a lock of hair 

or anything, E. Ir. dlai, a wisp ; cf. W. dylwf, wisp, and, Lat, 

floeeus ? 


dluigheil, handy, active (Dial.), Ir. dluigk, active (O'B.), M. Ir. 

dlwigh, service, *dlogi- ; same root as digheadh. 
dldth, close, Ir. dliith, E. Ir. dlHith, 0. Ir. diutai (pi.), dlilthe, 

adhaerendi, *dliiti-. Cf. Gr. OXdm, crush, 
dltith, the warp of a web, Ir., 0. Ir. dlHth, stamen, W. di/Hf 

{*dLii-mi- ?) ; from the above root (dlli). 
do, to, Ir. do, 0. Ir. do, du. Cor. dhe, 0. Br. do, Br. da , Eug. to, 

Ag. S. t4, Ger. zu ; Lat. -do (endo, indu) ; Gr. -Sc. Stokes 

derives the prep, do from the verbal particle do, to. See the 

next word. 
do, a verbal particle denoting " to, ad," Ir. do, 0. Ir. do-, dv>-, also 

to-, when it carries the accent (e.g. dohiur, I give, *do-ber6, 

but tabair, give, *td-bere) ; W. du-, dy-, y. Gf. Got. du, to, 

prep, and prefix, for *}>u .? 
do, thy, Ir. do, 0. Ir. do, du, W. dy, E. W. ten. Cor. dhe, Br. (fo, 

*tovo ; Lat. tuus ; Skr. iwa, etc. See <m. 
do-, du-, prefix of negative quality, Ir. do-, d6-, 0. Ir. do-, du-, *dus- ; 

Skr. dus- ; Gr. Svtr- ; Got. taz-, Ger. zer-. Its opposite is so, 

q.v. Following the analogy of so, it aspirates the consonants 

though originally it ended in s. 
dobair, a plasterer (M'D.), Ir. d6bad6ir, W. dwbiwr; from M. Eng. 

dauber, Eng. c^zi&. 
ddbhaidh, boisterous : *c?ji-i'ati-, root vet, as in onfhadh, q.v. 
t dobhar, water, Ir. dobhar, E. Ir. dobur, W. c?w/r. Cor. (lo/er, Br. 
; dour, Gaul, dvhrwm, *dubro-n, *dub-ro-, root ditS, deep, as in 

domhain, q.v. Cf. Lit. dumblas, mire, Lett. c^M^ii (do.) : Lit. 

duhurys, a place with springs, dumburys ; Ger. tiimpel, a deep 

place in flowing or standing water. Hence dobharchu 

(" water-dog") and dobhran, the otter. 
docair, grievous, hard, trouble, E. Ir. doccair, uusasiuess, trouble. 

See socair. 
docha, preferable, is docha, prefer ; see toigh. 
docha, more likely, Ir. d6cha, 0. Ir. dochu ; comparative of d6igh, 

0. Ir. d/iig, likely, *dougi-, *douki- ; Gr. StuKet, thinks, 

aSevK^s, unseemly ; Ger. zevge, witness ; further allied is Lat. 

duco. Connection with Gr. Sokeoj has been suggested, and 

Zimmer has analysed it into *do-ech, *dosech, root sec, say 

(as in casg, etc. : Cam.), citing the by-form tokh (G. toigh), 

which is a different word. Hence dochas, ddigh. 
dochair, dochar, hurt, damage, so Ir., E. Ir. dochm- ; from do- and 

cor-, i.e., cor, state : dochar, " bad state." See cor, sochair. 

Hence dochartach, sick. 
dochann, injury, hurt, M. Ir. dochonach, ill-fortune, 0. Ir. conaichi, 

felicior, from *cuno-, high, root ku (as in curaidh) ? 
dochas, hope, Ir. dbchas, M. Ir. d^hus ; see docha. 

124 littMOLOGtCAL blCTiOJfARlr 

docran, anguish (Sh., Arm. ; not H.S.D.) ; cf. docrach, hard, from 

docair. ' 

dod, a tantrum, fret, Ir. sdoid (n.), sdodach (adj.), dfdddeaeh, 

quarrelsome (Con.). Cf. Sc. dod. 
dodum, a teetotum (Dialectic) ; from the Eng. 
dog, a bit ; from the Eng. dock. 
dogail, cynical, doganta, fierce ; from the Eng. dog. 
d6gan, a sort of oath (Dialectic, M'L.) : 

dogha, a burdock, Ir. meacan dogha ; Eng. dock, Ag. S. docce. 
doibhear, rude, uncivil, so Ir. (Lh., which H.S.D. quotes, O'B., 

etc.) : " ill-bearing ;" from do- and heir 1 
doibheas, vice, Ir. ddiblmus ; from do- and h&m. 
doicheall, churlishness, E. Ir. dochell, gi-udging, inhospitality : 

opposed to sochell ; from do- and ciall ? 
ddid, the hand, grasp, Ir. ddid, E. Ir. dMt, 0. Ir. inna Tvdoat, 

lacertorum, *dousenti-; Skr. dos {*daus), doshan, fore-arm, 

Zend daosha, shoulder. Strachan, who cites the meanings 

" hand, wrist," suggests a stem *doventi-, from I. E. dheva 

(move violently), comparing Gr. /ca/Mros, wrist, from qrp, turn. 

Hence d6ideach, muscular. 
ddid, a small farm ; " a holding ;" from dbid, hand. Cf. 

ddideach, firmly grasping. 
d6ideach, frizzled up, shrunk (of hair) ; from dath, singe, 
doigh, manner, tmst, Ir. doigh. For root, see dbcha. 
doilbh, difficult (H.S.D.), dark (Sh., O'B.), Ir. doilbh, dark, gloomy : 
doileas, injury ; from do- and leas. 
doilgheas, sorrow, so Ir. ; from doiligh, sorry, the Ir. form of 

duilich, q.v. 
doilleir, dark, Ir. ddileir ; see soilleir. 

doimeag, a slattern ; cf. Ir. doim, poor, and for root, see soimeaeh. 
doimh, bulky, gross ; see dbmhail. 
doimheal, stormy (Sh. ; not H.S.D.) : 

doinionn, a tempest, Ir. doineann, 0. Ir. doinenn. See soineann. 
doirbeag, a minnow, tadpole, Ir. dairh, a marsh worm, murrain 

caterpillar, E. Ir. duirh (ace), worm, *dorhi- : I. E. derbho-, 

wind, bend, Skr. darhh, wind, M. H. G. zirhen, whirl, 
doilbh, hard, difficult, so Ir., 0. Ir. doirh ; see soirhh. 
doire, grove, Ir. doire, daire, 0. Ir. daire (Adamnan), Derry, W. 

deri, oak grove ; see darach. 
doireagan, peewit ; Dialectic form of adharcan. 
doireann, doirionn, tempestuous weather ; see doinionn. For 

phonetics, cf. hoirionnach. 
doirionta, sullen, so Ir. ; cf. the above word. 
doirling, isthmus, beach, Ir. doirling, promontory, beach : * do-air - 

ling- (for ling, see leum) ? For meaning, see fairbeart. 


ddirt, pour, Ir. doirtim, dtrtadh (inf.), E. Ir. doirtim, 0. Ir. 
dofortad, effunderet, dorortad, was poured out, *fort-, root 
vor, ver, pour, E. Ir. feraim, I pour, give ; Lat. Urina, urine ; 
Gr. oZpov ; Norse lir, drizzling rain, Ag. S. var, sea ; Skr. vdri, 
water. To this Stokes refers braon (for vroen-, veroend ?). 

doit, foul, dark (H.S.D. only) : 

doit, a small coin less than a farthing ; from the Sc. doit. 

del, going, Ir. dul, 0. Ir. dul, inf. to doluid, doUuid, ivit, from 
luid, went, *ludd, from I. E. leudho, go, Gr. eXev(TO[i,ai, will 
come, ^kvdov, came. Stokes and Brugmann refer luid to 
*{p)lud6, root plu, plou of Ivath, q.v. 

d61ach, destructive: "grievous;" from td61, grief, Sc. dool, from 
Lat. dolor. 

dolaidh, harm, so Ir., E. Ir. dolod, 0. Ir. dolud, damnum, 0. G. 
dolaid, burden, charge ; its opposite is E. Ir. solod, profit : 
*do-lud, " mis-go ;" from lud of luid-, go (Ascoli). 

dolas, grief, Ir. ddlas : formed from solas, consolation, on the 
analogy of other do- and so- words. See solas. 

d61uiii, mean, surly, wretchedness, poverty. Of. dblach. 

dom, the gall, gall-bladder ; see domblas. 

domail, damage ; apparently founded on Lat. damnum. 

domblas, gall, bile, Ir. domblas, M. Ir. domblas ae, i.e., " bitterness 
of the liver;" from M. Ir. domblas, ill-taste; from do-mlas. 
See bias. 

domhach, a savage ; see doimh. 

domhail, bulky : * domh-amhail, from *domh, bulky, doimh (do.) : 
*domo-, "heaped;" Eng. dam ; Gr. ^tu/xos, heap? Koot dhe. 

domhain, deep, so Ir., 0. Ir. domain, W. dwfn, Br. don, *dubni-s, 
*dubno-s ; Eng. deep, Got. diups ; Lit. dubus, deep, dumburys, 
a hole in the ground filled with water, dauba, ravine, Ch. SI. 
dubri, ravine : I. E. dheub. See also dobhar. 

domhan, the Universe, so Ir., 0. Ir. domun, Gaul. Dubno-, Dumno- 
(in many proper names, as Dubnotalus, Dumnorisc, " World- 
king," Gaelic Domhnall, * Dumno-valo-s, W. Dyfnuat), Celtic 
*dubno-, the world, the " deep ;" another form of domhain 
above. Cf. Eng. deep for the " sea." D'Arbois de Jubainville 
explains Dubno- of Gaulish names as "deep," Dumnorix, 
"deep king," "high king ;" and he has similarly to explain 
Biturix as " king for aye," not " world king" : all which 
seems a little forced. 

Domlinacli, Sunday, so Ir., E. Ir. domnach ; from Lat. dominica, 
" the Lord's." See under Di-. 

don, evil, defect, Ir. don ; see next word. 

dona, bad, so Ir., E. Ir. donae, dona, wretched, bad ; opposite to 
sona, son, happy. See sona. 


dongaidh, moist, humid ; from the Sc. donJc, Eng. dank. 

donn, brown, Ir., 0. Ir. donn, W. dvm, Gaul. Donwus, Donno- ; 

*d(mnos, *dus-no-; lia,t. fuscus ; Eng. dusk, dust. Eng. dun 

may be hence, 
donnal, a howl, complaint; *donr^no-, I. E. dhven, whence Eng. din, 

Skr. dhvana, sound, 
dorbh, dorgh, a hand-line, Ir. darubha ; also drogha, q.v. 
dorc, a piece (Dialectic) : *doreo-, root der, spht, Eng. tear. 
dorch, dark, Ir. dwcha, 0. Ir. dorche ; opposed to sorcha, bright, 

* do-reg-io-, root reg, see, Lit. regiu, I see. See rosg. The 

root reg, colour, Gr. pefoi, colour, epe/3os, Erebus, Norse rokr, 

darkness, Bagna^okr, twilight of the gods, is allied. Ascoli 

and Zimmer refer it to the Gadelic root rich, shine, 0. Ir. 

richis, coal, Bret, regez, glowing embers, Skr. ric, re, shine. 
d6rlach, a handful, quantity : *dom-lach, from dbm, a fist. 
dorn, a fist, Ir. dom, 0. Ir. dom, W. diorn. Cor. dom, 0. Br. dom, 

Br. domm, hand, Gaul. Bwmaeos, *durno- ; Gr. Siapov, palm, 

Sdpeip, Sdpiv, a span ; Lettic diirc, fist ; I. E. root der, split. 
dorra, more difficult, , Ir. dorrach, harsh, M. Ir. dorr, rough, 

*dorso- ; Czech drsen, rough (Stokes, Strachan). 
dorran, vexation, anger, Ir. dorrdn, M. Ir. dorr, * dor so- ; see 

above word. 
ddruinn, pain, anguish, Ir. d6ghruing. Cf. E. Ir. dogra, dogra, 

lamenting, anguish, dogar, sad, from do- and gar, q.v. 
dorus, a door, Ir., 0. Ir. dorus, W. drws, Cor. daras, 0. Cor. dor, 

Br. dor, *dvorestu-; Lat. fores; Gr. Qvpa; Eng. door ; Lit. 

dii/rys ; Skr. dvdr. 
dos, a bush, tuft, Ir. dos, 0. Ir. doss, *dosto-, root dus ; Lat. dumus 

( = dus-mtts), thicket ; Eng. tease, teasel. 
dosdan, a kind of food given to horses ; from Eng. dust. 
dosgadh, dosgainn, misfortune ; cf. Ir. ddsgathach, improvident. 

From dp- and sgath, q.v. 
dotarra, sulky ; see dod. 

doth, a doating on one ; of. Sc. daut, dote, M. Eng. doten. 
drabach, dirty, slovenly, Ir. drabaire, drabdg, slut, drab, a stain ; 

from Eng. d/rab. See drabh. Hence drabasda, obscene. 
drabh, dissolve, drabhag, dregs, drabhas, tilth, E. Ir. drabar-slog, 

rabble ; from Eng. drajf, allied to Ger. treber, Norse draf. 

Stokes thinks that the G. is allied to, not derived from, the 

Eng. The Eng. word drab is allied to draff, and so is dregs. 
^r^C, a drake ; from the Eng. See rac. 
dragh, trouble : *drago-, I. E. dregho-, Ag. S. trega, vexation, 

Norse tregr, dragging, slovenly, trega, grieve ; Skr. drdgh, 

dragh, pull, draw, Ir. dragdil ; from the Eng. drag, draw, Norse 

drag'i . 


dragon, a dragon, Ir. drag4n, E. Ir. drac, g. dracon ; from Lat. 
draeo(n), Eng. dragon. 

drMchd, a slattern (Arm.) : 

draillsein, a sparkling light (Sh., H.S.D.) ; see drillsean. 

draimheas, a foul mouth ; cf. Ir. drabhas, a wry mouth, dramhaim, 
I grin. The G. seems from drahh above. 

draing, a snarl, grin ; see dranndan. 

dr^m, dram, a dram, Ir. dram ; from the Eng. 

dramaig, a foul mixture, crowdie (Sh., H.S.D.) ; from the Sc. 

drannd, dranndan, a hum, snarl, Ir. draint, dranntdn, M. Ir. 
drantaigim, I snarl ; from a Celtic *dran, I. E. dhreno-, 
sound, drone; Eng. drone; Gr. Oprjvo^, dirge; Skr. dhran, 
sound, murmur. 

draoch, a fretful or ghastly look, hair standing on end, Ir. driuch, 
fretfulness, angry look : root dhrigh ; Gr. 6/)i£, Tptxas, hair. 
For meaning, cf. snuadh, hue, hair. 

draoi, draoidh, druidh, a magician, druid, Ir. draoi, gen. pi. 
druadh, E. Ir. drai, drui, g. drvxid, Gaul, druides (Eng. 
druid). Its etymology is obscure. Stokes suggests relation- 
ship with Eng. true, G. dearbh, q.v., or with Gr. Opkojuti, cry 
(as in dranrul, durd), or Gr. aOpeu, look sharp, Pruss. dereis, 
see. Thumeysen analyses the word as drvr^id-, " oak-seer," 
roots dru and vid (see darach and fios). Brugmann and 
Windisch have also suggested the root dru, oak, as Plinj did 
too, because of the Druids' reverence for the oak-tree. Ag. S. 
rfr^, magus, is borrowed from the Celtic. 

draoluinn, delay, tediousness, drawling ; from the Eng. drawling, 
Sc. drawl, to be slow in action, drawlie, slow and slovenly. 
Dialectic draghlainn, a slovenly person, a mess. 

drapuinn, tape ; from the Eng. drape. 

draos, trash, filth, Ir. draos. Cf. Eng. dross. 

drasda, an drd.sda, now, Ir. drdsda, M. Ir. trasta, for an trath sa, 
this time. 

drathais, drawers ; from the Eng. 

dreach, aspect, Ir. dreach, E. Ir. drech, W. drych, M. Br. derch, 
*drkd, *drk]co-, root derk as in dearc, q.v. 

dr^aehd, dreuchd, duty, office, 0. Ir. drecht, portio, *drempto-, 
root drep, Gr. Spcxw, pluck, cull (Strachan). 

dreag, dr6ag, a meteor or portent ; from the Ag. S. driag, appari- 
tion, Norse draugr, ghost. Also driug. 

dreall, dreoU, door-bar, dreallag, a swingle-tree : drs-lo-, root der, 
split, Eng. tree ? 

dreallaire, an idler ; see drollaire. 

dreallsacb, a blazing fire ; see drillsean. 


dream, a tribe, people, Jr. dn-eam, E. Ir. dremm; from dream, 
bundle, handful, manipulus, Br. dramm, a sheaf, * dregsmo- ■, 
Gr. SpdyiJM, a handful, Spaxra-ofiai, grasp ; Ch. SI. drazhaiti, 
grasps ; Skr. dark, make fast, I. E. dergho-, fasten. Hence 
dreamsgal, a heterogeneous mass. 

dreamach, peevish, dream, snarl ; of. Ir. dreamhnach, perverse, 
E. Ir. dremne, fierceness, from dreamh, surly, *dremo-, from 
drem, drom, rush, Gr. Spofio?, a race. G. dreamach may be 
for *dregsmo-, root dreg as in dreangan. 

dreangan, a snarler, Ir. drainceanta, snarling, drainc, a snarl, also 
draint, W. drengyn, a surly chap, dreng, morose, *drengo-, 
root dreg, from dkre of dranndan. 

dreas, bramble, bramble-bush, Ir. dreas ; see drii. 

dreathan-donn, wren, Ir. dreadn, drean, W. dryw, *drivo-, *dr-vo-, 
root der, dher, jump ? See dair. Of. for sense Gr. xpoxtAos. 
Or from dkrevo, cry, Gr. 6peop,ai„ G. drannd, q.v. ? 

dreigeas, a grin, peevish face, E. Ir. dric, wrathful ; "^dreggo-, root 
dreg as in dreangan. 

dreimire, a ladder, Ir. dreimire, E. Ir. dreimm, ascent, vb. dringim, 
W. dringi), scandere, *dreng6. Bezzenberger compares the 
Norse drangr, an up-standing rock (cf. cliff and climb). The 
root dreg of dreimire has also been compared to Ger. treppe, 
staircase, Eng. tramp. 

dr^in, a grin : *dreg-ni-, root dreg of dreangan. 

dreochdam, the crying of the deer ; from dhrevo, dhre, cry. 

dredlan, a wren, Ir. dreblAn : *drivolo- ; see dreathan. 

dredlan, a silly person, Ir. dredldn, W. drel, a clown ; from Eng. 
droll ? Thurneysen prefers to consider these words borrowed 
from Eng. thrall, Norse Jircel. The word appears as dredlan, 
dreallaire, droUaire. In the sense of " loiterer," these words 
are from the Norse drolla, loiter, Eng. droit. 

dreas, a blaze : 

dreugan, a dragon (Dialectic) ; see dragon. 

driachan, plodding, obstinacy, Ir. driachaireachd : *dreiqo- ; cf. 
Eng. drive, from dhreip. 

driamlach, a fishing line, "Manx rimlagh, E. Ir. riamrmch : 
* reimjnen- ; see reim. 

drifeag, hurry (Heb.) ; see drip. 

dril, a spark, sparkle, Ir. dril, drithle, pi. drithleanna, M. Ir. 
drithle, dat. drithlinn, also drithre, *drith-renn- (for -renn-, 
see reannag), *d'rith. Hence drillsean, sparkles, from 
drithlis, a spark. 

driodar, dregs, lees, Ir. driodar, gore, dregs : ^driddo-, *drd-do-, 
root der, Eng. tear. Cf. So. driddle. 

driog, a drop, Ir. driog {driog. Con.), driogaire, a distiller ; seem- 
ingly borrowed from Norse dregg, M. Eng. dreg, dregs. 


driongan, slowness, Ir. driongan, a plaything, worthless pastime : 

drip, hurry, confusion, Ir. drvp, bustle, snare : *drippi-, *drip, 
Eng. drive ? 

dris, a bramble, brier, Ir. dris, 0. Ir. driss, 0. W. drissi, W. 
dryssien, Cor. dreis, Bi". drezen, *dreissi-. Bezzenberger sug- 
gests a stem '^drepso-, M. H. G. trefi, Gar. trespe, darnel, 
M. Eng. dratik ( = dravick of Du.), zizanium. It must be 
kept separate from droighionn, 0. Ir. draigen, (keltic root drg, 
though G. dris might be for *drg-u-, for the W. would be in 
ch, not s. See droighionn. 

drithlean, a riyet : 

drithleann, a sparkle, Ir. drithlinn ; oblique form of dril. 

driubMach, a cowl, so Ir. (O'R.) ; Sh. has dribhlach. 

dritican, a beak, Ir. driuch. M'A. gives also the meaning, " an 
incision under one of the toes." See draoch. 

driuch, activity (M'A.) : 

driucban, a stripe, as in cloth (M'A.) : 

driug, a meteor, portent ; see dreag. 

drobh, a drove ; from the Eng. 

drobhlas, profusion, so Ir. : 

droch, evil, bad, Ir. drocli, 0. Ir. drock, drog, W. drwg, Cor. drog, 
malum, M. Br. drouc, *druko-. Usually compared to Skr. 
druh, injure, Ger. trug, deception. Stokes has suggested 
dhrubk, whence Eng. dry, and Bezzenberger compares Norse 
trega, grieve, tregr, unwilling (see dragh). 

drochaid, a bridge, Ir. droichiod, 0. Ir. drochet : 

drogaid, drugget, Ir. drogdid (O'R). ; from the Eng. 

drogha, a hand fishing line ; also dorgh, dorbh, Ir. doruhha, 
drubha ; Norse dwg, an angler's tackle. 

droich, a dwarf, Ir. droieh, *drngi-, allied to Teut. dtoergo-, Ger. 
zioerg, Norse dvergr, Eng. dwarf. 

droigheann, bramble, thorn, Ir. droigheann, 0. Ir. draigen, W. 
draen, Cor. drain, drein, Br. drean, *dragino- ; cf. Gr. rpa\vi, 
rough, OpdoriTb), confuse, Eng. dregs. Bezzenberger compares 
Lit. drignes, black henbane, Gr. Spd/Sr], a plant. Ebel referred 
it to the same origin as Gr. repxvos, twig. 

droinip, tackle : 

drola, a pot-hook, Ir. drol, droltha, M. Ir. drol, drolam, handle, 
E. Ir. drolam, knocker, ring : 

droll, an animal's tail, a door bar, unwieldy stick ; cf. dreallvg for 
the last two meanings. 

droll, droUaire, a lazy fellow ; see dreblan. 

droman, the alder tree ; see troman. 

drong, droing, people, tribe, Ir. drong, E. Ir. drong, 0. Br. drogn, 
drog, factio, Gaul, drungus, whence Lat. drwnqus, a troop 



(4tli century), *drungo-; Got. driugan, serve as a soldier, 

Ag. S. dryht, people, Norse dr6tt, household, people, 
drongair, a drunkard ; from the Eng. 

dronn, the back, Ir. dronndg : *dros-no-, root dros of druim, q.v. 
dronng, a trunk ; from the Eng. 
drothan, a breeze (M'D.) : 
druabag, a small drop, druablas, muddy water, druaip, dregs, 

lees. The first is from Eng. drop , druablas is from M. Eng. 

drubli, turbid, Sc. droubly ; and drwaip is from Norse 

drjvpa, drip, 
drub, a wink of sleep, a mouthful of liquid ; from Norse drjupa, 

drip. See the above words. 
drtichd, dew, Ir. drdchd, E. Ir. drdcht, *drub-ttir, root dhreub ; 

Ag. S. dr'ewpian, trickle, Eng. drip, drop, Norse drjiipa, drip, 

Ger. triefen. 
drddh, penetrate, pierce, driiidh ; see the next. 
drtldhadh, oozing, soaking ; cf. Skr. dru, drdva, melt, run. Got. 

ufar-tricsian, besprinkle. Cf. Gaul. Druentia (Gaelic Druu, a 

river in Strathspey). 
drngair, a drudge, Ir. drugairc , from M. Eng. dniggar, a 

dragger, Eng. drudge. 
druid, close, Ir. druidim, E. Ir. drut : *druzdo-, *drus, W. drivs, 

door. See dorus. 
druid, a starling, Ir. druid, E. Ir. truid, Manx truitlag, W. drudwy, 

Br. dred, dret : *struzdi- ; Lat. turdus, thrush ; Lit. strdzdas 

(Bohemian drazd), thrush, Eng. throstle. 
druidh, a magician ; see draoi. 
drtiidh, penetrate ; see drudh. 
drnim, back, ridge, so Ir., 0. Ir. druimm, pi. dromand, W. trum, 

*drosmen- ; Lat. dorsum. 
drills, lust, drMseach, drtith, lecherous, Ir. dniis, adultery, E. Ir. 

drdth, lewd, a harlot, *druto-. Cf. M. Eng. drii&, darling, 

0. Fr. drud (do.), druerie, love, whence M. Eng. dTuerie, Sc. 

drouery, illicit love. Mayhew refers the Fr. and Eng. to 

0. H. G. dr4t, dear (also trdt, drUd) : a Teut. dreuS ? 
drama, a drum, Ir., M. Ir. druma ; from the Eng. 
druman, elder ; see troman. 
dt, meet, proper, Ir., E. Ir. dii. This Stokes regards as borrowed 

from 0. Fr. dil { = debntus), whence Eng. due. But see 

diithaich, dual. 
du-, do-, prefix denoting badness of quality, Ir., O. Ir. dv^, do-, 

*dus ; Gr. Svs- ; Got. tuz-, Norse tor- ; Skr. dv^s-. See do-. 
duaichnidh, gloomy, ugly, Ir. duaichniiighadh, to disfigure. See 

duaidh, a horrid scene, a fight, Ir. duaidh, evil (O'B.) : *dtir-vid- ? 


duairc, uncivil, Jr., E. Jr. duairc : opposite of suairc, q.v. 
duaireachas, a squabble, slander : du-aireachas. See eireac/ulail. 
duairidh, dubharaidh, a dowry ; from the Eng. 
duals, a reward, so Ir., E. Ir. dtiass, gift : * dovestd ; Gr. Sovvai, to 

give { = dovenai) : Lit. d-&ti (do.), dovana, a gift; 'L&t. duint 

( = dent). Boot dd, give. 
dual, a look of hair,.Ir., E. Ir. dual, *doklo-; Got. tagl, hair, 

Ag. S. taegl, Eng. tail, Norse tagl, horse's tail. 
dual, hereditary right, so Ir., M. Ir. ddal, *dutlo- ; see diitliaich. 

Stokes refers it to Fr. dil, as he does du, q.v. 
duan, a poem, song, so Ir., E. Ir. diian, *dugno- ; Lettic dugdt, 

cry as a crane (Bez.). 
duarman, a murmur ; cf . torman from toirm. 
dtibailte, double, Ir. dubdilie ; from M. Eng. dubk, 0. Fr. dohle, 

Lat. duplex. 
dubh, black, Ir. dubh, 0. Ir. dvh, W. du, 0. W. dvh. Cor. duv, 

Br. du, *dvho-; Gr. tui^Aos ( = 6u<^A.os), blind; Got. daubs, 

deaf, Ger. taub, Eng. deaf, also dumb. Cf. Gaul, river name 

Dubis, now Dovhs. 
dubhach, sad, Ir. diibhach, 0. Ii-. dvhaeli ; see suhhach. 
dubhailc, wickedness, Ir. diibhailce ; see subhailc. 
dubhailteach, sorrowful : founded on dubh. 
dubhairt, said ; see ikuhhmrt. 
dtibliaith, a pudding : 
dubhan, a hook, Ir. dubJidn, M. Ir. dubdn : 
dubhchlfein, the flank (H.S.D. from MSS.) : 
dubhdan, a smoke, straw cinders, soot ; from dubh. Cf. Ir. 

dubhaddn, an inkstand. 
dubhlaldh, gloomy, wintry ; cf. dubhla, a dark day, day of trial. 

From dvhh. 
dubhlan, a challenge, Ir. dubhshldn ; from dubh and dan. 
dubhliath, the spleen, 0. Ir. lue Had, lua Hath, Cor. lewUloit, W. 

lleithon, milt of fish. Cf. Lat. lien. 
dubhogha, the great grandson's grandson ; from dubh and ogha : 

dubh is used to add a step to fionnogha, though fionn here is 

really a prep., and iioiflonn, white. See fionnogha. 
diic, a heap (Arm.) : 
dfichas, hereditary right ; see dUthaieh. 
dud, a small lump (M'A.) ; see tudan. 
diid, a tingling in the ear, ear, Ir. diid. See next word. 
dudach, a trumpet, M. G. doytichy (D. of Lis.), Ir. dud6g : 

onomatopoetic. Cf. Eng. toot. 
dudlacM, depth of winter : 
dtlil, expectation, hope, Ir. diiil, *duli-, root du, strive, Gr. dvfw^ 

soul ; Lit. dumas, thought (Stokes for Gr.). 


duil, an element, Jr. Mil, O. Ir. ddil, Ml, *Mli-; Skr. dhUli-, 

dust ; Lit. dulMs (do.) ; Lat. fidigo, soot. Stokes (Diet.) 

refers it to *duMi-, root duk, fashion ; Ger. zevgen, engender ; 

further Lat. dtuM. Hence Dialectic Na dull, poor creatures ! 

Ir. d-dil means '' creature" also. Hence also duileag, a term 

of affection for a girl, 
duileasg, dulse, Ir. duileasg, M. Ir. duilesc, W. dylvsg, what is 

drifted on shore by floods. Hence Sc. dulse. Jamieson 

suggests that the G. stands for duiW uisge, " water-leaf." 
duilich, difficult, sorry, Ir. doiligh, E. Ir. dolig ; cf. Lat. dolor, 

duille, a leaf, Ir., M. Ir. duille, W. dalen, M. Br. del ; Gr. OvkXa, 

leaves, Oakkb), I bloom ; Ger. dolde, umbel : root dhl, dhale, 

bloom, sprout. Gaul. irtixTrfSovka, " five leaved," is allied, 
duillinnean, customs, taxes (M'D.) : 
dtlin, shut, Ir. diinaim, " barricading ;" from diin, q.v. 
duine, a man, Ir., 0. Ir. duine, pi. ddini { = *dvdnji), W. dyn, pi. 

dyneddon, Cor., Br. den, *dunj6-s : " mortal ;" Gr. daviiv, die, 

Odvaros, death, dvrjTos, mortal ; Eng. dwine ; Skr. dhvan, fall 

to pieces. 
duircein, the seeds of the fir, etc., duirc-daraich, acorns. See 

dorc. 0. Ir. deruec, glans, is referred by Windisch to the 

root of darach, q.v. 
duiseal, a whip ; from M. Eng. duschen, strike, of Scandinavian 

origin, now dowse. 
ddiseal, dusal, slumber ; from Norse diisa, doze, Eng. doze. 
dnisleannan, ill-natured pretences, freaks (Dialectic, H.S.D.), 

duisealan (M'E.) ; from duiseal : " dreaming?" 
diiisg, awake, Ir. duisgim, diUsighim, 0. Ir. diusgea, expergefaciat, 

*de-ud-sec-, root sec as in caisg, q.v. 
dul, dula, a noose, loop, Ir. dul, dot, snare, loop, • W. dol, noose, 

loop, doli, form a ring or loop ; Gr. SoAos, snare ; Lat. dohis, 

dula, a pin, peg, Ir. dula ; cf. Lat. dole, a pike, M. H. G. zol, a log. 
dfildachd, a misty gloom ; see dicdlachd. 
dtimhlalch, increase in bulk ; see dbmhail. 
dun, a heap, a fortress, Ir., 0. Ir. diin, W. din, 'Gaul. dUniim, 

-8owov, *duno^, *dunos- ; Ag. S. tim, Eng. Uywn, Ger. zaun, 

hedge, Norse ttin (do.) ; Gr. Svvaxrdai, can. Eoot deva, dH, to 

be strong, hard, whence also dm: 
dunach, dunaidh, woe ; from dona ? 
ddr, dull, stubborn, Ir., E. Ir. dur, W. dir, force, Br. dir, steel, 

Gaul, durum, fortress, *dtiro- ; Lat. durus. For further 

connections see i 


durachd, duthrachd, good wish, wish, diligence, Ir. duthracM, 
0. Ir. (Mthracht, * devo-trahtu-s-, *trakh6, press; Ag. S. 
thringan, Ger. dringen, press forward, Eng. throng (Stokes). 
Windisch has compared Skr. ta/rk, think, which may be the 
same as tark of tarJcMs, spindle, Lat. torqueo. Verb dtiraig. 

ddradan, durradan, an atom, mote, Ir. dilrddn ; from the root 
dur as in dior above : " hard bit ?" 

durcaisd, pincers, nippers : 

dtird, a syllable, sound, humming, Ir., E. Ir. ddrd, dordaim, mugio, 
W. dvrrdd, souitus, tordd, ' dordo-s, root der, sound, I. E. dher; 
Lettic dardet, rattle. Further Gr. ^p^vos, dirge, Tovdpvs, 
muttering, Norse drynr, roaring, Eng. dn-one ; root dhre. 

durga, surly, sour, Ir. dik-ganta. Cf. Ir. duranta, morose. G. 
seems to be from Norse dwrga, sulky fellow, Eng. dwarf. 

durlus, water-cress ; from dwr = dobhar and lus, q.v. 

durraidh, pork, a pig, durradh ! grumphy ! Cf. dorra. 

durrag, a worm : 

durrghail, cooing of a dove, Ir. durdail ; also currucadh, q.v. 

durrasgach, nimble (Dial., H.S.D.) : 

dursann, an unlucky accident, Ir. dursan, sorrowful, hard (O'R.) ; 
from the stem of dorra. 

dus, dust, duslach ; from Eng. dust. 

dusal, a slumber ; from the Eng. doze. See duiseal. 

dtislainn, a gloomy, retired place : 

dtith, hereditary ; see du. 

dtithaich, a country, district, Ir. diithaigh, 0. Ir. duthoig, heredi- 
tary (M. Ir. dicthaig), G. duthchas, hereditary right : root du 
as in dun ? Cf. die. 

duthuil, fluius alvi = dubh-ghalar ; from diobh and tuil. 


e, accented 6, he, it, Ir. e, 0. Ir. 4 *ei-s : root ei, i ; 0. Lat. eis 

( = is, he, that), ea, she ( = eja) ; Got. is, Ger. er, es ; Skr. 

ayam. The 0. Ir. neuter was ed, now eadh (as iu seadh, ni 

ea-, 6a-, privative prefix ; see evr. 
eabar, mud, puddle, Ir. ahar, marshy land, Adamnan's stagnum 

Aporieum, Loch-aber : *ex-bor, *ad-bor, the bor of tobar, q.v. 
eabon, ebony, so Ir. ; from Lat. ebenum, Eng. ebony. 
eabur, ivory, so Ir. ; from Lat. ebur. 
each, a horse, so Ir., 0. Ir. eck, W. ebol, colt, Br. ebeul, Gaul. JSpo-, 

*ekvo-s; Lat. eqwus ; Ag. S. eoh, Got. aihva- ; Skr. anva-s. 
eaehdaran, eachdra, a pen for strayed sheep ; see eachdranach for 



eachdraidh, a history, Ir. eachdaireacM, history, eachdaire, 

historian, E. Ir. echtra, adventures ; from E. Ir. prep, echtar, 

without, *ekstero, W. eithr, extra; Lat. extra, externus ; from 

ex (see a, as). 
eachdranach, a foreigner, Ir. eachdrannach, 0. Ir. echtrann, exter ; 

Lat. extraneus, Eng. strange. From echtar, as in eaclidraidh. 
eachrais, confusion, mess ; cf. Ir. eachrais, a fair, E. Ir. echtress, 

horse-iight. See each and treas. 
ead, jealousy ; see erid. 
eadar, between, Ir. eidir, 0. Ir. eter, iter, etar, W. ithr, Oor. yntr, 

Br. entre, Gaul, inter, * enter, i.e., en-ter, prep, en ; Lat. inter ; 

Skr. antdr, inside. 
t eadh, it, seadh, yes, 0. Ir. ed ; see e. 
eadh, space, E. Ir. ed, root ped ; Gr. TreSiov, a plain ; Lat. op- 

pidum, town ; Ch. SI. pad, tread. Root pedo, go, as in Eng. 

foot, Lat. pes, pedis, etc. 
eadha, the letter e, an aspen tree, Ir, eadhadh : 
eadhal, a brand, burning coal (Bibl. Gloss.) ; see e'lbheall. 
eadhon, to wit, namely, viz., so Ir., 0. Ir. idon, *id-souno-, " this 

here ;" for id, see eadh, and souno- is from *sou, *so as in so. 

Cf. Gr. o^-Tos. Stokes {Celt. Decl.) takes id from it, is, goes, 

root i, go, of Lat. eo, Gr. e?jut, etc. ; he regards id as part 

of the verb substantive. 
eadraig, interpose, eadragainn, interposition, Ir. eadargdn, 

separation ; from eadar. 
eag, a nick, notch, Ir. feag, Manx agg, W. ag, cleft, *eggo- : 
eagal, feagal, fear, Ir. eaguil, eagla, E. Ir. ecla, 0. Ir. ecal (adj.), 

* ex-gal , see gal, valour, 
eagan, perhaps ; Dialectic for theagamh. 

eagar, order, row, so Ir., E. Ir. eeor, *dith-cor ; from aith- and cuir. 
eaglais, a church, Ir. eagluis, 0. Ir. eclais, W. eglwys, Br. ilis ; 

from Lat. ecclesia, Eng. ecclesiastic. 
eagna, wisdom, so Ir., 0. Ir. ecne, *ailh-gen- ; see aitli- and gen of 

aithne. In fact aithne and eagna are the same elements 

differently accented i^aith-gen^, dith-gen-). 
eairlig, want, poverty, airleig ; cf . airleag, lend, borrow, 
e^irlin, keel, bottom, end : *air-lann ; see lann, land, 
eairneis, furniture ; see airneis. 
eala, a swan, so Ir., M. Ir. ela, W. alarch. Com. elerlic, *elaio, 

*elerlco-s ; Gr. kXia, reed war bier, eXaeras, grosbeak, eAeas, owl, 

lAeids, falcon ; Lat. olor, swan. Gr. irkkeia, wild dove, Lat. 

palumba, dove, 0. Prus. poalis (do.), have been suggested. 
ealach, ealachainn, a peg to hang things on : 
ealadh, learning, skill, ealaidh, knack, Ir. ealadh, E. Ir. elatha, 

gen. elathan, W. el, intelligence : root el : : al (of eilean) ? 


ealadh, euladli, a creeping along (as to catch game), Ir. euloighim, 

steal away, E. Ir. e'laim, I flee, 0. Ir. ^lud, evasio ; Ger. eilen, 

hasten, speed ; root ei, i, go, Lat. i-re, etc. Strachan derives 

it from *ex-ldj6, root Id, eta, go, Gr. eXavvo (as in eilid, etc.). 
ealag, a block, hacking-stock ; see ealach. 
ealaidh, an ode, song, music ; see ealadh. . 
ealamh, eathlamh, quick, expert, Jr. athlamh, E. Ir. athlom, 

athlam, *aith-lani ; *lam is allied to lamh, hand ("handy" is 

the idea). See ullamh for discussion of the root Icvni. 
ealbh, a bit, tittle, Ir. ealblui, a multitude, a drove, W. elw, goods, 

profit, *elvo- ; cf. Gaul. Elvetios, Elvio, etc. ; *pel-vo-, root 

pel, full ? 
ealbhar, a good for nothing fellow (Suth.) ; from Norse ulfr, elf, a 

vacant, silly person. 
ealbhuidh, St John's wort, Ir. eala bhuidh (O'K.) : 
t ealg, noble, so Ir., E. Ir. ekj . Innis Ealga = Ireland. Cf. Elgin, 

ealla, nothing ado (" Gabh ella ris" — have nothing ado witli hiin) : 
eallach, a burden, so Ir., M. Ir. ellach, trappings or losui ; cf. Ir. 

eallaeh, a drove, 0. Ir. ellach, conjunctio, *ati-slogoi' (Zimmer), 

from shiagh. See uallach and ealt. 
eallsg, a scold, shrew : 
ealt, ealta, a covey, drove, flock, Ir. ealta, E. Ir. elta : * ell-tavo-, 

from peslo-, a brute. Cor. elial, pecus ; 0. H. G. fasal, Ag. S. 

fdsl, proles (Stokes for Cor.). See al. Ascoli joins 0. Ir. 

ellach, union, and Ir. eallach, a drove, cattle, with ealt. See 

ealltuinn, a razor, Ir. ealtin, 0. Ir. altan, W. ellyn, 0. Cor. elinn, 

0. Br. altin, Br. aotenn, *{p)altani ; Ger. spalten, cleave ; Skr. 

piat, split ; Old. SI. xaa-platiti, cut in two. 
eaman, tail ; see feaman, q.v. 
eanach, honour, praise, E. Ir. enech, honour, also face ; hence 

"regard" (Ascoli) : *aneqo-, W. enep ; root oq of Lat. oc-ulus, 

eanach, dandriff, scurf, down : 

eanach-garraidli, endive, Ir. eanaoh-garraidh ; evidently a cor- 
ruption of Lat. endiva (Cameron). 
eanchaill, eanchainn, brains, Ir. inchinn, E. Ir. inchind, W. 

ymmenydd. Cor. impinion ( = in +pe')v-), in + ceann, " what is 

in the head." 
eang, foot, footstep, track, bound, Ir. eang, E. Ir. eng, track : 
eang, a gusset, corner ; cf. Lat. angulus, Eng. angle. 
eangach, a fetter, net, Ir. eangach, a net, chain of nets. From 

eang, foot. 
eangarra, cross-tempered (H.S.D.) : "having angles ;""from eang. 


eangbhaidh, high-mettled, M. Ir. engach, valiant ; from eang, a 

eangladh, entanglement ; possibly from the Eng. tangle ; not 

likely founded on eangach. 
eanghlas, gruel, milk and water, Ir. eanghlais, E. Ir. englas (fern. 

a stem), milk and water, gi-een water (Corm.), from in and 

M. Ir. glas, milk, *glagsa; Gr. yAayos, ja.Xa{KToi), milk, 

Lat. lac ( = *glah-t). Cormac says it is from en, water, and 

glas, grey. 
eanntag, nettles ; see deanntag. 
eanraich, eanbhruith, soup, juice of boiled flesh, Ir. eanhhruithe, 

E. Ir. enbruthe, from in and bruith, boil. Corm. and O'Cl. 

have an obsolete hroth, hruithe, flesh, and explain it as " water 

of flesh." For en, water, see eanghlas. 
ear, an ear, the east, from the east, Ir. soir, eastern, anoir, from 

the east, 0. Ir. an-air, ab oriente ; reaUy " from before," the 

prep, an (*apona) of a nail (see a, from), and air { = *ari), 

before. The observer is supposed to face the sun. The 

opposite is iar, an iar, from iar, behind, q.v. 
earail, an exhortation, 0. Ir. erdil, irail, * air-ail ; from mill, 

desire. Hence earal, provision, caution, 
earar, an earar, the day after to-morrow, Ir. oirthior, eastern, day 

following, day after to-morrow, O. Ir. airther, eastern, 

*ariteros, *pareiteros (Cr. Trapotrepos), comparative of air, 

eararadh, a parching of com in a pot before grinding : *air-aradh, 

root ar, as in Lat. aridus, arid ? 
earasaid, a square of tartan worn over the shoulders by females 

and fastened by a brooch, a tartan shawl : *air-asaid? Cf. 

asair for root. 
earb, a roe, so Ir., E. Ir. erb, 0. Ir. heirp, *erbi-s, *erbd; Gr. 

earb, trust (vb.), earbsa ■ (n.), Ir. earbaim, 0. Ir. erbaim, nom- 

erpimm, confido, *erbid, let, leave ; M. H. G. erbe, bequeath, 

Ger. erbe, heir. Got. arhja, heir : all allied to Lat. orbus, Eng. 

ear ball, a tail, so Ir., E. Ir. erball, *dir-ball ; from air { = *ari) 

and ball, q.v. 
earcball, earachall, misfortune : *air-cdll; from air and call, q.v. 
eargnaich, inflame, enrage : *dir-gon- ; from air and gon ? Also 

feargnaich, which siiggests fearg as root. 
e^rlaid, expectation, trust : *ari-lanti-, root lam of lamh. 
e^rlas, earnest, arles ; see airleas. 
ed.rnach, murrain, bloody flux in cattle : 
ekVT, end, tail, Ir. earr, E. Ir. e?-?', *ersd; Gr. oppoi, rump; Ag. S, 

ears, Eng. 


earrach, spring, so Ir., 0. Ir. errech, *persdko-, from p&rs, which is 
from per, as eAs ( = ex) is from eh ; per, before, Lat. per, prce, 
Eng. for, fore ; as in air ( = ari). The idea is the " first of 
the year." Cf, Gev. friihling, spring, of like descent. Such 
is Stokes' derivation. Another view is that earrach is from 
earr, end (cf. for form tbs and toiseach, and earrach, lower 
extremity), meaning the " end of the year," the eSitein, 
May, " first of sli mm er/' being the beginning of the year. 
Not allied to Lat. ver. 
earradh, clothes, so Ir., E. Ir. err ad, eirred, ^dir-rM, * ari-reido-n ; 
from reid of reidh. Eng. array comes from the Gaul, 
equivalent (^ ad-rSdare), and Eng. ready is allied. Hence 
earradh, wares. 

earradhubh., the wane, the wane of the moon : earr + dubh ? 

earrag, a taunt (a blow, Arms.) : 

earrag, a shift, refuge, attempt (H.S.D., from MSS.) : 

earraghldir, vain glory : * er-glbir ; the er is the intensive particle ; 
Lat. per. 

earraid, a tip-staff, tarraid (Dial.) : 

earraigh, a captain (H.S.K.) ; see urra. 

earrann, a portion, Ir. earrunn, M. Ir. errand, * dir-rann ; from 
rann, portion. 

earras, wealth ; see earradh. 

e^rr-thalmhuinn, yarrow ; see athair-thalmhuinn. 

eas, a waterfall, Ir. eas, g. earn,, E. Ir. ess, g. esso, * esti- '''pesti ; 
Skr. d-patti, mishap (" mis-fall") ; Lat. pessum, down, pesti.i, 
a pest ; Slav, na-pasti, casus (Bez.). 

eas-, privative prefix, Ir. eas-, 0. Ir. es-, W. e/t-, Gaul, ex-, *eks. 
See a, as, out. 

easach, thin water-gruel ; from eas. 

easag, a pheasant, a squirrel (M'D), Ir. easdg, pheasant (Fol.), 
weasel, squirrel. For the " squirrel-weasel" force, see neas, 
nios. As " pheasant," it may be founded on the M. Eng. 
fesaunt, O. Fr. faisan. 

easaraich, boiling of a pool, ebullition, bustle ; from G. and Ir. 
easar, a cataract, from eas. 

easar-chasain, thorough-fare ; cf. aisir. 

easbalair, a trifling, handsome fellow (M'A.) : 

easbaloid, absolution, Ir. easbaldid ; from Lat. absolutio. 

easbhuidh, want, defect, so Ir., E. Ir. eshuid, *ex-buti-s, "being 
out" of it ; from roots of as and bu, q.v. 

easbuig, a bishop, Ir. easbog, 0. Ir. espoc, epscop, W. esgob, Br 
eskop ; from Lat. episcopus, whence Eng. bishop. 


1-38 etymologicaij dictionary- 

teasg, a ditch, fen, Ir. easgaidh, quagmire, ease, water, E. Ir. ese, 
water, fen-water, 0. British 'Io-ko, the Exe [Scotch Esks\, 
*isM, water, *{p)idskd; Gr jriSai, well, tri^vm, gush. The 
W. wysg, stream, 0. W. uisc requires *eiik&, hompeid, ptd. 

easg, easgann, eel, Ir. eascu, g. eascuinne, 0. Ir. eseung, "fen- 
snake," i.e., ese, fen, and ung, snake, Lat. anguis. See easg, 

teasga, the moon (a name for it surviving in Braemar last 
century), 0. Ir. ^sca, isce, cesca, *eid-skio-; from root eid, id, 
as in Lat. idtcs, the ides, " full light," i.e., full moon (Stokes). 

easgaid, hough ; better iosgaid, q.v. 

easgaidh, ready, willing, Ir. easguidh, E. Ir. eseid, W. esgud, Br. 
escuit ; from evr and sglth, q.v. 

easg^raich, a torrent, coarse mixture ; see easg. 

easradh, ferns collected to litter cattle, E. Ir. esrad, strewing, 
*ex-sratVr, root ster, strew, Lat. sternere, etc. See eaisir, bed. 

easraich, boiling of a pool, bustle ; see easaraieh. 

eathar, a boat, Ir. eathar, ship, boat, 0. Ir. ethar, a boat, *itro-, 
"joumeyer;" from ethaim, I go, "* itdo, go, root ei, i ; Lat. 
eu ; Gr. hfi,i ; Lit. eimi ; Skr. dmi. 

eatorra, between tliem, so Ir., 0. Ir. etarro, *etr-so, *enter-s6s. 
For s6s, see sa. 

6ibh, cry ; see Sigh. 

eibheadh, the aspen, letter e, li: ead/ia ; also eadhadh, q.v. 

^ibheall, ^ibhleag, a live coal, spark, Ir. eilhletg, E. Ir. dibell, 
spark, fire, W. ufel, fire, *oibelos, fire, spark (Stokes). 

eibhinn, joyous ; see aoihhinn. 

eibhrionnach, eiriounach, a young gelded goat ; from Sc. aiver 
(do.), with G. termination of firionnach, etc. Aiver is also 
aver, worthless old horse, any property, Eng. aver, property, 
from Lat. habere. 

eideadh, ^ididh, clothing, a suit ; see aodach. 

eidheann, ivy, Ir. eidhean, E. Ir. edenn, W. eiddew, Cor. idhio, 
* (p)edenno-, root ped, fasten, hold on ; Lat. pedica, a fetter ; 
Eng. /e«er, etc. For sense, cf. Lat. hedera, ivy, from ghed, 
catch, prcehendo, Eng. get. 

eididh, a web ; apparently a shortened form of eideadh. 

6ifeachd, effect, so Ir. ; from Lat. effecttis. 

eigh, ice; see deigh. Hence eighre, oighre, Ir. oidhir, E. Ir. 
aigred, W. eiry, snow. 

eigh, a file, Ir. oighe : *agid ; root ag of Eng. axe. Got. aqizi. 

6igh, a cry, Iv. eigheamh, 0. Ir. dgem, Celtic root eig ; Lettic ^gt, 
Cf. also Lat. aeger (Stokes, Zim.). 

eighreag, a cloudberry ; see oighreag. 


^iginn, necessity, Ir. eigin, 0. Ir. ecen, W. angen, *enknd (Stokes) ; 

Gr. dvayKT] ( = av-ayKij). Allied by root (ank : enh) to thig, 

eildeir, an elder ; from the Scotch, Eng. elder. 
eile, other, another, Ir. eile, 0. Ir. aile, W. aill, all, Br. eil, all, 

Gaul, alio-, *aljo-, *aUo- ; Lat. alvus ; Gr. aAXos ; Eng. else. 
eileach, mill-race, mill-dam : " weir, stone-place ?" See ail. 
eilean, an island, Ir. oilean, E. Ir. ailen ; from Norse eyland, Eng. 

eilean, training - see oilean. 

eileir, the notch on the staves of a cask where the bottom is 

fixed : 
eileir, sequestered region, etc ; see eiUhir. 
eilgheadh, levelling of a field for sowing, first ploughing ; cf. Ir. 

eillgheadh, burial, to which Stokes cfs. Umbrian pelsatu, Gr. 

6w!rT£Lv, pelsans, sepeliundus. H. Maclean compared the 

Basque elge, field, 
eilid, a hind, so Ir., 0. Ir. elit, W. elain, cerva, *elinti-s, *elani, 

Gr. lAXos, fawn, IXac^os ( = eAv<^os), stag ; Lit. elnis, stag ; 

Arm. ekn ; etc. 
eilig, willow-herb, epilobium ; from Lat helix. 
eilitriom, a bier (H.S.D. for Heb.), Ir. eletrom, eleathrain ; founded 

on Lat. feret/rum, i 
eilthir, a foreign land, eilthireach, a pilgrim, Ir. oilithreach, 0. Ir. 

ailithre, pilgrimage ; from eile and tlr, q.v. 
eiltich, rejoice : 
eineach, bounty, Ir. oineach. Cf. 0. Ir. ainech, protectio, root 

nak, attain, as in tiodhlac. Hence the H.S.D. eineachlann, 

protection (from Ir.). 
eirbheirt, moving, stirring ; E. Ir. airbert, use, airbiur, dego, 

fruor : air and beir, q.v. 
eirbhir, asking indirectly : " side-say ;"' air + beir ; cf. abair. 
eirc-chomhla, portcullis (M'D.) : 
eire, a burden, Ir. eire, E. Ir. ere, 0. Ir. aire : 
eireachd, an assembly, Ir. direachdus, E. Ir. airecht, 0. Ir. airect, 

*air-echf, eckt being from the root of thig. Stokes refers it to 

the same origin as W. araeth, speech, root req, as in 0. Slav. 

reka, speak, Lat. raccare, cry as a lion, 
eireachdail, handsome, 0. Ir. airegde, prtestans, from aire(ch), 

primas. See airidh. 
eireag, a pullet, young hen, Ir. eireog (Fol., O'R.) M. Ir. eirin, W. 

iaren. Cor. yar, galhna, Br. iarik, *jari-, hen ; Lit. jenibe, 

heathcock, N. Slav, jertii, nuthatch (Bez.). 
eireallach, a monster, clumsy old carle (Dial., H.S.D.); from 


eiriceachd, heresy, so Ir., E. Ir. eres, 0. Ir. heretic, heretious ; 
from the 0. Ir. form somehow, which itself is from Lat. 

6irich, rise, 6irigli, rising, Ir. eirighim, eirgke, E. Ir. erigim, 

dirgim, inf. 0. Ir. Urge, erge, *eks-reg6; Ijat. erigo, erect, Eng. 

erect, rego, 1 govern ; Gr. opeyu, extend ; Eng. right ; I. E. 

root reg. See raeh. 
eiridinn, attendance, patience, 0. Ir. airitiu, g. airiten, reception, 

airema, suscipiat, *ari-em-tin , root em, grasp, take ; Lat. emo, 

buy ; Lit. imil, hold, 
eirig, ransom, Ir. Hric, E. Ir. eric, e'iricc : *es-recc, "buying or 

selling out," from reic. Vb. as-renim, reddo, enclitic et-nim, 

eirmis, hit, find out, 0. Ir. ermaissiu, attaining, irmadatar, intelli- 

gunt, irmissid, intelligatis, * air-mess-, *air-med- ; root med, 

as in meas, judgment, q.v. 
eis, delay, impediment ; founded on deis ? 
6isd, listen, hear, Ir. eisdim, 0. Ir. etsim. Ascoli analyses it into 

*^tiss, * aith-do-iss, animum instare ; the iss he doubtless 

means as from the reduplicated form of the root sta (cf. 0. Ir. 

air-issim, I stand), 
eisg, eisgear, satirist, Ir. eigeas, pi. eigse, a learned man, E. Ir. 

ecess : *dd-gen-s-to ? See eagna. 
eisimeil, dependence, obligation : 
eisiomplair, example, Ir. eisiompldir, M. Ir. esimplair ; from Lat. 

eisir, eisiridh, oyster, Ir. eisir, oisre ; from M. Eng. oistre, from 

Lat. ostrea. 
eisleach, the withe that ties the tail-beam to the pack-saddle, 

crupper : 
eislean, grief : * an-slan ; cf. Ir. eislinn, weak, E. Ir. eslinn (do.) : 

*ex-slan ; see sldn. 
eislinn, boards on which the corpse is laid, a shroud (H.S.D., from 

MSS. ; M'E.) : 
eite, unhusked ear of com (M'E.), eitean, a kernel : 
6ite, ^iteadh, stretching, extending : 
eiteach, burnt roots of heath : 
6iteag, white pebble, precious stone ; from Eng. hectic, lapis 

hecticus, the white hectic stone, used as a remedy against 

dysentery and diarrhoea (Martin, West. Isles, 134). Sfe 

eitean, a kernel, grain ; see under eite. 
eithich, false, perjured, Ir. eitheach, a lie, perjury, O. Ir. ethech, 

perjurium ; root pet, fall ? 
eitich, refuse, Ir. eitighim. For root, etc., see ymdei freiteach. 


eitig^h, fierce, dismal, 0. Ir. Hig, turpe, adetche, abomination. 

Scarcely *an-teg-, "un-wonted, un-Aotise-like" (Zim.), for G. 

wovdd be eidigh. 
eith, go (Sutherland), dh' eithinn, would go, Ir. eathaim, Vj. Ir. 

ethaim, *itdd ; root ei, i ; Lat. ire, ituni ; Gr. elfju, etc. 
eitig, consumption ; from Sc. etick, from Fr. etigtie, hectigue, Eug. 

eitreach, storm, s^orrow : *aith-ter- ? See tuirse. 
eoisle, a charm ; a metathesis of eblas. 

eol, edlas, knowledge, Ir. eol, edlas, E. Ir. edlas, 0. Ir. heulas : 
eorna, barley, Ir. e6rna, E. Ir. eorna, *jevo-rnio-, *jevo- ; Gr. feta, 

spelt ; Skr. ydva, com, barley ; Lit. jawai, corn. 
eothanachadh, languishing (H.S.D. gives it as Dial. ; M'E.) ; see 

eu-, negative prefix, Ir. ea-, eu-, 0. Ir. e-. It stands for an- before 

c, *, p, and s. See an-. 
eucail, disease : an = cdil, q.v. 
enchd, a feat, exploit, Ir. eachd, feat, covenant, condition ; E. Ir. 

icht, murder, slaughter, from e^lg 1 
euchdag, a fair maid, a charmer : "featsome one,'' from euchd, 
eud, iealousy, zeal, Ir. ead, 0. Ir. et, W. addiant ( = add-iant), 

longing, regret, Gaul, iantu- in lantumarus, *jantu- ; Skr. 

yatnd, zeal ; Gr. fiyrew, seek, f^Aos, zeal, Eng. zeal ; root jd, 

jot, strive. 
eudail, treasure, cattle, Ir. eaddil, eudail, profit, prey, E. Ir. e'tail, 

treasure, booty : *em-tdli-, root em, liold, as in Lat. emo (see 

eiridinn). Also feudail. 
eug, death, Ir. eug, 0. Ir. ec, W. angeu. Cor. and 0. Br. aTiecm 

*eniu-ii, *enkevo- ; Lat. 7ieic, death ; Gr. v€kvs, corpse ; Skr. 

nag, perish, 
eugail, disease ; see eucail. 

engais, eugmliais, as eugais, without, Ir. e'agmJmis, want, dis- 
pensation, E. Ir. ecmais : *an-comas, "non-power"? 
eug-, negative prefix, as in eugsamhuil = an-cen-samuil ; see 

euladh, creeping away ; see ealadh. 
eumhann, a pearl (H.S.D. from MSS.) : 
eun, a bird, Ir. eun, 0. Ir. 6n, 0. W. etn, W. edn. Cor. hethen, Br. 

esn, *etno-s, *petno-, root pet, fly ; Gr. irerojuat, fly, Trerr^va, 

fowls ; Lat. penna, wing ; Eng. feather ; Sks. pdtati, fly. 

Hence eunlaith, birds, E. Ir. etdaith. 
eur, refuse, Ir. eura, refusal, E. Ir. era, eraim, *ex-rajo- (n.), root 

rd, give, W. rhoi, give, Cor. ry, Br. reiff, give ; Skr. rdti, give, 

Zend rd. See rath, luck, favour. 



fa, under, Ir. fa, E. Ir. fa (as in distributive numbers) ; a side 
form of /o, q.v., used in adverbial expressions. 

tfa, was (past of is), M. G. /a (D. of Lis.), Ir. /a, fa h- (Keat.), 
M. Ir. /a h-, E. Ir. bah-, '''bdt, * (e)bhv-d-t ; Lat -bat, -bamus, 
of rege-bam, etc. ; root bheu, to be. See hu, the form now used. 

fabhairt, fadhairt, forging, moulding ; Ir. faghairt, tempering 
(Keat.) ; founded on Lat. faber, smith, whence, through 
Fr., Eng. forge. 

fabhar, favour, Ir. fdbhar, W. ffafr ; from Lat. favor. 

fabhd, a fault ; from Sc. faut, from Fr. faute. 

fabhra, fabhrad, abhra, eyelid, eyebrow, Ir. abhra, fabhra, eyelid, 
E. Ir. abra, n. pi. abrait. Cor. abrans, Br. abrant, eyebrow, 
Mac. Gr. d/3povTes ; further 6<f>pv^, brow, Eng. brou: There is 
an E. Ir. bra, pi. brdi, dual hrHad, *bruvat-. The phonetics 
are not clear. Stokes has suggested Lat. frons, frontis, as 
allied, *bhront- with the prep. a{p)o ( = E. Ir. -a-), ab. 

facal, focal, word, Ir. focal, 0. Ir. focul, from Lat. vocabulum 
(through *focvul, Guterbock). Stokes and Wind, take it 
from Lat. vocula. 

fachach, the puffin — a water-fowl (Sh.) ; root va, blow ? 

fachail, strife (Sh. ; H.S.D. marks it Dialectic) ; cf. Ir. fachain, 

fachant, puny (H.S.D. for N. High.) : 

fachaint, ridicule, scoffing ; from fo-cainnt, " sub-speaking.'' Cf, 
W. gogan, satire, Br. goge, *vo-can, root can, sing, say, 

fad, fada, long, Ir. fada, 0. Ir. fota, longus, fot, length, *vad'^ho- 
or vaz-dho-, Lat. vastus, vast? Hence fadal, delay, desid- 
erium, Keat. fadddil, " long delay," from fad and ddil. 

fadadh, fadadh, kindling, Ir. fadadh, fadaghadh, faddgh (Keat.), 
Mid. Ir. fatod, E. Ir. Atud, which Zimmer analyses as 
*adrSOud (soud of iompaidh), but unsatisfactorily. Cf. fod. 

fadharsaeh, trifling, paltry, fagharsach : 

fadhbhag, cuttle-fish : 

fafan, a breeze : , 

fig, leave, Ir. fdgaim, 0. Ir. foacbaim, fdcbaim, *fo-ad-gab- ; root 
gab of gabh, q.v. 

fagus, faisg, near, Ir. fogus, E. Ir. focus, ocus, 0. Ir. acciis, W. 
agos, Br. Mgoz, *aggostu-. See ctgtis. 

faic, see, Ir./aic, O. Ir. im-aci, vides-ne, *dd-ci-, see cM. The /is 

faich, faiche, a green (by the house), Ir., E. Ir. faithche, the field 
nearest the house, E. Ir faidche, *ad-cdio-, " by the house," 
Celtic kaio-n, house ; see ceardach. Ascoli refers it to 0. Ir. 
aiih, area (an imaginary word), and Jubainville allies it with 
W. gwaen, plain, Ger. weide (see bhdm, for W.). 


falchd, lniliii,t>- place, doii ; soo aicc. 

faicheil, statelj', showy ; cf. Ir. faiclieallach, lumiuous : 

faicill, caution, guard, E. Ir. accill : * dd-ciall ; from ciall, sense ? 
Cf. dhehioll. 

faidh, a prophet, Ir. fdidh, 0. Ir. fdith, *vdti-s ; Lat. vates ; Norse 
otSr, sense, song, M. Eng. loood, Sc. wud ( = mad), Ger. wuth, 
rage. W. has gwawd, cai'men : *vdto-. 

faidhbhile, a beech, Ir. feagha, fagh-vile (Lh., Gomp. Voc), W. 
ffaviydden, Br. fao ; from Lat. fagus. G. adds the old word 
hih, a tree, which is the same in origin as hile, leaf. 

faidhir, a fair, Ir. faidhrin ; founded on Eng. fair, faire (from 
Lat. feria). For phonetics, cf. paidhir from pair, and 
staidhir from stair. 

faidseach, lumpish (Sh.) ; &eefditeas. 

faigh, get, Ir. faghaim, E. Ir. faghaim, 0. Ir. %% foghai, uon 
invenis, from fo-gahim, root gah of gahh, q.v. 

faighe, begging, etc. ; seefaoighe. 

falghnich, foighuich, ask: *vo-gen-, root gen, know, as in aithne. 

fail, foil, corrupt, putrefy, parboil ; root vel, bubble, boil ; Norse 
vella, boil, Eng. well, Ger. wall-en, bubble. 

fail, foil, a stye, Ir. fail, 0. Ir. foil, mucc-foil, hara, tret-fhoil, W. 
gwdl, couch, *vali-, root vel, cover, encircle ; Gr. tlKvw, 
envelop i^veln-), elXap, shelter ; Skr. vald, cave, vali, pro- 
jecting thatched roof. In the sense of " encircling, rolling," 
add Lat. volvo, volumen, Eng. volume, wallow, etc. Further 
allied is G. olann, wool, Eng. wool, Lat. Idna, etc. 

fail, fail, a ring, Ir. fail, 0. Ir. foil, g. f alack, *valex; Gr. lAt^, 
a twist, spire, vine-tendril ; root iiel, " circle," as above in fail. 
Cf. for vowel fdl, dike. Also failbhe, Ir. faille, for failghe ; 
from the stem, f alack or falagk condensed to falgh. 

failc, bathe, lave, Ir. folcadk, 0. Ir. folcaim, W. golchi, Br. goalc'hi, 
wash, *volk6; Lettic wa'lks, damp, wa'lka, flowing water, 
swampish place. Further allied is G. fUwik, q.v. Possibly 
here place Volcae, the Ehine Gauls, after whom the Teutons 
named the Celts ; whence Wales, Welsk, etc. 
failcin, pot-lid (Arran) ; see faircill. 

f^ile, smell, savour ; see dile. 

fdiileag, dog-brier berry ( = rmieag) : 

faileas, shadow ; from fo-leus ? 

failleagan, ailleagan, faillean, root or hole of the ear, falllean, 
sucker of a tree : *al-nio-, root al, nourish 1 

fMUig, fiilnich, fail, faillinn, failing, Ir. failligkim, E. Ir. faill, 
failure, W. gwall, Br. goall, *valni-; root val of feall, q.v. 
Borrowing from ^ng. /ail, from Lat. fallo, is, however, pos- 
sible in the modem languages. 


failm, a helm ; from the Norse hjdlm, Eng. helm. 

fiilt, fsbilte, welcome, hail ! Ir., 0. Ir. fdilte, *vdletid, root vdl, vel, 

glow ; W. gwawl, lumen ; Gr. aXia, warmth, sun's heat ; Got. 

vulan, be hot, 0. H. G. walm, heat (Bez.). Of. Caesar's 

Valetiacus. Borrowing from Lat. volute seems to be Zimmer's 

view (Zeit. ^o 28). 
fainear, under consideration ; " thoir fainear" = observe, consider, 

from fo 'n air', " under heed," aire, heed ? 
fainleag, ainleag, a swallow, Ir. dinledg, 0. Ir. fannall, W. 

cfwennol. Cor. guennol, Br. gwenneli, *vanneUo-. Cf. Fr. 

vanneau, lapwing, It. vannello, Med. Lat. vannelliis, which is 

usually referred to Lat. vannus, fan. 
fiinne, a ring, Ir. fdinne, dinne, 0. Ir. dnne, *dnmd ; Lat. drms, 

Eng. annular. 
fair, fair, far, fetch, bring ; a curtailed form of tahhair through 

thabhair or {tha)bhair 1 Cf . thoir. 
fair, dawn, E. Ir. fair, W. gwawr, Br. goitere-, morning, gwereleuen, 

morning-star, *vdri-: 
fair, fiire, ridge, sky-line ; from fair, dawn ? Cf., however, Ir. 

fairedg, hillock, axidfdireag, below, 
faire, bathe ; see fathraig. 
fairc, links, lands sometimes covered by the sea (M'A., who says 

that in Islay it means " hole") ; from Eng. park ? 
fairce, fairche (M'D.), a mallet, Ir. farc/ia, farcha, fa/rca, M. Ir. 

farca, E. Ir. forcha tened, thunderbolt ; root ark as in adharc ? 
faircill, a cask or pot lid, E. Ir. farcle : * vor-cel-, root eel, cover, 
faire, watching, Ir., E. Ir. faii-e ; see aire. 
faireag, a gland, swollen ' gland, Ir. fdiredg (Fol.. O'K.); cf. W. 

chwaren, gland, blotch, root sver, hurt, Ger. schwer, difficult. 

The W. precludes comparison with Lat. varus, pimple, varix, 

dilated vein, Eng. varicose. 
fairge, the ocean, Ir. fairrge, 0. Ir. fairgge, Ptolemy's Vergivios, 

the Irish Atlantic ; from the same root as fearg. In Suther- 
land fairge means the " ocean in storm." Usually pronounced 

as if fairce. 
fairgneadh, hacking, sacking: 
fairich, perceive, feel, Ir. airighim, 0. Ir. airigur, sentio ;, same 

root as faire (Stokes, Beit. ^ 341). 
fairleas, an object on the sky-line (H.S.D. from MSS.) ; *f-air- 

leus ; from leus, light. 
fairsing, wide, Ir., 0. Ir. fairsing, W. eang ( = *ex-ang, ehang), 

*f-ar-ex-ang : "un-narrow," root ang, narrow (Stokes for W.). 
fairtlioh, fairslich, baffle ; *vor-tl-, "over-bear," root tel, iol, bear 

(Lat. tolero, Eng. tolerate ) ? 
faisg, pick off vermin : for root see caisg. 

or THB GAliUC LANGVAGli. 145 

faisg, near : see fagtbs. 

f^sg, squeeze, wring, Ir. t'disg, E. Ir. faiscim, W. gwasgu, 

premere, 0. Br. giiescim, Br. goascajf, stringere, *vaksh6; Skr. 

vdhate, press ; Eng. wedge ; further Lat. vexo. 
fiisne, a pimple, weal (H.S.D., Dial.) : 
f^isneachd, fd,istiiie, prophecy, omen, Ir. faisdineacJid, fdisdine, 

0. Ir. fditsine ; for fdith-sine, where th is deaspirated before s ; 

from faith, with the termination -dne {-stine'f) Zeuss^ 777. 
faisneis, speaking, whispering, Ir. fdisn^is, rehearsal, M. Ir. faunAis, 

E. Ir. aisneis, vb. aunddim, narrate, * as-irir-feid-, infiadim, 

root veid, md, know ; see innis. 
faite, a smile, Ir. faitbe (O'R.), laugh, 0. Ir. faitbim, I laugh, 

* fo-aithAihim,, tibiu, I laugh, *stebi6 ; Lit. stebius, astonish. 
faiteach, faiteach, timorous, shy, Ir. fditeach, faitcli^as, fear 

(Keat.), 0. Ir. faitech, cautus : *f-ad-tech, "home-keeping"? 
f^itheam, a hem, Ir. fdithim, fathfhuaim, ; fo and fuaim. See 

fil, turf, sods, dike, Ir. fdl, hedge, fold, 0. Ir, fdl, saepes, W. 

gwawl, rampart, Pictish faliel, murus, *vdlo- ; Lat. vallum, 

Eng. wall. See further under fail, stye. 
fil, a spade, peat spade, Manx faayl, W. pal, Cor. pal ; from Lat. 

falach, a hiding, covering, Ir., E. Ir. folach, W., Br. golo, * vo-liogd, 

*libg6, hide, lie; Got. liugan, tell a lie, Eng. lie (Stokes). 

Emault refers it to the root legh, logh, lie, as in G laighe : 

"under-lie," in a causative sense. 
falachd, spite, malice, treachery, Ir. fala. See fdillig, feall for 

faladair, orts (M'D.) : 

faladair, a scythe : " tm-f-cutter,'' from/d/, turf? 
filadair, bare pasture (H.S.D. for Heb.) : "turf-laud," from/a^, 
fala-dha, a jest, irony, fun ; see feallordha. 
falair, an interment, funeral entertainment (Stew.) : 
fi^laire, an ambler, mare, Ir. falaire, ambling horse ; seemingly 

founded on Eng. palfrey. The form alalia exists, in the 

sense of "brood-mare" (M'Dougall's Folk and Hero Tales), 

leaning upon al, brood, for meaning. 
falaisg, heath-burning, Ir. folosg (do.), E. Ir. foloisdm, I burn 

slightly ; from/o and loisg, q.v. 
falamh, empty, Ir.' folamh, M. Ir. folum, E. Ir. folom, folomm ; 

cf . 0. W. guollung, M. Br. gollo, Br. goullo. Windisch derives 

the G. from lom, bare, but the modern aspiration oi folamh 

makes this derivation doubtful. Ernault refers the Br. to 

the root of Lat. langueo. 



falbh, go, falbhan, moving about, walking, waving, Ir. foluamkain, 
bustling, running away, E. Ir. foliiamain, flying ; see fo and 
huiinech. 0. Ir. fuVumain, volubilis, allied to Lat. volvo. Eng. 
wallow, would suit the phonetics best, but it does hot appear 
in the later dialects. The verb falbh is made irova. falbhan. 
Hennessey referred the G. tofalamh, empty. 

falbhair, the young of live stock, a follower as a calf or foal ; from 
the So. follower, a foal, Eng. follower. 

falcag, common auk, falc (Heb.) ; from Norse dlka, Eng. auk. 

fallaid, dry meal put on cakes : 

fallain, healthy, Ir. falldln, E. Ir. folldn ; for fo + slan, q.v. 

fallsa, false (M'D.), Ir., M. Ir. fallsa ; from the Lat. falms. 

falluing, a mantle, so Ir., M. Ir. fallaing. Latinised form phalingis 
(Geraldus), dat. pi., W. ffaling ; from Lat. palla, mantle, 
pallium,. Cf. 0. Fr. pallion, M. Eng. pallioun. 

fallus, sweat, Ir. fallus, alius, 0. Ir. alias : 

falmadair, the tiller : " helm-worker," from falm, helm, from 
Norse hjdlm, helm. Seefailm. 

falmalr, a kind of fish (H.S.D. for Heb.) : 

falman, kneepan : 

fait, hair, Ir. folt, 0. Ir. folt, W. gwallt. Cor. gols, caesaries, 0. Br. 
guolt, *valto-s (Stokes), root vel, cover; Lat. vellus, fleece, 
Idna, wool ; Gr. Aacrtos, hairy ( = vlatios) ; Eng. wool ; Lit. 
velti, hairs, threads. Stokes compares only Russ. voloti, 
thread. Lit. waltis, yam, Gr. Aacrtos. 

faltan, a tendon, snood ; for altan, from alt. 

famhair, a giant, Ir. fomhor, pirate, giant, E. Ir. fomdr, fonwrach, 
a Fomorian, a mythic race of invaders of Ireland ; *fo-ni6r, 
" sub-magnus" (Zimmer). Stokes refers the -mor, -morach, 
to the same origin as mare of nightwiare, Ger. mahr, night- 
mare. Rhys interprets the name as " sub-marini," taking 
mnr from the root of Twuir, sea. The 6 of m6r, if it is long 
(for it is rarely so marked), is against these last two deriv- 

famh-thalmhainn, fath, a mole, fadhbh (Lh.), W. gwadd. Com. 
god, Br. goz ; M. Eng. wont, talpa. Dialectic ath-thalmhain. 

fan, stay, Ir. fanaim, 0. Ir. anaim ; root an, breathe, exist, as in 
anam, anail : " gabhail anail'' = taking rest. Stokes suggests 
an = mn, root men, remain, Lat. maneo, Gr. /teva), a phonetic 
change not yet proved for Gaelic. 

fanaid, mockery, Ir. fonomhad, E. Ir. fonomnt : * vo-nom-anto-, 
root nem, take, for which see ndmhad. 

fanaigse, dog violet (H.S.D. quoting O'R.), Ir. fanaigse (O'R.) : 

fi^nas, a void space ; from Lat. vanus. 

fang, a sheep-pen, fank ; from Sc. fank. 

fang, a vulture, Ir. fang, raven : 


fann, faint, Ir., E. Ir. fann, W., Br. gwan. Cor. gwnn, debilis, 

* vam,no-&, root v&, ven, spoil, wound ; Got. wunns, affiotion, 

winnan, to suffer, Eng. wound, wan, ; Gr. axj;, infatuation, etc. 

Others have connected it with Lat. vanus and with Eng. want. 
fannadh, fishing with a feathered hook (H.S.D. for Heb.) : 
faob, an excrescence, knob, piece, Ir. fadhb (Lh. t), 0- Ir- odb, 

obex, W. oddf: *ud-bhv-o-, " out-growth," root bhu, be (see 

6m). Stokes gives a Celtic *odb6-s, from e&go-s, ozgo-s{f), 

allied to Gr. ocrxr), twig 1 Lat. obex ; or to Lit. Adega, tail, 
faobh, booty, Ir. fadhbhaim, I despoil, 0. Ir. fodb, exuvias : *vodvo-, 

from I. E. vedh, slay, thrust ; Skr. vadh, slay ; Gr. li^eu, push. 
faobhag, the common cuttle-fish (Heb.) : 
faobhar, edge, so Ir., E. Ir. faebur, 0. Ir., faibur, machera, 

sword, *vaibro-s, Lat. vibro, vibrate, brandish. Lit. wyburti, 

wag (Stokes). Cf. further W. gwaew, pi. gweywyr, a lance. 
faoch, faochag, a periwinkle, Ir. faocMtg, M. Ir. faechdg ; cf. W. 

faochadh, a favourable crisis in sickness, relief ; see faothaich, 
faod, feud, may, Ir. fead-aim, I can, E. Ir. fdtaim, can, &etar, 

seitir, potest, *sventd; Got. swings, strong, Ag. S. swic^ (do.), 

Norse svinnr, clever, Ger. geschmnd, swift (Stokes). 
faodail, goods found by chance or lost, waif : " foundling," E. Ir. 

dtaim, I find, *pent6, Eng. find. 
faodhail, a ford, a narrow channel fordable at low water, a hollow 

in the sand retaining tide water : *vaddli-s'l Cf. Lat. vadwm. 
faoghaid, faghaid, faodhailt, starting of game, hunting : 
faoghar, a sound ; see rather foghar. 
faoighe, faighdhe, begging, asking of aid in corn, etc., M. Ir. 

faigde, 0. Ir. foigde, mendicatio, *fo-guide ; from fo and 

gwidhe, beg, q.v. 
faoilidh, liberal, hospitable, Ir. faoilidh, joyful, 0. Ir. fdilidh, 

blithe, *vdleti-s, allied to fdilt, welcome (Stokes). Hence 

faoilte, welcome, delight, 
faoileag, faoileann, a sea-gull, Ir. faoiledn,, 0. Ir. foiknn, W 

gwylan, Br. gwelan, whence Fr. goeland and Eng. gull. For 

root, Stokes compares Eng. wail. 
faoilleach, faoillteach, the month extending from the middle of 

January to the middle of February, Ir. faoillidh (do.), 

faoilleach (do.), holidays. Carnival. The idea is "Carnival" 

or month of rejoicing ; from faoilidh. Usually referred to 

faol, wolf : " wolf-month." 
faoin, vain, void, Ir. faxin, M. Ir. faen, weak : 
faoisg, unhusk, faoisgeag, a filbert, unhusked nut ; cf. W, 

gweisgion, husks, gweisgioni, to husk. 


faoisid, faosaid, confession, Ir. faoisidin, 0. Ir. fdisUiu, *vo- 

sestamtion- (Stokes), /iwomes«ar, confessus : fo and seasamh, 

q.v. Cf. Gr. v^'uTTqfii, submit, 
t faol, faolchu, a wolf, so Ir., E. Ir, fdel, fctel-ck-A, W. gweiigi, the 

sea (" wild dog"), *vailo-s ; Arm. gail. 
faolum, learning ; see foghlum. 
faondradh, wandering, exposure, 0. Ir. aimdrethcuih, errantia 

( = air-indr-reth-) ; G. is for fo-ind-reihr, root ret, run, of rviih, 

q.v. For ivd, see io»ra-. 
faotainn, getting, E. Ir. foemaim, I receive, root em, grasp, hold, 

Lat. emo. G. is for * vo-em-tin-. 
faothaich, relieve, be relieved from fever, etc., Ir. faoihamh, 

recovery after a crisis, alleviation : *fo-tlmmh ? 
far, upon, far an, where. Far really means " on, upon," being 

the prep. /or, Ir., 0. Ir. for, super, *vor. See under air(h). 
far, with, far rium, -with me, Ir. a bh-farradh, with (lit. "in 

company of," with gen.). Seefarradh and mar ri. 
far, freight (a ship), Ir. faraim, faraighim, farthadh or faradh, a 

freight : 
far, bring ; see fair. 
far-, over ; see far, upon, and air (b). Far-ainm, nick-name ; 

far-cluais, listening ; etc. 
faradh, a roost, Ir. faradh (do.), E. Ir. forvd, a bench, seat, sheK : 

*for-svd, root sed, seat, as in suidhe, q.v. Cf. W. gor-sedd, a 

iaraich, a cooper's wedge ; see fairce. 
farail, a visit, inquiry for health ; from far or for and -ell-, -eln-, 

go, root el, as in Lat. amb-ulare, Gr. eX^etr. See further under 

farasda, easy, gentle, Ir. farasda, forasda, solid, reasonable, 

" staid" : *for-asda ; for a&da, see fasdadh. Farasda is con- 
fused ■, q.v. 
farbhail, a Ud ; hoia. far-bheul, " super-os," from beul, mouth, 
farbhalach, a stranger ; ior falbhalach, iraaxfalhh ? 
farbhas, a surmise ; *far-meas, from meas, judge. Cf. eirmis. 
f&rdach, a mansion, hearth, home ; cf. daehaidh. 
firdadh, alder bark for dyeing black (H.S.D., Dial.), lye, or any 

colour in liquid (M'A.) ; from far and dath ? 
firdal, delay ; from far and dail. 
fardan, a farthing, Ir. fardin ; from the Eng. 
firdorus, lintel, Ir. fdrdorus, E. Ir. fordorus, porch, W. gwarddrws, 

lintel ; from for, far and dorus. 
farfonadh, a warning (H.S.D.) : 
fargradh, a report : *vor-gar, root gar as in goir. 
f&rlus, chimney or roof-light, E. Ir. forles ; from for and leus, q.v. 

Cf. arias. 


farmachan, a sand lark (H.S.D., Dial.) : 

farmad, envy, Jr. formad, 0. Ir. format : *for-mad, the mad being 

for Tnenixi- {*ver-mento-, Stokes), root men, Lat. mens, Eng. 

mind. See 
farmail, a large pitcher (Heb.) : 

farpas, refuse of straw or hay (H.S.D., M'E.) ; cf. rapas. 
farpuis, strife, co-fharpuis : 
farr, off! be off! 

farrach, violence, Ir. f arrack, forraeh ; see farran. 
t farradli, company, vicinity, Ir. farradh, E. Ir. farrad, i fharrad, 

near, 0. Ir. in arrad ; from ar-sod-, " by-seat," root sod, sed, 

sit, as in suidhe. Hence Ir. compound prep, a hh-farradh; 

and from the same source comes the G. mar ri, q.v. 
farradh, litter in a boat : 

farragan, a ledge ( Arran) : *fardhagan, from faradh. 
farr aid, ask, inquire ; cf. iarr. 
farral, farran, anger, force, Ir. farrdn, vexation, anger, forrdn, 

oppression, M. Ir. forrdn, destruction, E. Ir. fnrranach, 

destructive. Hence G. farranta, great, stout, Ir. farrdnta 

(O'B.). Also farrach. The root seems to mean "superiority;" 

root vers, vers, as in fe&rr, q.v. 1 
farrusg, a peeling, inner rind ; M. Ir. forrusc , from for and 

ritsff, q.v. 
farruinn, pinnacle ; from far and rinn. 
farsaing, wide; better /airsm^r, q.v. 
farspach, farspag, arspag, a sea-gull : 
farum, noise, Ir. fothrum, E. Ir. fothrom ; for fo-thoirm, from 

toirm. Stokes suggests fo-thrond, from torann. The roots 

are allied in either case, 
fas, grow, Ir. fdsaim, 0. Ir. dsaim, fdsaim, root aux, aug, increase, 

Lat. augeo, Gr. aii^w, Eng. eke, wax. Stokes and Strachan 

refer fds to a stem (jp)dt-to-, pdt, pat, eat, feed, Gr. Trareoynai, 

eat, Eng. feed, food. 
fas, empty, waste, f^sach, a desert, Ir. fds, fdsach, 0. Ir. fds, fdas, 

vanus, fdsach, desert : *vdsto-s, a waste ; Lat. vastus, vastare ; 

Eng. waste, Ger. wiiste. Hence f^san, refuse of grain : 

" waste." 
&sair, harness, girth-saddle ; see a-sair. 
fasan, fashion ; from the Eng, 

fasdadh, hiring, binding, Jx. fastogh, hiring; see foisteadh. 
fasdail, astail, a dwelling, E. Ir. fastud, holding fast, vb. astaim, 

fastaim, 0. Ir. asstai, moratur, adsaitis, residentes, * ad-sod-, 

root sed, sod of suidhe (Thur.). W. eistedd, sitting, is for 

* ex-sod-ijo-. It is possible to refer astaim to *ad-std-, root 

strr, stand, Lat. sto; the -asda of farasda, " staid," seems 

from it (cf. tairis). 


fasgadh, shelter, Ir. fosgadh, 0. Ir. foscad, umbra : */o-; 
" sub-umbra ;" see sgath, shade. 

fasgaidh, a picking or cleansing oiF of vermin. See faisg. 

fasgnadh, winnowing, fasgnag, asgnag, corn-fan, Ir. fasgnaim, I 
purge : 

faspan, difficulty, embarrassment : 

fath, a mole ; see famh. 

fith, a cause, reason, Ir. fath, fdth, E. Ir. fdth : *vdt-Vr- ; root vdt 
as in faidh ? See next. 

fathamas, a degree of fear, awe, a warning : *vdtK-, root vet, 
understand, Skr. api-vatati, Zend vat, know, understand. 
Allied to fdidh. Cf . Lat. ratio for meaning. 

fathamas, occasion, opportunity ; see fdth. 

fathan, athan, coltsfoot, Ir. fathdn (O'R.) : 

iathanach, trifling, silly : 

fathraig, fothraig, bathe, Ir. fothrijtgaim, 0. Ir. fothraicim, 
fothaircthe, balnearum, fothrucud, a bath, * vo-tronkatv^ 
(Stokes), W. trochi, mergere, balneare, Br. go-zronquet ; Lit. 
trinkti, wash, bathe (Bez.). 

fathast, yet, M. Ir., E. Ir. fodesta, fodechtsa, for fo-fecht-sa, the d 
being otiose and caused by analogy (Zim., Zeit.^" 21). 
Atkinson suggests with a query fo'ndiJk)echt-sa. The root 
word is fecht, time : " under this time, sub hoc tempus." 
See feachd, time. Hence also feasd ( = i fechtsa). 

fathunn, news, floating rumour : 

f6, f6ath (f6ith, fiath), a calm, M. Ir. feith, E. Ir. fHh, GadeUc 
root vei, *ve-jo-, root ve, ve, blow, Gr. aij/o, air (whence Eng. 
air), Ger. wehen, to blow, Eng. wind, especially weather (root 
vet) for the G. sense. 

feabhas, feobhas, goodness, " betterness," Ir. feabhus, 0. Ir. febas, 
superiority, feib, distinction, *visus, g. vesv-ids (Thur., Zeit.^* 
149, and Brug.), from vestir or vesv-, as in fiii, q.v. Stokes 
doubtfully compares Lat. vigeo, Eng. vigour (Bez. Beit.^* 75). 

feachd, an army, host, expedition, Ir. feachd, an expedition, E. Ir. 
fecht {ar fecht 7 sluagad), W. gwaitfi, action, work. This 
Zimmer refers to 0. Ir. Jichim, I fight (Lat. vinco. Got. veihan, 
root iriq), as well as t feachd, time, Ir. feachd, E. Ir. fecht, 
oenfhecht, once, W. gwaith, turn, vicem. Stokes separates 
the latter (feachd, time, and E. Ir. fecht, journey), giving as 
stem vektd, root vegh (Lat. veho, Eng. waggon) ; for fecht, 
campaign, hosting, he gives the Celtic viktd, root viq, as 
Zimmer does. The words seem, as Stokes has it, from two 
roots, but now they are indistinguishably mixed. 

fead, a whistle, Ir. fead, M. Ir. fei-, fetdn, a flute, a whistle, W. 
chwi/thsU, a whistle, chwyth, a blast, breath, *sviddo-, *svizdo-, 
Lat. sibilios, Eng. sibilant. See further under sM. 


feadli, length, extent, so Ir. ; see eadk. 

feadhainn, people, some people, troop, Ir. feadliainn, E. Ir. fedain, 

company, cobeden, conjugatio, W. gwedd, team, yoke, root ved, 

I. E. vedh, Eng. wed, Lat. vas, vadls, surety, Skr. vi^vadhd, 


fealan (M'A. feallan), itch, hives; it also means "worm" (see 

fiolan) : 
feall, treachery, Ir. feall, E. Ir. fell {*velno-), W. gwall, defect, Br. 
goall (do.). Cor. gal, malus, malum, Br. gwall (do.), root vel, 
cheat ; Lit. ap-vilti, vili6ti, cheat, Lett, mldt, deceitful ; 
Norse v4l, a deceit, wile, Eng. ^Dile ; Zend vareta, error. 
Stokes hesitates between the above and vel from u{p)el. Got. 
ubils, Eng. evil. 
fealla-dha, joking, irony : * feall + dhd, " double-dealing." 
feallsanach, philosopher, Ir. feallsamhnach, feallsamh, philosopher, 

0. Ir. felsub ; from Lat. philosophus. 
feamach, gross, dirty (Sh., O'R.) ; from /ea»i, tail, as in feaman. 
feamainn, sea-weed, Ir. feam/uin, E. Ir. femnach, W. gwymon, Fr. 
goemon, * yit-s-mdni-, root vi, vei, wind, as in feith, vein? 
Stokes gives the stem as vem/mdni- {vemhani- f), which suggests 
*vegvo-, root veg, as in fetvr. 
feaman, a tail, Ir. feam, M. Ir. feam, mentula, Manx famman ; 

also G. eaman, *etigvo-, Lat. inguen, groin. 
feannadh, skinning, excessive cold ; see fumnadh. The idea of 

"cold" is metaphorical, 
feannag, hooded crow, Ir. feannog, fiorvnJbg : cf. fionna, pile, for 

root : " piled crow" 1 
feannag, a lazy-bed : 

fear, a man, Ir. fear, 0. Ir. fer, W. gvrr, 0. W. givr. Corn, gur, Br. 
gour, *viro-s (Rhys thinks the Celtic start was ver : cf. W. 
gwr = ver, super, and G. eadh, 0. Ir. erf = Lat. id, etc.) ; Lat. 
vir ; Ag. S. wer, Norse verr, Eng. werwolf ; Lit. vryras ; Skr. 
fearann, land, so Ir., E. Ir. ferand, also farenn, a girdle, garter, 
root vera, enclose, look after ; Skr. varatvA, wall, dam, vrnoti, 
cover, enclose ; Gr. epvcrOai, draw, keep ; Ch. SI. vriti, 
claudere : further Lat. vereor, Eng. ware. 
fearg, wrath, so Ir. E. Ir. ferg, 0. Ir. fere, ferg, *vergd ; Gr. 
°pyv j ''^0* vergo, swell, be pufied up. Hence feargnadh, 
fearna, alder tree, Ir. fearn, fearndg, E. Ir. fern, fernog, W. gwem, 
Com. gwernen, Gaul, vemo-, Fr. verne, *verno- ; Or. epvia, wild 
figs (? Bez.). 
fearr, better, Ir. fedrr, 0. Ir. ferr, *vers, *ver{{)s, a comparative 
in -is from the prep, ver ( = 6. far, for, super) ; now com- 


parative for math, but evidently once for fern, good, *vemo-s, 

Lat. supernus (cf. -no- of magnus disappearing in major, and 

-ro- of Celtic mdros in G. mo). Stokes refers ferr to vers, 

raise, *'uersos-, height, top ; Lat. verruca, steep place. Lit. 

wirzus, top, Skr. varshman-, height, vdrsMyas, higher. Cf. 

W. goreu, best ( = Lat. svprem/us). 
fearsaid, a spindle, Ir. fearrsaid, M. Ir. fersaid, *versatti- *verttati-, 

W. gwerthyd. Cor. gurthit, 0. Br. gui/rtilon, fusis, M. Br. 

guerzit, root wr*, turn ; Lat. ^^(J, vortex ; Ger. werden, to be, 

Eng. worth, be, M. H. G. vnrtel, spindle ring. Skr. vdrtate, 

turn, roll, var^wM, spindle ball, 
feait, attention, notice ; Br. gortos, to attend, root vert, vort, ; 

Ger. warten, attend, Eng. ward, from ivare, Nor. war-S'a, ward. 

An extension of root ver, watch, Lat. vereor, etc. 
feart, a virtue, efficiency, deed, Ir. feart, 0. Ir. firt, pi. ferta, W. 

gwyrth ; from Lat. virtus (Windisch, Stokes). 
t feart, a grave, Ir. feart, 0. Ir. fert, tumulus, *verto-; root ver, 

cover, enclose, which see under fearann. Cf. Skr. vrti, 

enclosiu-e, hedge, 
fearthuinn, rain, Ir. fearthuinn, E. Ir. ferthain, inf. to feraim, 

I pour, give, *vera6, rain : Lat. Urina, urine, Gr. c^pov (do.) ; 

Norse lir, a drizzle, Ag. S. war, sea ; Skr. vdri, water, Zend 

vara, rain. See dbirt. 
feascradh, shrivelling, so Ir. (O'R.) : 
feasd, am feasd, for ever, Ir. feasda, henceforward, E. ir. festa, 

ifesta, now, from this point forward, i fecht-sa ; from feaehd by 

metathesis of the s. See fathast. 
feasgar, evening, Ir. feascar, 0. Ir. feseor, *vesqero-, W. ucher, 

*uksero- for *usqero- ; Lat. vesper ; Gr. ecnre/sos. 
ftile, generosity, hospitality, Ir. fe'ile, ¥,.li. file; iromfial, q.v. 
tf^ile, charm, incantation, E. Ir. ele, hele ; from Norse heill, 

auspice, omen, Eng. hale, etc. ; allied to 0. Ir. eel, augurium, 

W. coel, omen, 0. W. coil (Zim., Zeit.^s 147). For G. feile, 

see Inv. Gaelic Soc. Tr.^'' 243. 
f^ile, ftileadh, a kilt : 0. Ir. ronjeladar, he might clothe us ; from 

Lat. vilum, a covering, vilare, Eng. veil. 
f^ill, a fair, feast, Ir. fdil, festival, holiday, 0. Ir. f4il, W. gwyl, 

festum, Br. goel, *vegli-; Lat. vigilia, Fr. veille, a watch, 

vigil, Eng. vigil, wake. The Celtic words are borrowed from 

Lat. (Windisch, Stokes). Hence fiillire, an almanack. 
Kin, self, Ir., 0. Ir. fein, *sve-j-sin, " self there," *sve-j, *sve, Pruss. 

swais, Ch. SI. svoji ; Lat. suu^, se ; Gr. e, os. Zeuss explains 

f^in as hi-shin, " quod sit hoc," hi being the verb to be. This 

explanation is due to the divers forms of the 0. Ir. word for 

"self, selves" : fisme { = be-sinre', sit id hoc), fisin, fadesin 

( = bad-e-sin), foden, etc. 


P6inn, g. F6inne, the Fingalians, Ir. Fiinne, Fiann, E. Ir. fiann, 
*veinnd, also E. Ir. fian, a hero, *veino-s, root vein, strive ; 
Lat. vSnari, hunt ; Skr. vinati, go, move, desire. Zimmer 
takes the word from Norse fjdndi, an enemy (Eng. fiend), 
which he supposes the Irish troops called themselves after 
the Norsemen. 

feirm, a farm, Ir. feilm ; from M. Eng. ferme, Eng. farm, 

feisd, f6is, a feast; better /ewscJ!, q.v. 

feith, wait, Ir. feithim, E. Ir. fethim, inf. fetltem ( = G. feitheamh), 
*vet(>, root vet ; Lat. vetus, old, Eng, veteran ; Gr. eVos, year ; 
Eng. wether ("yearling"). 

feith, a sinew, a vein, Ir., 0. Ir.fiith, fibra, *veiti-s, root mi, vi, 
wind, bend ; Lat. vimen, withe, viti&, a vine ; Gr. irea (long t), 
wUlow ; Eng. wiiAe ; Lit. i»y<M, willow-wand, Ch. SI. w'<«J, 
res torta ; Skr. vayaii, weave, flecto. The W. shows a stem 
*vittd, vein, W. gwythen, Br. gwazen. Cor. ^fmc?- ; cf. Lat. 
vitta, fillet. Hence fe'ith, a bog channel, and feithleag, 
honeysuckle, M. Ir. feithlend, woodbine, W. gwyddfid (do.). 

feitheid, a bird or beast of prey (MfA.), Ir. feithide, a beast : 

feochadan, corn-thistle, thistle (Arm., H.S.D.), Ir. feochadan 
(O'R.), fedthaddn (O'B.), andfedthdn. Ci. fobhannan. 

feocuUan, the pole-cat, Ir. feochullan (FoL, O'E. has feocullan like 
Sh.). Cf . Sc. fethok,fithowe, pole-cat, M. 'Eiag.ficheu, now fitchew. 

feobhas, goodness ; see feahhas. 

feddar, pewter, Ir. peatar, W. ffevtar ; from the Eng. pewter. 

feodhaich, decay, Ir. feodhaim, M. Ir. feodaigim, either : 
" senesco;" ^vetv^, root vet, as in Lat. vetus, G. feith 1 

feoil, flesh, Ir. feoil, E. Ir. feiil, 0. Ir. feuil, *vepoli-s ; Skr. 
vapd, fat, vdpus, body, form ? 

feoirlig, a farthing land, feoirling ; from Ag. S. feorpling, Eug. 

feoirne, chess, Ir. feoirne (Sh., O'E., Fol.) : 

fedrag, a squirrel, Ir. feordg (Sh., O'E., Fol.), W. gwiwer, Br. 
gwiher ; Lit. vovere, Lettic wdweris, Pruss. weware ; Lat. 
viverra, ferret (Pliny). 

feoraich, inquire, fiafraigh (Kintyre Dial.), \r. fiafruighim, 0. Ir. 
iarfaigim : *iarfach, prep, iar and fach, E. Ir. faig, dixit, 
*vakd, say ; Lat. voco, call, vox, voice ; Skr. vac, sa.j. The r 
of G. and modem Ir. has shifted to behind the /, while a 
prothetic / is added. 

f edrlan, a firlot ; see febirling. 

feothachan, a little breeze ; root vet, as in onfkadh. 

feuch, fiach, behold, see, try, Ir. feuch, f^ach, E. Ir. fechaim, 
fegaim, *reik6 ; Gr. etKwv, image (Eng. iconoclastic), eoiKa, 
I seem, eiKafoj, conjecture ; Skr. vif, appear, arrive. 



feud, may, can ; see faod. 

feudail, cattle ; usual spelling of evdail, q.v. 

feudar, 's fheudar, it is necessary, M. Ir. is eidir, it is possible, 
for is ed fMtir, it is what is possible. Feudar is the pres. 
pass. Qi feud, may. In G. the "may" has become "must." 
The negative, cha 'n fheudar, is common in E. Ir. as nifhMir, 
ni dtiT, cannot be. 

feum, use, need, Ir. feidhm, pi. feidhmeanna, need, use, duty, need- 
service of a vassal, E. Ir. feidm, eflfort, *v6d-men-, " need- 
service ;" root ved, as in feadhainn. Hence feumannaeh, a 
steward : "a servitor." 

feun, a waggon, wain, 0. Ir. fen, W. cywain, vehere, * vegno-, root 
vegh, carry ; Lat. veko, vehiculum, vehicle ; Gr. oxos, chariot ; 
Eng. waggon, wain ; Skr. vahati, carry. 

feur, fiar, grass, Ir. feiM-, 0. Ir. f^r, W. gwair. Cor. gwyr, *vegro-, 
I.E. root veg, increase, be strong; Lat. vegeo, quicken, 
vigor, vigour, Eng. vegetation; Ag. S. wacan, nasci, Eng. 
waken. Strachan and Stokes refer it to the root veg, ug, be 
wet, moist, Lat. uvidus, moist, Eng. humour, Gr. vypoi, wet, 
Norse vohr, moist ; but judged by the Latin, the Celtic should 
be vebro-, which would not give W. gwair. 

feuTsa, a canker, feursann, a worm in the hide of cattle : 

feusag, fiasag, a beard, Ir. feus6g, fias6g, E. Ir. fesf)c, beard, fis, 
hair, '''vanso, 0. Pruss., wanso, first beard, Ch. SI. va^u, 

feusd, feusda (feisd, f6is), a feast, Ir. feis, feusda, E. Ir. feiss ; 
from Lat. festia, Eng. feast. 

feusgan, fiasgan, a mussel : 

fhuair, found, invenit, Ii.fuair, 0. Ir. filar, isrveni, frith, inventus 
est, *vovora, root ver ; Gr. evpov, I found, evprjKa (Strachan, 
Prellwitz). The root ver is likely that found in Gr. opdia, I 
see, Lat. vereor, Eng. ware. 

fiabhras, a fever, Ir., M. Ir. fiabhrus ; from Lat. fehris. 

fiacaill, a tooth, Ir., 0. li.fiacail. There is an E. li. fee ioi fee, a 
tooth, a stem * veikkd : 

£ach, value, worth ; see next. 

fiach, iiachan, debt, Ir. fiach, 0. Ir. fiach, *veico-, "holy debts;" 
Got. veihs, holy, Ger. weihen, consecrate (Windisch, de Jub"). 

fiadh, a deer, Ir. fiadh, E. Ir. fiad, 0. Ir. fiadach, venatio, W. 
gwydd, Br. guez, goez, savage, *veido-s, wild ; 0. H. G. weide, 
a hunt, Ger. weide, pasturage, Norse veidr, hunting ; further 
is G.fiodh, wood, Eng. wood. Hence fiadhaich, wild. 

fiadhair, lay or fallow land ; from the above root of fiadh. Cf. 
Ger. weide, pasture. Also G. fiadhain, wild, Ir. fiadhdin, 
wild, uncultivated. 


fial, generous, Ir. fial, E. Ir. fial, modest, W. gwyl. Bez. suggests 
*veiplo-, Teutonic viba-, Ger. weib, Eng. wife. Of. Ir. flalus, 
relationship. The underlying idea is "kindness, relation- 

fiamh, awe, reverence, Ir. fiamh, fear, reverence, ugly, horrible, 
E. Ir. fiam, horrible : 

fiamh, aspect, appearance, trace, Ir. fiamh, track, trace, chain, 
fiamh (O'Cl.) =lorg, E. Ir fiam, a chain, *veim(j-, root vei, 
wind, as in feith. Fiamh ghaire, a slight smile, is in 
Ir. fdetheadh an ghdire, appearance of a smile, E. Ir. fSth, 

Fiann, the Fingalians; see Feinn. This is the real nom. case. 

fiantag, the black heath-berry ; root v-in as in the above word. 

fianuis, witness, a witness, Ir. fiadhnuise, fladhan, a witness, 0. Ir. 
iiadnisse, testimony, Uadu, ace. fiadain, testem, *veidijn-, I. E. 
root veid, vid, know, see, as in fios, q.v. ; Ag. S. witta, a witness, 
Eng. witness, root wit, know. 

fiar, crooked, Ir. fiar, E. Ir. fiar, W. ffwyr, Br. goar, gwar, *veir'>- ; 
root vei, wind as in feith ; Eng. wire, Ag. S. wtr, wire. 

fiat, fiata, wild ; a participial formation from fiadh. Also fi xdhta, 
so Ir. 

fiathail, calm ; see fe. 

fiqh, an interjection denoting "nasty!" Eng. fi,e, Norse /y, Ger. 
pfui. Also Dial, fuich, fuidh, which leans on Norse fui, 
rottenness (" Cha bhi fuidh ach far am bi faile"). 

fichead, twenty, Ir. fiche, ar fhichid, 0. Ir. ficlie, g. fichet, W. 
ugeint, ugain. Cor. ugens, ugans, Br. ugent, *mhis, *viknfos ; 
Lat. viginti ; Gr. euKoa-L ; Zend vifaiti. 

fideadh, a suggestion (H.S.D.) : *vid-dho-, root vid, wit. 

fideag, a small pipe, reed, flute, Ir. fidedg ; for root, see fead. 
Shaw also gives the meaning "small worm." M'L. has 

f idhleir, a fiddler ; from fiodhull. Ir. fidiUir is Eng. fiddler 
directly borrowed. Hence G. fidleireaehd, restlessness ; 
" fiddling" about. 

fidir, know, consider, Ir. fidir, knows, 0. Ir. fetar, scio, fitir, novit, 
*viddetor, *vid-dho- (the -dho- as in creid, Windisoh) ; root 
vid, see, as in fios. Thumeysen explains it as *vide.iar 
(aorist stem vides-) becoming vid-shar, but d-sh does not pro- 
duce t ov d without an n before it. 

fige, figis, a fig, Ir. fige ; from Lat. ficus, Eng. fig. 

figh, weave, Ir. fighim, E. Ir. figim, 0. W. gueig, testrix, W. gweu, 
to weave. Cor. guiat, tela, Br. gwea, M. Br. gweaff, *vegid ; 
Ger. wickeln, roll, wind, curl, wieche, wick, Eng. wiek, Ag. S. 
wecca (Stokes). Usually referred to the root vei, vi, wind. 


file, fllidh, a poet, Jr. file, g. ftlidh, 0. Ir. flli, g. filed, *velet-, 

"seer;" W. gwelet, to see, Br. guelet, sight, *vel6. Cf. Norse 

volva, prophetess, sibyl, 
fill, fold, It. JUlim, fold, return, 0. iT.fiUim, fleoto, *velvd; Lat. 

volvo, roll, volumen, Eng. volv/me ; Gr. d\vu>, envelop ; Got. 

af-^alvjan, roll away, Eng. wallow. Cf. W. olwyn, a wheel 

(Stokes). Windisch {Curt. Et.) suggests vald as root, allied 

to Norse velta, roll. Got. valtjan, Eng. welter, Ger. wahe, roll, 

waltz. See especially till. 
fiUein, a collop : a " roll ;" irora fill. 
fine, a tribe, kindred, Ir,, 0. Ir. fine, 0. Br. coguerum, indigena, 

*venjd, kinship ; Norse vinr, friend, Ag. S. mne, 0. H. G. 

wini (do.) ; I. E. root ven, love, Lat. Verms, veneror, Eng. 

•venerate, Skr. van, love, 
flnealta, iine, elegant, Ir. finealta ; cf. M. Ir. fin- in Finscotlmch, 

fair-flowered, Fin-shnechta, bright-snow, root svSn ; Gr. ^vo^i-, 
. bright (Stokes for M. Ir.). 
finiche, jet (M'D., M'A.), finichd, black as jet (M'F.) : 
finid, end ; from Lat. finit, the colophon of so many tales when 

finideach, wise, so Ir. (Lh. Sh., H.S.D., which ' gives C. S. as 

authority) : 
finne, a maiden (Arm., M'A., M'E.) : "fairness, beauty ;" from 

fionn (*vindid,). 
finnean, a buzzard : 
tfioeh, wrath, Ir.fioch, E. Iv. fich, feud, I.E. *veiqo-, fight; Got. 

veihan, strive, O. H. G. wigan, fight ; Lat. vinco. Hence 

fiochdha, angry. 
fiodh, wood, so Ir., 0. Ir. fid, W. guid, gwydd, gwydden (sing.). 

Com. guiden, Br. gwezenn, tree, gwez, trees, Gaul, vidn^, *vidii-; 

Eng. wood, Ag. S. wvdu, 0. H. G. witu. Hence t fiodhcheall, 

chess play, E. Ir. fidcheU, W. gwyddhwyll, " wood-sense," from 

fijodh and ciall. Also fiodhag, wild fig, fiodhan, cheese-vat. 
fiodhradh, an impetuous rush forward (Heb.) : 
fiodhuU, a fiddle, E. Ir. fidil, from Low Lat. vitula, whence Fr. 

viola, Eng; viol, violin. Cf. Tling. fiddle, from Med. liat. fidtUa, 

Lat. fidis. 
fioghuir, a figure, Ir. fioghair, M. Ir. figur ; from Lat. fi^ura. 
fiolagau, a field-mouse (Arran) : 
fiolan, fiolar, an earwig, nesscock, W. chwil, beetle, chwihr, 

maggot, Br. c'houil ; Gr. o-t'A^T/, cockroach, Eng. sylph. 

Cf. feallan. 
fiomhalach, a giant (Sh.) ; iromfi^mh. 
fion, wine, Ir. fion, 0. Ir. fin, W., Cor., Br. gwin ; from Lat, 



f ionag, a mite, insect, a miser, Ir. finebg, a mite in cheese, etc. : 
fionn, white, Ir. fionn, 0. Ir. find, W. gwyn. Com. guyn, Br. 

gwenn, Gaul, vindo-, *vindo-, a nasalised form of root vid, veid, 

see, as in fi^s. Cf . Servian vidn'Q, clear, 
fionn-, to, against, Ir. fionn-, ionn-, 0. Ir. ind- ; see iomt-. 
fionna, fionnadh, hair, pile, Ir. fionnadh, E. lT.finda,findfad, 0. Ir. 

finnae, pUonim, *ves-nid, root ves, clothe, Lat. vestis, Eng. 

vestment. Stokes has compared it to Lat. villus, hair, which 

he takes from *vin-lus, but which is usually referred to the 

root vel of vellus, lana, etc. The -fad of E. Ir. is for *vida, 

aspect, W. gwedd, root vid, see. 
fionnan-feoir, grasshopper, Ir.finnmfeoir (O'E.) : 
fionnairidh, a watching : * ind-faire , see fionn-, to, and faire. 
fionnar, cool, \r. fionnfhuar, M. Ir. indfhuar; from _^o?i»i- and /war. 
fionnas-garraidh, parsley (M'L.) : 
fionndairneach, rank grass, downy beard (H.S.D.) : 
t fionndruinne, (white) bronze, E. Ir. findruine, white bronze : 
fionnogha, grandson's grandson, Ir. fiotmiia ; from fiann-, ad-, and 

fionnsgeul, a romance ; from fi^nn- and sgeul. 
fior, true, Ir. fior, 0. Ir. fir, W. gwir, 0. W. guir, Br. gwir, *vSrn-; 

Lat. verus ; Ger. wahr. Eoot ver, vor, var, see, as in Eng. 

beware, ward. Before the noun the word is fir. Hence 

firean, righteous man, 0. Iv.firian, W. gwirion, *vSridno-s. 
fios, knowledge, Ir. iios, 0. Ir. fiss, *vid-t'Ur, root vid, veid, know ; 

Lat. video, see ; Gr. eTSov, i8eiv, saw, oiSa, know ; Got. 

vitan, watch, Eng. wit ; Skr. vid, know, vetti, to know. Hence 

fiosrach, knowing, 
fir-chlis, the northern lights ; see fear and clis. 
fir-chneatain, backgammon men : 
fire faire, interjection — " what a pother ;" from the Sc. fiery-fary, 

fi reach, hill ground, mountain : 
firead, a ferret, Ir. firiad ; from the Eng. 
fireun, an eagle, Ir./i^r-^n..- "true-bird ;" from /lor and eww. So 

in E. Ir. fir-iasc is the salmon, 
firionn, male, so Ir. ; E. Ir. firend ; from fear. 
fise, false, interjection — noise of things breaking, talking secretly. 
fitheach, a raven, Ir., 0. Tr. fiach, *veiko-s ; Ger. weihe, kite, 

0. H. G. viiho ; root vei, hunt, 
fithreach, dulse, so Ir. (Lh., O'B., etc.) : 
fid, worthy, Ir. fiH, 0. Ir. fiiSb, W. gwiw. Cor. guiii, 0. Br. uuiu, 

Gaul, vesu-, *vesri-, vSsu-, good ; Skr. vdsu, good ; root ves, be, 

Eng. was. Some give *visu (*visu-) as the stem, Gr. i'cros, 

like ( = visvo-s), Skr. vishu, seque. Hence fidbhaidh, a prince. 


valiant chief, Jr. fi4bhas, dignity ; also fitighanta, generous, 
Jr. fiughantach, Jv&ntach (Keat.), worthy. 

fitlran, a sapling, Ir. fiiirdn (Sh., O'R., Fol.) : 

fitithaidh (f tibhaidh), an arrow ; see iuthaidh. 

flaiche, a sudden gust of wind (Sh., O'R.) : 

flaitheaoas, heaven, glory, flaitheas, sovereignty, Ir. fiaith- 
eamhnus, 0. Jr. flaithemnas, gloria ; from flaithem, lord, g. 
jiaitheman ; seejlath. 

t flann, red, blood-red, so Ir., E. Ir. fland, blood, red : *vl-ando-, 
root vol oifuil, q.v. 

flasg, a flask, W. fflasg ; from the Eng. 

flath, a chief, prince, Ir. flaith, 0. Ir. fiaith, chief, dominion, 
flaithem{an), chief {^vlatimori-), W. gwlad, region, M. W. 
gulatic, rex, Corn, gulat, patria, Br. gloat, realm, Gaul, vlatos, 
*vlato-s, *vlati-s, root vala, via, be strong ; Lat. valere, Eng. 
valid ; Got. valdan, Ger. walten, rule, Eng. wield, Walter ; 
Ch. SI. vladi}., rule, Euss. vladiete, rule, 0. Pruss. waldniJca-, 
king. Also *valo-s as the final element of certain personal 
names — Domhnall, * Dumno^alo-s (see domhan), Conall, 
* Kuno-valo-s {*kuno-s, high, root ku, as in euraidh, q.v., 
Teutonic HUrt^, Humbold, Humphrey, Hunwald, etc.), Cathal, 
* KatVrvalo-s (see cath), etc, 

fleachdail, flowing in ringlets (H.S.D., from MSS.); from Lat 
plecto, plait. 

fleadh, a feast, Ir. fleadk, 0. Ir. fled, W. gwledd, 0. W. guled, 
pompae, *vldd, root vel, wish ; Gr. ilXaTrivr), feast, eXBojiai, 
wish, IXttj's, hope ; Lat. voluptas ; Eng. will, well. 

fleadhadh, brandishing; Eng. wield; seejlath. 

fleasg, a rod, wreath, Ir. fieasg, garland, wand, sheaf, 0. Ir. flesc, 
rod, linea, *vleska, from *vledska, root vld; Ger. wald, wood, 
Eng. wold ; Gr. aAcros, grove ; Ch. SI. vladi, hair. From the 
Celtic comes the Fr. fl^che, arrow, whence Eng. Fletcher, 
arrow-maker. Beefleisdear. 

fleasgach, young man, bachelor, so Ir., "wand- 
bearer." From fl^asg, above. The Ir. fleasgaigh ealadhna, 
itinerant medicine men, carried fleasgs to denote their pro- 

fleasgairt, a barge or boat hung with festoons ; fromfleasg. 

fieisdear, arrow-maker ; from Sc. fledgear, M. Eng. flecchere, now 
fietcher, from 0. Fr. flechier. See fleasg further. 

fleodradh, floating (Heb.), fleodruinn, a buoy ; from l^ar^e fljbta, 
to float, Eng. float. 

fleogan, an untidy, flabby person, a flat fish (Arms.), fleoidhte, 
flaccid (Sh.) : 

fliodh, chiekweed, a wen, Ir. fliodh, fljigh, chickweed, W. gwlydd, 
ehickweed, soft stems of plants, *vldu-. Same root as in iieasg. 


fiiuch, wet, Ir., 0. Ir. fliuch, W. gwlyb, 0. W. gulip, Corn, glibor, 

humor, Br. yloeb, wet, *vlqvrs, wet ; Lat. liquidus ( = vliqwidus) ; 

Lit. wa'lks, wet, wdlka, swampy place. See/aifc. 
£6, hallucination (H.S.D. for N.H.) : 

flod, a state of floating ; from T^ng. float, Norse ^<i, a raft, 
flodach, lukewarm ; see plodadh. 
fltir, plvir, flower, Ir. plUr, M. Ir. plur ; from the M. Eng. flour, 

0. Fr. flour, Lat. jlorem. G. Iliir is from the Scotch. 
fo, under, Ir., 0. Ir. fo, W. go-. 0. W, guo-. Cor. go-, Cor., Bret. 

gou-, Gaul, vo- : *vo, for *u,(p)o ; I.- E. upo ; Gr. wrd, ; Lat. 

s-uh ; Got. m/ ; Skr. upa, hither, 
fobhannan, (fothannan), a thistle, Ir. fdhhthdn, fothanndn, E. Ir. 

omthann, * omo-tanno-, "raw or rough twig"? See amh and 

caorrunn. Dial, fonntan (Arran). 
focal, word ; see focal. 
fochaid, scoffing, Ir. fochmhuid, foehuidbheadh, M. Ir. fochmaid, 

E. Ir. fochuithivd, *fo-con-tih-, root- teb, smile, 0. Ir. tihiu, 

laugh ; Lit. stebius, be astonished, 
fochair, presence, am fochar, coram, Ir., M. Ir. fochair : *fo-char, 

car being cor, put. 
fochann, young corn in the blade, Ir. fochan, M. Ir. fochon : 

*vo-i:uno-1 Boot kun, ku, increase, Gaul, cuno-, high, &c. 

See curaidh. 
f 6d, a peat, turf, Ir. fod, 0. Ir. fot : 
fodar, fodder, Ir, fodar ; from the Eng. fodder. 
fogair, expel, banish, Ir. f6gair, command, proclaim, 0. Ir. 

focairim (do.), fdcre, monitio : *fo-od-gar- ; root gar of goir. 
t fogh, quiet, careless (Stew.) : 
foghail, a hostile incursion, Ir. foghail, E. Ir. fogal : *fo-gal ; root 

gal, valour, war. See gal. 
foghail, foghail, noise, bustle, merriment ; for first sense, see 

foghair, for second, see othail. 
foghainteach, valorous, Ir. fdghainteach, good, fit, serviceable, 

f6ghaint, ability : " capable" ; from foghainn, suffice. See 

foghair, a sound, tone, so Ir., 0. Ir. fogur, sonus : *fo-gar- ; root 

gar of goir. Strachan makes the root part/o^, and refers it 

to fuaim, q.v. 
foghar, harvest, Ir. foghmhar, M. Ir. fogamur, autumn, E. Ir. 

fogamv/r, fogomur, last month of autumn : *fo-gamur, the 

gamur being from the root of geamhradh, winter, q.v. The 

idea is " sub hiemem." Cf. W. cyvMuaf, harvest, 0. W. 

Icynnhajeaf, from cyn, before, and gavaf, winter. 
foghlum, learning, Ir. foghlmm, 0. Ir. foglaim, vb. fogliunn : 

* vo-glendd, *glendd, make clear ; Eng. glance, Ger. glam, 

splendour ; Ch. SI. glgdati, show. 

l60 fiTinrfOLOGICAL blCTiONAKi? 

foghnadh, sufficiency, service, Ir. foghnamJi, 0. Ir. foqnam, service ; 
from fo and gniomh, deed. 

foichein, a wrapper, infant's clout : 

foichlean, a sprout, young com (Arm.), Ir. foichnin ; s^efochann. 

f 6id, a peat ; see fbd. 

f oidheach, a beggar ; see faoighe. 

foidhearach, naked (H.S.D., Dial.) : 

foidhidinn, patience, Ir. foighid, 0. Ir. foditm, toleratio {*vo-dam- 
tin-), vb, fodamim. patior, root dam ; Lat. domo, I tame, 
subdue ; Gr. Safmo) (do.) ; Eng. tame ; Skr. ddmyati, tame. 

foighnich, ask ; see faighnich. Also, more Dialectic, foinieh. 

foil, macerate, broil ; see fail. Hence foileag, a cake suddenly 
and imperfectly toasted. 

foil, pig-stye; see fail. 

f6il, slow, stately, f dill, composure, Ir. fdil, foill, softly ! a while, 
M. Ir. CO fdill, slowly, for a while, E. Ir. co foill, slowly : 

foill, treachery, 0. Ir. foile, astutia. G. is for *volnt^, Ir. 
for *volid, both side-forms to feall, treachery, q.v. 

foillsich, reveal, 0. Ir. foillsigim, * svolnestikid ; seefollus. 

foinich, ask ; see faighnich. 

foinne, a wart, Ir. faine, faithne, W., Cor. gwenan, blister, Br. 
gwennkaenn, a wart ; Eng. wen, Ag. S. wenn (Em.). 

foinneamh, foinnidh, handsome, genteel ; cf. next word, also Lat. 
vinnulus, delightful, root ven, as in G. fine, etc. 

foinnich, temper, Ir. foinnim, teuxper, knead, /oiw/iigfAte, tempered, 
kneaded. Cf. above word. 

foir-, prefix meaning " super," same as for- : see far, air{b). 

foil, help, Ir. f6ir (vb. and n.), E. Ir. foriuth, I help, 0. Ir. don- 
ftir, to help us : *vo^et- ; root ret of ruith, run. For force, 
cf . fwrtachd. The W. gwared, release, Br. goret, are of like 
elements. Similarly foirbheart (an Ir. word really), assist- 
ance, is from foir- and heir. 

foirbhillidh, acceptable (M'D.) ; from for and bail, good ? 

foirceadal, foircheadal, instruction, catechism, Ir. foireheadal, 
0. Ir. fordtal, doctrina, vb. forchun, doceo : *for-can- ; root 
can, say, sing. See can. 

foireann, foirionn, a band, crew, Ir. fuirionn, E. Ir. fairenn, O. Ir. 
foirinn, 0. W. guerin, W. gwerin, people, M. Br. gueryn, 
*vorind, *vorinni-, multitude, root ver, enclose ; Ag. S. vorn, 
multitude, caterva ; Lit. word,, long row in Indian file ; Skr. 
vrd, troop, company. Seefearann. 

foirfe, perfect, Ir. foirfe, complete, old, 0. Ir. foirhthe, perfectus, 

forhe, perfectio, vb. forbanar, perficitur, forfenar, consum- 

matus : *for-hen- ; root ben, ba, go (Lat. venio, Gr. Palvm, 

efSr/y, etc.), practically a verb " to be" (Stokes Neo-Celtic 

Verb Subst.). 


f 6irin, assistance, E. Ir. inf. dat, fmritmp, ; see fbir. 

foirmeil, brisk, lively (Sh., etc.) : 

f birneadh, intruding ; see teirinn, teat/rnadh. 

f dirneis, a furnace ; see fidrruis. 

foirneata, conspicuously brave ; see niaixL. 

fois, rest, Ir. fois, 0. Ir. foss, residence, remaining, rest, W. ar-os ; 

*vosso-; root ves, be, rest; Gr. oo-m, city (*vastu); Slsx.vdstn, 

place ; Lat. Vesta ; Eng. was, Ger. wesen, be, Got. visa, 

remain. So all etymologists till Windisch (1892) suggested 

the root std, that is *vo-sto-. Hence foisdin, taciturnity, Ir. 

foisteadh, wages, hire, Ir. foistig/him, I hire ; M. Ir. foss, servant, 

W. ^was (Eng. vassal) ; from the same root as fois. Also 

folach, covering, hiding ; see falach. 
f dlach, rank grass growing on dung-hUls ; *vog-lo-, root vog, veg 

folachd, a feud, bloodiness ; see fuil. 

folachdaiU, water-parsnip (H.S.D. quotes only O'B.), Ir. folachtain: 
foUas, publicity, foUaiseach, public, Ir. follus, public, manifest, 

0. Ir. follus, clear, shining, manifest, * svolnestVrS ; see soliis. 
fonn, land, Ir. fonn, E. Ir. fond ; from Lat. fundus, which, again, 

is connected with G. hon/n, q.v. 
fonn, a tune, Ir. fonn, tune, desire, delight ; *svonno-, root sven, 

sound, Lat. sonus, Eng. sound. See seinn. 
fonnsair, a trooper (M'A.) : 

for-, super-, Ir., 0. Ir. for- ; prep, for, for which see far, air (b). 
forail, command, Ir. fordilim. See earail for formation and root. 
forair, watch, Ir. foraire ; from for and aire. 
forasda, sedate, so Ir. ; see farasda, in the sense of " staid." 
forbhas, ambush (Sh., H.S.D., which quotes Lh. and C.S.), Ir. 

forhhas, E. Ir. forbas, siege : 
fore, a fork, Ir. /ore, E. Ir. /ore, {=gobul) ; from Lat. /twca, Eng. 

forf hais, foras, information, inquiry, Ir. foras, E. Ir. foras, forus, 

true knowledge : *forfiss, ixomfiss or fios, knowledge, q.v. 
forgan, keenness, anger; from a side-form /or-gr (*vorg) oifearg? 
f drlach, a furlough ; from the Eng. 
foiluinn, spite, hatred (H.g.D.), Ir., M. Ir.forlonn; from /or and 

lonn, fierce, 
forman, a mould, Ir. formdn ; from Lat. forma. 
ferradh, gain (H.S.D. ), excrescence, shift (M^E.) ; from /or and 

rath 1 See rath. 
forsair, a forester ; from the English. 



fortail, strong, hardy (anir. word clearly), Ir. foirteamhail,/ortaU, 

brave, stout, JE. Ir. fortail, predominant, strong ; from Lat. 

fortan, fortune, Ir. fortUn ; from Lat. fortuna. 
fortas, litter, refuse of cattle's food, orts; from the Eng. orts. 

Lh. has an Ir. fortas, straw, 
f6s, yet, still, Ir. f6s, M. Ir. f6s, beos, 0. Ir. beus, beius. Stokes 

makes it a comparative in s from beo-, allied to Lat. he6, 

gladden, 6e-ne, well. 
fosgail, open, so Ir., E. Ir. oslaicim : *f-od-as-leig ; Gaelic root 

leic or leig, let. See leig and cf. tuasgail. 
fosgarach, open, frank : 
fosradh, pounded bark (or anything) to stop leaks ; cf . Ir. fosradh, 

scattering, from *vo-ster-, root ster, strew, 
fosradh, hand feeding of cattle (Heb.) : 
fpthach, the glanders in horses, Ir. fothach, fothach : 
fdtus, a flaw, refuse (M'A. says " rotten pus," and gives f6t, rotten 

earth) : 
fiachd, freight ; from Sc. fraught, Eng. freight. 
fradharc, vision, sight, Ir. rddharc, E. Ir. rodarc : '''ro-darc ; root 

derh, see, as in dearc, q.v. 
fraigein, a brisk, warlike fellow ; see frogan. 
fraigh, wattled partition, E. Ir. fraig:*vragi-, root verg; Skr. 

vraja, hurdle ; Gr dpyia, shut in. 
fraileach, sea-weed (Sh., O'R.) : 
frangalus, tansy ; lus na Fraing (Cameron), the French herb ; 

from Fraing, France, 
fraoch, heather, Ir. fraoch, 0. Ir. froech, W. grug. Cor. grig, M. Br. 

groegon, *vroiko- ; Gr. ipeUr). Hence G. fraoch, wrath, Ir. 

fraoch, E. Ir. froech, furor. 
fraolHhnidh, flourishing : 
fraoidhneis, froinis, a fringe ; from the Eng. 
fraoileadh, a flustering by liquor ; Dial, sraoileadh : 
fraon, a place of shelter in the mountains (Sh., O'E.) : 
fras, a shower, Ir. fras, E. Ir. frass, *vrastd ; Gr. €/xn/, dew ; Skr. 

varsham, rain, 
freagair, answer, Ir. freagairim, E. Ir. frecraim : * frith-gar-, root 

gar of goir. 
freasdal, serving, attending, Ir. freasdail, 0. Ir. frestal, fresdel : 

*fris-do-el- ; for root see Dr Cameron referred it to 

fris and tal, which see in tuarastal. 
freiceadan, a guard, watch : *frith-coimhead-an ; from coimhead, 

guard, look, q.v. 
freiteach, a vow, interdictory resolution, E. Ir. fretech, fristdng, 

repudiation, renunciation, 0. Ir. friitossam, renvmtiaverimus ; 


root tong, tog, swear, Lat. tongeo, think, Eng. think. Stokes 

gives the final root as tag, take, Lat. tangere. Ir. tong, 

swear, is allied to W. tyngu. 
fredine, fury, rage : 
freumh, friamh, a root, Ir. friamh, E. Ir. frim, W. gwraidd, 

gwreiddyn. Cor. grueiten, Br. grisienn, *vrd-md, *vrdjo-, 

*vrdnu- ; Lat. radix, root ; Gr. pl^a ; Got. vaurts, Eng. wort, 

fride, a tetter, ring-worm, M. Ir. frigde, flesh-worm, E. Ir. frigit, 

W. gwrairtt, M.Br, gruech, *vrgntid, root verg ; Eng. vrriggle. 
frideam, support, attention : 
frighig, fry ; from the Eng. frying. 
friochd, a second dram, a nip : 
friochdan, a frying pan, Ir. friochtdn ; cf. Ir. friochtalaim, I fry. 

From fry of the Eng. 
frioghan, a bristle, pig's bristle ; root vrg as in fraigh ? Of. W. 

gwrych, hedge, bristles, *vrg-ko-. Hence frloghail, sharp, 

keen. Spelt also friodhan. 
frionas, fretfulness : *friogh'n-as, " bristliness ;'' from frioghan. 
friotach, fretful (Stew.) ; see. frith, sour look, 
t frith, an incantation to discover if far-away persons live (Heb.), 

fate (Sh., O'R) ; from the Norse freti, enquiry of the gods 

about the future, Sc. fret, freit. 
frith, small, trifling (Sh. O'R.) : 
frith, a sour or angry look (A. M'D.), frithearachd, peevishness, 

Ir. frithir, peevish : *'urti- ; root of ri, " against f 
frith, a forest, deer forest, Ir. frith, wild, mountainous place, W. 

ffridd, forest ; from M. Eng. /ricT, deer-park, Ag. S. frits. 
frith-, fre-, freas-, prefix = prep, ri by force and derivation ; 

wliicli see. 
fritheil, attend, Ir. friotholaim, (Oon. frloihblaivi), E. Ir. frithailim, 

root -al- (Ascoli), go ; root al, el, eln of tad/ial, q.v. 
frithir, earnest, eager (Stew.), Ir. frithir, earnest, peovish ; cf. 

frith, sour look, 
frog, a hole, fen, den : 

frogan, liveliness, a slight degree of drunkenness : 
froighnighe, a dampness oozing through the wall ; horn fraigh 

and snighe. 
froineadh, a sudden tugging, rushing at (M'D.) : 
froinis, a fringe ; see fraoidhneis. 
frdmhaidh, hoarse, rough : 
fuachd, cold, so Ir., 0. Ir. uacht, ocht, *avkto-; Lettic" awisis, 

cold (adj.), Lit. duszti, cold, be cold. 
fuadaich, drive away, Ir. fuadaighim, drive away, snatch away, 

E. Ir. fiiataigm ■.^fo-od^tech (1); see teich. Hence fuadan, 



fiiadarach, hasty, in a hurry (Stew., Arm. and H.S.D.), Ir. fuadar, 
haste; iiomfuad- oi fuadaich 1 Cf. Sc. /outre, activity. 

fua^arthach, exiled ; see /6gair. 

fuaigh, stitch, fualgheal, sewing, so Ir., E. Ir. fiiagaim, imgaim, 
0. Ir. 4aimm (n.) : *oug-s-men- ; root pcyuff, jmg, stitch, 
stick; Lat. pungo, Eng. punch. Zimmer (in 1882), referred 
it to the root of high,, the idea, being "integrate," from 
6g, uag, "integer." 

fuaim, noise, so Ir., E. Ir. fdaimm (pi. fuamand). Neither 
*vog-s-'nen (Strachan ; root vog of Skr. vagrvA, sound. Got. 
vdf>jan, at J, Eng. whoop) nor *voe-s-men (Stokes ; root vnq, 
voice, Lat. voco) can give vm, only o or a. 

fual, urine, so Ir., O. Ir.fual: * voglo- or * voblo- ; rod)b vog, veg, ug, 
be wet ; Gr. tiypds, wet, Eng. hygrometer ; Lat. humidus, uvea 
(for ugveo), be moist, Eng. humour ; Norse vokva, moisture. 

fuar, cold, Ir. fuar, E. Ir. uar, W. oer, Cor. air : *ogro-, root ug, 
aug of fuachd, q.v. Stokes refers it to the root veg, ug, dis- 
cussed under fy-al, especially Gr. vypo^, wet ; a root which 
would rather be vob in Celtic (cf. Lat.), and this would not 
give W. oer. Strachan suggests either Ch. SI. ogni, fire (Lat. 
ignis) or Gr. wdyo's, frost (root pdg, fix, fit). Hence fuaradh, 
windward side, fuaran, a well, fuarraidh, damp, fuarralanach 
(Ir. fuardlach, chill), cold feeling, etc. 

fnasgail, loose, untie, so Ir., E. Ir. fuaslaicim ; see tuasgail. 

fuath, hatred, so Ir. M. Ir. fUath ; cf. E. Ir. uath, awe, terror, 
terrible, and see tuiih for root. 

fuath, a spectre, so Ir., 0. Ir. fdath, figura, forma: 

fticadh, fuUing cloth, M. G. mnkM (D. of L.), Ir. ucaire, fuller ; cf. 

fudag, a shoe-strap (H.S.D. says Dial.) : 

fudaidh, mean, vile ; from Sc. footy, fouty. 

fildar, powder, Ir. piidar ; from the Eng. 

ftidraic, smart, in good condition : 

fuidh ! an interjection. Seefkh. 

fuidheall, remainder, Ir. fuigheall, E. Ir. fuidell ; also G. faidh- 
leach, remains, E. Ir. fuidlech : * fo-do-ell, root ell, as in 

fMdreadh, commixing, pulverising ; from fudar. Dial, fddradh, 
turning hay in the sunshine to dry it. 

ftiidsidh, craven ; from Sc. fugie, one who flies from the fight. 

fuigheag, a thrum, Ir. fughdg ; from a short vowel form of root 

fuil, blood, Ir., 0. Ir. fuil, gen. fola, folo : *volir, root vol, vel, 
well ; Eng. well. 


fuilear, cha 'n fhuilear dhomh, I need, must, Ir. fuldir, liberty, 

excuse, ni fuldir dhomh, " not liberty to ine," I must : 

*fo-ldthair, " in presentia " ? 
fuilig, fulling, fulaing, suffer (thou), Ir. fulangaim, E. Ir. 
fulangim, 0. Ir. fuloing, sustinet, inf. fulang : " under-go ;" 

from/o and '''long, going, root leng, spring, go, as in leum, q.v. 

Further allied is Ger. verlangen, desire, Eng. long, Lat. longus. 
fuin, bake, Ir. fuinim, I knead, bake, boil, E. Ir. fuinim, bake, 

cook. Zimmer takes the word to mean " to fire, bake," from 

the Norse fwni, flame, fire, E. Ir. oc-/M?ie = Norse vit funa, 

a-roasting ; but unlikely. Possibly *i;oJii-, "dress," root ven, 

vun, Lat. Vemis, Eng. venerate 
fuirbidh, a strong man, also fuirbearnach ; compounds of bi and 

beir, with /or, super. 
f airich, stay, Ir. fuirighim, E. Ir. fuirigim, noun fuirech, 0. Ir. 
fuirset (s future) : *vo-reg; root reg, stretch, go ; Lat. porrigo, 

rego. See rack. 
fuirm, stools, a form, Ir. fuirm, W. ffurf ; from Eng. form. 
f iiiTneis, f oirneis, a furnace, Ir. fwmeis ; from the Eng. 
fuithein, a galling, taking off the skin by riding (M'D.) : 
fulaing (vb.), fulang (n.) ; seefuilig. 
fulaisg, rook; iioiafo + liiaug, q.v. 

fulmair, a species of petrel, fulmar ; from Sc, Eng. fulmar. 
fulpanachd, articulation, jointing (Sh., O'K., H.S.D.) ; cf. alp. 
funntainn, benumbment by cold ; see punntuinn. 
furail, incitement, command, Ir. furdil, Yj. Ir. urdil, fardil, 0. Ir. 

irdil ; the same as earail, q.v. 
furan, a welcome, Ir. fur dn, for an (Connaught) .; root ver, as in 

E. Ir. feraim fdilti, I welcome. The root means in E. Ir. 

" give, rain" (seefearthuinn). The root of fhuair seems mixed 

with that oi fearthuirun. 
furas, patience : *f-air-asta, asta (standing, staying) being for 

adsta-, ad and sta, stand, 
furasda (furas), easy, easier, Ir. furas, furasda, E. Ir. urusa : 

*air-iisa, from usa, easier, q.v. 
furbaidh, wrath (Sh., O'R.), furban (H.S.D., from MSS.); see 

furbhailt, furailt, courtesy, kindly reception; also furmailt. 

For the latter, Armstrong gives " ceremony" as force, which 

may be from Eng. formjolity. The words, otherwise, seem 

from for-failte. 
furm, a stool ; see fuirm. 
fiirlaich, hate, detest (Arms.) : 
furtachd, relief, help, so Ir., 0. Ir. fortacht (gen. in -are) : *for- 

tiacht ; for Gaelic root tiagh, Ugh, see tighinti, 


fusgan, a heather brush ; cf . So, whisker, a bunch of feathers for 
sweeping, Eng. whisk. 


gab, a tattling mouth ; from So. gab (do.), M. Eng. gabben, to 
chatter, mock, Norse gabb, mockery, 0. Fris. gabbia, accuse. 

gabh, take, Ir. gabhaim, 0. Ir. gabaim, gaib, capit, ini. gabdil, W. 
ga/ael, prehensio (Eng. gavelkind), Cor. gavel : *gai6, capio, 
do, *gabagli ; Got. giban, give, Ger. geben, Eng. give ; Lit. 
gahinti, bring. 

gibhadh, danger, peril, Ir. gdbha{dh), E. Ir. gdba, gdhvd : 

gabhagan, a titlark (Sh., O'E., H.S.D.) : 

gabhal, fork ; see best G. form in gobhal. 

gabhann, flattery (Kirk, etc. ; O'R.) ; from gabh : " take in" ? 

gabhar, goat ; see best G. form in gobhar. 

gabhd, a crafty trick ; from Sc. gaud, a trick. 

gabhlan, a wandering, a man devoid of care (H.S.D., which makes 
it Dial. ; M'E.) : 

gach, each, every, Ir. gach, 0. Ir. each, cech, omnis, quivis, W. pnb, 
0. W., Cor. pop, Br. pep, pob : *qo-qa, *ge-qa, root qo, qe of 
interrogative co ; Lat. quisque ; Skr. kaf-ca ; etc. 

gad, a withe, switch, Ir. gad, E. Ir. gat : *gdzdo- ; Got. gazd-f, 
goad, 0. H. G. gart, sting, rod, Norse gaddr, sting, Eng. yard ; 
Lat. hasta, spear (from ghaz-dhd f). 

gid, git, an iron bar ; from Sc. gad, a bar of metal, Eng. gad, 
wedge of steel, M. Eng. gad, spike, bar, Norse gaddr, as under 

gadaiehe, thief, Ir. gaduigh, E. Ir. gataige ; see goid. 

gadair, tie the fore feet of a horse, etc. (H.S.D., Dial.) ; from gad. 

gadhar, gaothar, lurcher dog, Ir. gadhar, mastiff, hunting dog, 
M. Ir. gadar, mastiff, E. Ir. gagar ; from Norse gagarr, dog 
(K. Meyer) ? The Norse has gagg, the fox's cry, gaql, a wild- 
goose ; this seems to prove that the Norse has a root gag, 
howl, and is likely the original source of gagar. 

gadluinne, a slender, feeble fellow, a salmon after spawning (Sh.) : 

gadmunn, hair insect, nit (H.S.D., M'A.) : 

gdidraisg, tumult, confusion (H.S.D., Dial.) : 

gafann, henbane (Sh., O'B., H.S.D.), Ir. gafann, Cor. gahen : 

gkg, a cleft, chink, Ir. gag : *gdhkA, I. E. root ghdg, further gho, 
gha; Eng. gap, gape; Gr. x°^'^'^-> yawn, xaos, abyss, Eng. 
chaos ; Lat. fauces, throat. Cf. W. gag. Skeat takes hence 
Eng. jag. 

gagach, stuttering (Sh., O'E.), Br. gak ; an onomatopoetic word. 
Cf. Eng. gag, which Skeat queries if from G, 

of TflB (JASLIC LAiiGtJAGlS. 167 

gagan, a cluster : 

gaibhteach, a person in want, craver ; from gabh. 

gailbheach, stormy, prodigious, E. Ir. gailbech, blustering ; cf. 

Eng. gale, of Scandinavian origin, Dan. gal, furious, Norse 

galinn (do.). Also gailbhinn, a storm at sea, a storm of 

gailbhinn, a great rough hill (Sh., " gailebhein," H.S.D.) : 
gain, surly look, etc. ; see goUl. 
gailleach, gailleach, the gum, a swelling of the gum (in cattle), 

seam of shoe uppers, or junction of inner and outer barks of 

trees, Ir. gailleach (O'B.) : 
gailleag, a blow on the cheek, Ir. gaiileog ; from gaill. Cf. 

gaillionn, a stoi-m ; cf. Norwegian galen, wind-storm, Norse galinn, 

furious, Eng. gale. 
gaillseach, an earwig, so Ir. : 
gaillseach, a mouth overcharged so that the cheeks swell out, a 

mouthful of flesh. See goill. 
gaineamh, sand, so Ir., E. Ir. gane^i ; root gA of Gr. yaia, earth ? 

Stokes gives the stem as gasnimd, root ghaK, Lat. harena, 

sand. But grasw- should give G. gann. Also gainmheach, 

E. Ir. ganmech. 
gainne, a dart, arrow (Sh., O'B., H.S.D., M'E.), Ir. gainne : gas- 

nid ; root gaB of gad, q.v. 
gainntir, a prison, Ir. gaintir (Fol.) : 
gair, near ; see gar. 
gair, call, crow ; see goir. 
gair, a shout, outcry, Ir., E. Ir. gdir, W. gav)r, clamor : *gdri- ; Gr. 

■yrjpvs (Dor. yapvs), voice ; root gar, ger, as in goir, q.v. 
gair, laugh, g^ire, a laugh, Ir. gdirim, gdire, E. Ir. gdire (n.) ; 

from root gar, as in the foregoing word. Stokes gives the 

stem as *gdsrid, and cfs. Skr. hasrd, laughing, has, laugh, 
gairbh, a greedy stomach, deer's paunch : 
gairbheil, gaireal, freestone, gravel, Ir. gairbhdal, pron. grabheal ; 

from Eng. gravel. 
gairbhtheann, a species of wild grass (H.S.D.) : 
gairdeachas, rejoicing, Ir. gdirdeachas, M. Ir. gdirdechad, delight- 
ing ; from gdir, laugh, 
gairdean, gaoirdean, an arm ; cf. Sc. gardy, gairdy. 
gairgean, garlic ; from Eng. garlic and G. garg, bitter, by popular 

gairgein, stale wine, Ir. gairgin, dung ; from garg. 
gaireas, goireas, convenience ; see goireas. 
gairisinn, disgust, Ir. gairseamhuil, obscene, wanton : 


gairm, a call, office, Ir. gairm, pi. garmanna, 0. Ir. gairm, W., Br. 
garm, a shout : *garsmeti- ; root gar of goir, q.v. 

giirneal, a meal chest, Ir. gaimdal, a meal magazine, gamer; 
from So. garnell, girnell, Eng. gamer, from 0. Fr. gemier, 
from. Lat. granarium, granary. 

gdiirneilear, a gardener ; from the English. 

gais, a torrent (H.S.D. and Ir.), surfeit ; from Eng. gwh ? 

gais, shrivel up ; from gas, twig ? For sense, cf. crannadh. 

gaisde, a trap (Sh., O'R, H.S.D.), Ir. gaisde, 0. Ir. goiste, noose ; 
from gaoisd, horse hair ? 

gaisde, a wisp of straw (H.S.D.) ; cf. gaoisd. 

gaise, a daunting (M'A.) ;: cf. gais, shrivel. 

gaisge, valour, Ir. gaisge, bravery, E. Ir. gaisced, gasced, bravery, 
feats of arms, armour, weapons ; the idea seems to be " feats" 
and the root the same as in gasda, q.v. 

gal, weeping, Ir. gul, E. Ir. gol ; I. E. gel, pain ; Ger. qiuil, pain, 
qudlen, torment ; Lit. gelti, to smart. Cf . galar. 

tgal, valour, war, E. Ir. gal, 0. Br. gal, puissance, *gald, W. gallu, 
posse, Br. galloet (do.). Cor. gallos, might: * galno- ; Lit. 
galiu, I can, Ch. SI. golemu, great. Hence the national name 
Galatae, Galatian, also Gallus, a Gaul (but see Gall). 

galan, a gallon, Ir. galun ; from the Eng. 

galar, a disease, Ir., 0. Ir. galar, W. galar, grief, Br. glar, glachar 
(do). ; *galro-n. Bez. suggests as allied Norse galli, flaw, 
Umbr. holtu, Ch. SI. ziXlu, bad, sore. But cf. gal, weep. 

gale, thicken cloth, fulling ; from the Eng. walk, wavlk. 

&all, a Lowlander, stranger, Ir. Gall, a stranger, Engjiishmao, 
E. Ir. gall, foreigner ; from Gallus, a Gaul, the Gauls being 
the first strangers to visit or be visited by the Irish in Pre- 
Boman and Roman times (Zimmer). For derivation see gal, 
valour. Stokes takes a different view ; he gives as basis for 
gall, stranger, *gallo-s, W. gal, enemy, foe : *ghaslo- 1 root 
ghas, Lat. hos-tis, Eng. guest. Hence he derives Gallus, a 
Gaul, so named from some Celtic dialect. 

galla, a bitch ; cf. W. gast, a bitch. G. is possibly for * gas-lid. 
Pott has adduced Spanish galgo, greyhound, which, however, 
is founded on Canis Gallicus. See gasradh for root. 

gallan, a branch, a youth (fig.) : *gas-lo-, root gas of gas, q.v. 
Cf. W. gelin, a shoot. 

galluran, wood angelica, so. Ir. : 

galuban, a band put upon the dugs of mares to prevent the foal 
sucking (H.S.D., Dial.) : 

gimag, a stride, Ir. gdmus, proud gait or carriage : * gang-mo- (?) ; 
Sc. gang, Ger. gang, gait. 


gamhainn, a year-old calf, a stirk, Ir. gamhuin, a calf, E. Jr. 

gamuin, year-old calf ; from gam, winter : " winter-old." For 

root, see geamhradh. Confirmed by the proverb : " Oidhche 

Shamhna, theirear gamhna ris nalaoigh" — On Hallowe'en the 

calves are called stirks. Similarly and from the same root 

are Norse gymhr, a year-old ewe lamb, So. gimmer, Gr. 

xifjapoi, a yearling goat (Dor.). Hence gamhnach, farrow cow. 
gamhlas, malice, gannlas, ganndas (Dial.) ; from gann ? 
ganail, rail, fold (Sh., O'B., H.S.D.), Ir. ganail : 
gangaid, deceit (Sh., O'B., etc.), bustle, light-headed creature 

(Sh.), Ir. gangaid, deceit, falsehood : 
gann, scarce, Ir. gann, 0. Ir. gann, gand : *gando-s ; Skr. 

gandhdyate, hurt ; Lit. gendii, be injured (Stokes). 
ganradh, a gander, Ir. qandal ; from the Eng. 
gslnraich, roaring noise as of billows or birds : 
gaog, a lump as in yam or cloth ; cf. goigean. 
gaoid, a blemish, ir. gaoid, a stain ; cf . E. Ir. g6et, a wound : 

*gaizdo- ; Lit. zaizda, a wound. 
gaoir, a noise, a cry of pain or alarm ; from gair, shout ? 
gaoisd, gaoisid, horse hair, M. Ir. goisideach, crinitus, 0. Ir. goiste, 

suspendium, laqueus : * gaissinti-, * gait-tinti ; Gr. xa.iTr\, 

mane, flowing hair, 
gaoistean, a crafty fellow (H.S.D. from MSS.), Ir. gaistin ; cf. 

gaisde, a trap. 
gaoithean, a fop, empty-headed fellow ; from gaoth, wind. 
gaol, love, Ir. gaol, kin, family, E. Ir. gdel, relationship : *gailo- ; 

Lit. gailus, compassionate ; Got. gailjan, gladden, Ger. geil, 

wanton ; Gr. <^tAos, friendly. 
gaOTi, fseces, ordure in the intestines, gore, Ir. garr ; probably 

from Eng. gore, Ag. S. gor, dirt. Hence gaorran, big belly, 

a glutton. 
gaorsach, a bawd, slut : "dirty wench;" from gaorr and the 

female termination -sack ? Cf. siursach. 
gaort, giort, a saddle girth ; from the Eng. 
gaoth, wind, so Ir., E. Ir. gaeth, goeth, 0. Ir. gdith : * gaito-, from 

root gai, I. E. ghai, ghei, gki, drive, storm, as in G. geamli- 

radh, q.v. Eng. glwst (I. E. ghoizdo-s) is allied. Stokes refers 

it to the root of gath solely, which is ghai as above. 
gar, warm, Ir. goraim, 0. Ir. gorim, Br. gor, burning, W. gwres, 

heat : *gord, I warm ; Gr. dipo^, summer heat, depfw^;, warm, 

Eng. thermo-meter ; Lat. furn'us, oven, furnace ; Ch. SI. 

gariti, burn; further Eng. warra (I.E. * gh'^ormo-, Teut. 

gar, gair, gaire, near, proximity, Ir. gar, near (adj. and adv.), 

M. Ir. gar, shortly, W. ger, gar, near. See goirid for root. 



gar, although (Dial.) ; *ga-ro. For ga, see ge ; ro is the verbal 

garadh, garradh, a garden, Jr. gardJmdh, M. Ir. garrda ; from the 

Norse gartSr, a yard, M. Eng. gard, garp, Eng. yard, garden. 
garadh, garaidh, a den, copse, garan, thicket, Ir. gardn, under- 
wood, thicket, ganrrdn, grove, root gar, bristle, be rough, I. E. 

gher, stand stiff, tear, scratch ; Gr. X"P"|) * stake, x<*P"^/°°'5 

ravine ; Lat. hvr-sutus, hirsute, her, hedge-hog, furca, a fork ; 

Lit. zeriii, scrape ; etc. See garhli. 
garbh, rough, so Ir., 0. Ir. garh, W. garw, Br. garu, hard, cruel : 

*ga/rvo- ; I. E. gher, scratchy, rough, tearing ; Gr. xnP^ hedge- 
hog, Lat. her (do.), hirsutus, hirsute, Skr hdrshati, be stiff. 

See garadh further. Some join it with Lat. gravis, but as 

this is allied to Gr. ^apvi, heavy, the G. would rather be 

garbhag, sprat, garvie (Dial.) ; from the Sc. garvie. In Arran, 

garbhanach is the sea-bream, but this is from G. garbh. 
garbhan, the gills of a fish (N. H.). See gvkran. 
g&rcan, a hen's complaint ; onomatopoetic. See grachdan. 
garg, fierce, angry, bitter, Ir. garg, 0. ir. garg, gargg : *gorgo-s ; 

Gr. yopyos, rough, frightsome. There is an obsolete M. Ir. 

geary, *gergo-s. 
garlach, a screaming infant, little villain, vagabond, Ir. garlach ; 

from gar, cry, with the termination -lacli (see bglach). 
garluch, a mole (Sh., O'B., H.S.D.), Ir. garluch : *gar-luch ; luch 

And, gar (?). 
garmainn, garman, a weaver's beam, Ir., E. Ir. garmain, 0. Ir. 

gen. garmne, W. carjan, ; from the root of cuir, put ? 
garrach, a glutton, gorbelly, dirty creature, Ir. garrfhiach, a 

glutton (O'B.) ; allied to Eng. gorbelly, gore, by bon-owing (?). 
gd.rradh, a garden ; better spelling than garadh, q.v. 
garrag, a young crow ; cf. Eng. gorcrow, root gor of Eng. gore, as 

in garrach. 
garrag, a sudden yell, Ir. gartha, clamour, roaring ; from gar of 

gart, surly aspect, gloom ; cf. goirt, sore, sour, 
gart, standing com, Ir. gort, cornfield, 0. Ir. govt, seges ; Gr. 

X0/3T0S, fodder. See goirtean further. 
gartan, a garter ; from the Eng. 
gas, twig, a stalk, Ir. gas : gastd ; Lat. hasta (see gad). Bez. 

queries if not from *gaksd. Lit. zagarai, brushwood, 
gasda, excellent, Ir. gasda, clever, ingenious, E. Ir. ga^ta (do.) : 

*gassavo-s, *gas-tavo, root gad (gad-s) ; Gr. aya^os, Eng. good, 

Lat. Iiabilis ? 
gasg, a tail : *gad-sh)- ; Zend zadhaHh, podex, Gr. x^C'"> cacare. 


gasgag, a step, stride : *gad-sh)-, root gad, go, M. Jr. gaid, goes ; 
Eng. gait, Ger. gasse, way. 

gasradh, salacity in female dogs, W. gasi, a bitch ; root gas, gat-s 
M. Br. gadales, meretrix, Fr. gouine, 0. Ir. goithimm, futuo. 

gasraidh, rabble, mercenary soldiers, Ir. gasradh band of domestic 
troops, from gas, military servant ; borrowed from the W. 
gwas, whence Eng. vassal. Seefasdadh. 

gat, an iron bar ; see gad. 

gath, a dart, sting, Ir. gath, E. Ir. gai, gae, Gaul, qaiso-n ; Norse 
gevrr, spear, Ag. S. gar, Eng. grar-lic ; Gr., shepherd's 
crook ; Skr. heshas, missile. 

ge, whoever, ge b' 6, whatever, whoever, Ir. gihh, E. Ir. ci M ; for 
ge, see co, the interrogative pronoun ; be is the subj. of bl. 

ge, though, Ir. gidh, 0. Ir. ce, ci, cia ; same root as above. See 
also ged. 

geacach, sententious, pert ; from So. geek, to sport, deride, Ger. 
geclcen, hoax. 

gead, a spot of arable land, a garden bed, a spot in a horse's fore- 
head, Ir. gead : 

gead, a lock of hair (H.S.D.) ; also " to clip" : 

geadas, a pike, Ir. geadus ; from Norse gedda, Sc. ged, allied to 
Eng. goad. 

g^adh, a goose, Ir. geadh, E. Ir. ged, W. gwydd, 0. Cor. guit, auca. 
Cor. goydh, goose, Br. goaz, gwaz : *gegdo-, root geg, cry like 
a goose ; Norse gagl, wild goose, M. H. G. gage, gige, cry like 
a goose, gigze, produce inarticulate sound ; Lit. gagdnas, 
goose-like, Servian gagula, a water-fowl, Russ. gagara, silver- 
diver (Stokes). It cannot be referred to the roots of Eng. 
goose and gander {glmns-, ghandro-). 

geal, a leech, E. Ir. gel, Cor. gJiel, Br. gelaonen; Gr. /3SeX\a, 
j3\eTVis, leeches (Hes.) ; Skr. jaluka, blood-leech ; I. E. root 
gel, devour, Lat. gula, throat, Eng. gullet, etc. 

geal, white, Ir. geal, E. Ir. gel : *gelo-, I. E. root gkel, clear, shiue, 
glow ; Lit. geltas, pale-yellow ; Eng. gleam, glow^ ; Gr. X'^''"j 
be warm, X"^'S, unmixed wine ; etc. Stokes connects it with 
Lit. zila-s, grey ; the usual derivation joins it with Lat. 
helvus, light bay, Eng. yellow. Lit. eelti, grow, green, Ch. SI. 
zelenu, green. Hence gealach, the moon, so Ir. ; gealan, a 

gealbhan, a fire, little fire : *gelvo-, I. E. ghel, glow ; Eng. glow, 
gleam ; Gr. x^'X l*® warm. See geal. 

gealbhonn, a sparrow, so Ir., M. Ir. gelbund, W. golfan. Cor., Br. 
golvan : from geal, white. Cf. Gr. yjXi^bsv, swallow, Norse 
gal (do.). 

geall, a pledge, Ir. geall, 0. Ir. gell, pignus : '''gis-lo-, root gis, geis, 
of giall, hostage, q.v. Stokes derives it thus : *geldo-s ; Got. 


gild, tribute, Ger. geld, money, Eng. yield, guild; Gr. 6<^XXu>, 

owe, TcA6'os (Hes.), debt. 
geall, desire, longing, Ir. geall : in the G. phrase, an geall air, 

Keating's i ngeall, in need of ; from geall above, 
gealtach, cowardly, Ir. gealtach, fearful ; see geilt. 
geamhradh, Aviuter, Ir. geimhreadh, E. Ir. gemred, 0. Ir. gaimred, 

0. W. gaem, W. gauaf. Cor. goyf, Br. gouaff, gowiti : *gimo- 

(for Gadelic), *gaiamo-, *gaimo- (for Brittonic, Stokes) ; I. E. 

ghim, gheim, ghiem ; Skr. himA, cold, Zend zima, winter ; 

Ch. SI. iima ; Gr. x«'A«"i' ; Lat. hiems. The 0. Ir. gam, for 

gew., has its vowel influenced by the analogy of samh of 

samhradh (Thur.). 
geamhta, geamhd, anything short and thick, Ir. geamJiddg, a little 

cake of bread (O'E.) ; for root, cf. geimheal. 
geamnaidh, chaste, Ir. geanmnuidh, E. Ir. genmnaid, 0. Ir. genas, 

castitas ; from the root gen, birth, Eng. genteel, gentle. See 

gean, mood, humour, good humour, Ir. gean, favour, approval, 

affection ; cf. Lat. gtnius, ingenium, root gen, Eng. kin, kind. 

E. Ir. gen, laugh, may be compared to Gr. yavos, joy (Bez.) ; 

Stokes suggests *gesno-, Skr. has, laugh, 
geangach, crooked, thick and short ; see gingein. 
geanm-chno, chesnut, ir. geanmehnil : " chastity tree ;" a mistaken 

translation of Lat. castanea, chesnut, as if from castus, chaste, 
geannair, a hammer, wedge, Ir. geannaire ; see geini}e. 
gearan, a complaint, Ir. geardn, M. Ir. ger&n, root ger, cry ; 

0. H. G. gueran, sigh, ehara, weep, Ag. S. ceam, sorrow, Eng. 

care ; further allied is root gar, sound, as in goir. . Cf. W. 

gerain, cry, squeak, and Gr. Svpo/jMi, lament, 
gearasdaiij a garrison, Ir. gairision ; from the Eng. 
ge^rr, short, cut (vb.), Ir. gedrr, gedrraim, E. Ir. gej-j; gerraim : 

*gerso-s. Stokes cfs. Gr. xv*""'', X^V*"") worse, Skr. hrasva, 

short. Cf. M. Eng. garsen, gash, 0. Fr. garser. 
gearr, a hare, Ir. geirrfhiadh : " short deer ;" from gearr and 

fiadh, the latter word being omitted in G. 
ge^irach, diarrhoea, bloody flux : 

gearran, a gelding, Ir., M. Ir. gearrdn ; from gearr, cut. 
geas, spell, taboo, charm, Ir., E. Ir. geis, taboo, gessim (vb.) : 

*gesa6, *geJ-to , root ged of guidhe, q.v. 
geata, gate, so Ir., M. Ir. geta ; from Ag. S. geat, Eng. gate. 
ged, although : * ge-ta ; same as ciod. 
g6ill, yield, submit, Ir. geillim, E. Ir. giallaim, 0. Ir. geillfit, 

dedentur ; from giall, hostage, 
geilt, terror, fear, Ir. geilt, a distracted person, wild, M. Ir. 

geltacht, flying, E. Ir. geilt, mad by fear ; Norse verSa at 


gjalti, to turn mad with terror (borrowed from Celtic, Stokes, 

Thurneysen ; borrowed into Celtic, Zimmer). Stokes refers 

it to a root gliel, fly, suggested by Gr. x^'^'S'ui', a swallow. 
geimheal, a fetter, chain, Ir. gSirahiol, E. Ir. geimel, gemel : 

*gevielo-, root gem, fasten ; Gr. yevro, grasjDed (*y6p-To), 

ya/xos, marriage ; Lat. gemini, twins ; Ch. SI. zifiv^, com- 

geimhleag, a crow-bar, lever ; from Sc. gaveloch, a spear, javelin, 

Ag. S. gafeloc, spear, possibly from an early form of W. 

gaflach, a dart, the root being that in gohhal, fork. 
geinn, a wedge, so Ir., E. Ir. geind, W. going, Br. genn, 0. Br. gen, 

M. Br. guenn . *genni-, root gen, as in Lettie d/enis, the wood 

wedded into the fork of the ploughshare, d/enulis, sting, 

Ch. SI. z§lo (do.), 
geintleach, a heathen, Ir. geinteach, M. Ir. genntlige (adj.), gennti, 

gentiles ; from the Lat. gens (gentis), gentilis. 
geir, tallow, Ir., E. Ir. geir, W. gwer, gired, grease. Cf. Gr. xp'm, 

geisg, creating noise ; see giosgan. 

geob, a wry mouth ; from tlie Eng. gape, Ag. S. geapian. 
geoc, geoic, a wry neck ; formed on Eng. coch ? 
geocaire, a glutton, Ir. geocaire, a glutton, stroller, parasite, M. Ir. 

geocaeh, mimus ; formed on Lat. jocosus (Stokes). 
geddh, geodha, a creek : from the Norse gjd, a chasm, whence 

N. Scotch geo. 
geola, ship's boat, yawl ; from the Scandinavian — Mod. Norse 

jula, Swedish jidle, Dan. joUe, Sc. i/olle, Eng. yawl, jolly- 

geolach, a wooden bier, the shoulder-bands of the dead ; for root, 

see giidan. 
geopraich, a torrent of idle talk ; cf. gebh above. 
geolan, a fan, geulran (Sh.), Ir. gefyilrean ; from the root of 

giulan ? 
gedtan, a spot of arable ground (H.S.D.), a driblet or trifling sum 

(M'A.). : 
geuban, giaban, the craw or crop of a bird ; see gebb. 
geug, a branch, Ir. geug, g'eag, E. Ir. gee : *gnM, *knkd, W. cainc, 

ysgainc ; Skr. Qanku, twig, stake ; Ch. SI. saku, surculus. 
geum, a low, Ir. geiTn, a lowing, roar, E. Ir. g^im, shout, gessim, I 

low : *genqmen- ; Lit. zvengiu, neigh, Ch. SI. zv§g<f, sound. 

Cf. Eng. squeak. 
geur, glar, sharp, Ir. geur, 0. Ir. ger : 

gheil3h, will get, Ir. gheihhim ; root-accented form oifaigh, q.v. 
giaban, gizzard ; see geuban. 


giall, a jaw or cheek, jowl, Ir., M. Ir. gicM, faucibus ; the G. form 
ciobhall seems borrowed from Ag. S. ceajl, Eng. jowl; perhaps 
all are from the Eng. 

t giall, a hostage, pledge, Ir. qiall, 0. Ir. giall, W. gvn/stl, hostage. 
Cor. guistel, obses, Br. goestl, Gaul. Co-gestlos, *geislo-, 
*geistlo- ; 0. H. G. gisal, Ger. geisel, Norse gisl, Ag. S. gtsel. 

giamh, giomh, a fault, blemish : 

gibeach, hairy, gibeag, a rag, bundle, Ir. giohach, giohog, and 
gioh, tail, rag, 0. Ir. gibbne, cirrus : 

gibeach, neat ; for sgibeach 1 See sgiobah. 

gibein, a piece of flesh (M'E.) ; from gib of giblion. 

giblean, April : 

giblion, entrails of a goose, gibean (St Kilda), grease from the 
solan goose's stomach : 

gibneach, cuttle-fish : *gebbi- ; Ger. guwppe, turbot ? 

gidheadh, nevertheless, Ir. gidheadh ; for an older dd + ed, 
" though it (is) ;" Lat. quid id. See co and eadh. 

gigean, a diminutive man, little mass ; native form of ceig, q.v. 

gighis, a masquerade, so Ir. ; from Sc. gyis, a mask, gysar, a 
harlequin, one that disguises himself at New Year, gys, to 
disguise, M." Eng. gisen, dress, prepare, from O. Fr. (de)gviser, 
Eng. dis-^mse. 

gilb, a chisel : *glbi- ; cf. Gr. ■yXd<}xo, carve. But cf. W. gylyf, 
sickle, 0. Cor. gilh, foratorium, allied to G. guilbneach, q.v. 

g^lle, lad, servant, Ir. giolla, E. Ir. gilla; cf. Eng. child, Ag. S. did. 
Zimmer thinks it is borrowed from the Norse gildr, stout, 
brawny, of full worth, Eng. guild, Ag. S. gild, payment (see 
geall), oilda, fellow, used in the names of Norsemen converted 
to Christianity instead of maol, slave. 

gilm, a buzzard : 

gilmean, a fop, flatterer ; see giolam. 

gimleid, a gimlet, Ir. gimlead- ; from the Enghsh. 

gin, beget, Ir. geinim, M. Ir. genar, was born, 0. Ir. ad-gainemmar, 
renascimur, gein, birth, W. geni, nasci, Br. ganet, born, 
*gen6, nascor ; Lat. gigno, geniii, begat ; Gr. ■yiyvo/, 
become, ycvos, race ; Eng. kin; Skr. Jdna, race, stock, jdndmi, 
beget. Hence gin, anyone. 

gineal, ofispring, W. genill ; Ir. ginealach, a generation, G. 
ginealach, M. Ir. genelach, genealogy, from Lat. qenealogia, 
root gen as in gin. 

gingein, a cask, barrel, thick-set person (not H.S.D.) : 

giobag, gibeag, fringe, rag, Ir. giohbg. See gibeach. 

gioball, vesture, cast clothes, Ir. giobdl ; see gibeach. 

gioball, a chap, odd fellow ; a metaphoric use of gioball above. 


giodar, diing, ordure (H.S.D. for C.S.), Ir. giodar (do.), geadan, 

buttock : *geddo-, root ghed, cacare ; Gr. x^C'^i dcarc, xoSavos, 

the breech ; Skr. Jiad, cacave, Zd. zad/ianh, podex. 
giodhran, a barnacle (bird), Ir. giodhrdn, 0. Ir. giuyrann, W. 

gwyrain : * gegurannct ; root geg as in geadh, q.v. Fick has 

compared Lat. gingrmn, goose. Also gidran. 
giog, cringe ; also "peep" (M'A.) : 
giogan, a thistle (Sh., O'fl. giogun) : 
giolam, gileim, tattle, Jr. giolmhaim, solicit : 
tgiolc, reed, Ir. giohacli, E. Ir. gilcach : 
giolc, stoop, aim at (M'A.) : 
giolcair, a flippant fellow : 
giolcam-daobhram, animalcule (H.S.D.) : 
giomach, a lobster, Ir. giomach, gliomach {?), W. ceimwach : 
giomanacli, a hunter ; from the Eng. game. 
gionach, greed, M. Ir. ginach, craving ; from f gin, mouth, 0. Ir. 

gin, W. gen, gena, mentum. Cor. genau, os, Br. giien, cheek : 

* genu- ; Gr. yei/us, chin ; Lat. gena, cheek ; Eng. chin. 
giorag, panic, apprehension, noise, Ir. giorac, noise (giorac. Con.) : 
giort, a girth, Ir. giorta ; from the Eng. 
giosgan, creaking, gnashing, Ir. giosgdn ; also Ir. dioscdn. 
giseag, a fret or bit of superstition, a charm ; see geas. 
gith, a shower, series (H.S.D.) ; cf. E. Ir. gith, way of motion, 

Skr. hi, sit in motion, impel, hiti, impelling, 
githeilis, running to and fro on trifling errands, trifling, E. Ir. 

gith, \ia,j, motion. See above word. 
githir, gir, corn-reapers' wrist pain : 
giM, a wile : 

giiiig, a drooping of the head, languor : 

glMan, a carrying : *gesu-lo-, root ges, carry, Lat. gero, gestum. 
giuUa, giullan, a lad, boy, Ir. giolla, servant, footman. From 

the same source as gille. 
giullaich, prepare, manage well ; from giulla, the idea being 

" serving ;" cf. Ir. giolla above, and Ir. giollas, service. 
giiimsgal, flattery : 
giiiram, complaining, mournful noise (H.S.D.) ; cf. I. E. gevo-, cry, 

as in guth, q.v. 
giuran, gills of a fish, garbhan : *gober-, root of goh ? 
giiiTan, barnacle goose ; see giodhran. 
giuthas, fir, Ir. givmhas, E. Ir. gi^l£ : *gis-osto-, root gis ; Ger. 

kien, resinous wood, kien-baum, Scotch fir, kiefer {kien-fohre), 

pine, Ag. S. cen, fir-wood, *kiz-n (Schrader). 
glac, take, seize, Ir., M. Ir. glacaim, glaccad, grasping, E. Ir. 

glace, band, handful : * glapko- (?), Eng. clasp. See glas. 


gla,g, noise of anything falling, noise, horse-laugh, Ir. glagaire, a 
babbler, glagan, mill clapper : *glag-ho- ; Gr. yAafo), (*gl(igj6), 
sing, noise ; Eng. claclc, M. Eng. claclce, miU clack, Norse 
Maka, chatter bird-like ; also Eng. clap. There is a degree 
of onomato-poesy about these words. Cf. dag. 

glaib, dirty water, puddle, Ir. gldit ; cf. IMb. 

glaim, complaint, howling, Ir. gldim, M. Ir. gldimm : *glag-s-rnd- ; 
Ger. hlagen, weep (Strachan, Stokes). 

glainne, glaine, a glass, Ir. glome, E. Ir. gloine, glaine, W. glain, 
a gem, what is pure ; from glan, clean. 

glaisleiin, lesser spear-wort (Sh.), Ir. glaisleun; from glas and 
lewn or lean, a swamp (Cameron). 

glam, devour, Ir. gldmaim, devour, gobble, gldmaire, glutton : 
* glad-s-mo- ; Ch. SI. gladu, hunger. 

glamair, a smith's vice ; from the Norse klombr, a smith's vice, 
Ger. klemmem, pinch, jam. 

glamhsa, a snap as by a dog ; for form, compare Ir. glamhsan, a 
murmur, which is an aspirated form of glaim, howling. The 
G. is similarly from glam, devour, with possibly a leaning on 
the idea of noise as in glaim. H.S.D. has glamhus, open 

glan, clean, pure, Ir., 0. Ir. glan, W. glain, Br. glan, Gaul, river 
name Glana : *glano-s, root gli, gel, gla, shine ; Gr. yXrjvta, 
shows, yhqvr), eyeball, yeAetv, shine (Hes.), and yXaivol, bright 
ornamentation (Hes.), from root glai, from which Eng. clean 
comes (thus : gli, gla ; glei, glai). 

glang, a ringing noise ; see gliong. 

glaodh, a cry, call, Ir. glaodh, M. Ir. gloed, a shout ; cf. 0. Ir. ad- 
gl&d-wr, appello, Skr. hrddate, sound, Gr. yAokrcra, tongue 
(*yXm6m. ?). Ir. and G. would then be from an 0. Ir. *gldid, 
from *glddi-. Hence glaodhar, glaoran, a noise, prating. 

glaodh, glue, Ir. glaodh, M. Ir. gloed, E. Ir. glded : *gloi-do-, from 
I. E. gloi, glei, be sticky ; Gr. yAoia, ykia, yXivq, glue ; Lat. 
gluten ; Ch. SI. glenu, mucus ; Eng. clay, Ger. hlei, slime. 
W. glvd and M. Br. glut are from the Lat. 

glaodhan, pith of wood ; from glaodh, the idea being " resinous or 
gluey stuff." 

glaomar, a foolish person (Dial.) : "noisy one ;" from glaodh. 

glaoran, blossom of wood-sorrel : * gloiro-, " bright," root glei of 

glas, a lock, Ir., 0. Ir. glas : *glapsd ; Eng. clasp. 

glas, grey, Ir. glas, green, pale, E. Ir. glass, W., 0. W., Br. glas, 
green : *glasto-, green ; Ger. glast, sheen (Bez.), root glas, to 
which Ger. glass, Eng. glass, are probably allied. 


gl6, very, Ir. glS, very, pure, 0. Ir. gle bright, W. gloew, bright, 

0. W. gloiu, liquidum : *gleivo-, I. E. ghlei-, shine ; Eng. 

gleam, glimmer, Ger. glimmen ; Gr. x^""5 X-^'^P^s^ warm 

(Kluge). Bez. refers it to the root of Eng. clean (see glan). 
gleac, a wrestle, fight, Ir., E. Ir. gleic : *glekM-, *gleg-Ico-, I.E. 

glegh6, wager ; Ag. S. plegen, Eng. pledge, play ; Skr. glah, 
, play at dice, cast in wappenshaw. 
gleadh, an onset, deed (H.S.D.) ; cf. Ir. gle6, g. gliadh, tumult, 

E. Ir. gliad, battle : 
gleadh, tricks (Sh., O'B. gleddh, H.S.D. ), Ir. gleadh (O'R.) ; for 

gleagh, gleg, root of gleac 1 
gleadhraich, gleadhair, noise, rattling, clang of arms, Ir. gledgh- 

rach, shout, noise ; cf. Norse gle&ir, Christmas games, gleSr, 

merriment, Eng. glad. Ir. gliadraeh, loquacious, 
gleann, a glen, so Ir., E. Ir. glenn, glend, W. glan, brink, shore, 

M. Br. glenn, country, Br. glann, river bank : *glennos (a 

neuter s-stem). Stokes compares M. H. G. klinnen, Swiss 

klanen, to climb, Norse Munna, cling to. 
glMdh, preserve, keep, Ir. gUiihim, keep, clear up, cleanse, E. Ir. 

gUim, make clear, put in order, lay by. See gU for root, 

and also gleus. 
gleithir, a gadfly (M'D., Sh., O'R.) : *gkgh- ; cf. Sc. cleg, Norse 

kUggi, gadfly. 
gleog, a drooping, silly look ; cf. sgleogair. 
gleoid, a sloven, Ir. gleoid. See sglebid-. 

gleoisg, gleosg, a vain, silly woman, Ir. gleosg. See next word, 
gleoman, a silly, stupid fellow, Ir. gleodhmdn : 
gleorann, cresses, wild angelica, Ir. gledrann, wild angelica ; cf. 

E. Ir. gle6ir, sheen, M. Ir. gleordha, bright ; the root is likely 

that of gU {* glivo-ro-). 
glens, order, trim, tune, Ir. gleus, E. Ir. gle's ; for root, see gleidh 

and gle. Strachan adduces E. Ir. gldse, brightness, and takes 

it from *glent-U, allied to Ger. glanz, splendour, Eng. glance. 

Cf. W. glwys, fair, pleasant. Hence gleusda, diligent, 
t glib, a lock of hair, Ir. glib : *glb-hi- ; cf. Eng. clip. Hence 

Eng. glih. 
glib, sleet, glibshleamhuinn, slippery with sleet (Sh., who gives 

glib, slippery) ; from Sc. glii, slippery, Eng. glih. 
glic, wise, Ir. glic, 0. Ir. glicc : *glkki^. Stokes compares Gr. 

KaA.xatv(o, ponder, and takes from G. the Sc. gleg. 
glidich, move, stir : 
glinn, pretty (Strathspey Dialect for grinn), Ir. glinn, bright ; 

Eng. glint, gleam, glance. 
gliog, gliogar, a tinkling, clink, Ir. gliogar ; Eng. click, clack : an 

onomatopoetic root, 



gliogram, a staggering; from gliogar, the idea being |' noise- 
making" 1 Cf. Ir. glingin, drunkenness. Also G. gliogach, 

clumsy, unstable. 
gliomach, slovenly, a long-limbed fellow ; cf. Ir. glwmach, a 

gliong, ringing noise, Ir. glianc (O'R.) ; allied to, or from, the 

Eng. clirik, Teut. hling. 
gliostair, a clyster ; from the Eng. 
gliflchd, a blubbering, crying : 
gloc, the clucking of a hen, noise, loud note ; Eng. clock, chick, 

W. clwc ; Lat. glodre ; etc. Onomatopoetic. 
gloc, swallow greedily, glochdan, a wide throat; from the Sc. 

gloch, gulp, glog, swallow hastily, E. Eng. glucchen, gulchen, 

swallow greedily, Ger. glucken, gulken, khbcken. 
glochar, a wheezing, difficult respiration, Ir. glocharnach ; cf. Sc. 

glag, glagger, make a noise in the throat as if choking, 

glugger, to make a noise in the throat swallowing. Allied to 

gloc, etc. 
gloc-nid, a morning dram taken in bed ; from gloc and Tiead. 
glog, a soft lump, glogair, a stupid fellow : "unstable one ;" from 

glug, gluig. 
glog, a sudden, hazy calm, a dozing (M'A.) : 
gloichd, gloidhc, a senseless woman, an idiot ; from the Sc. glaik. 
gloin, gloine, glass ; see glain. 
gldir, glory, Ir., E. Ir. gliir, Br. gloar ; from Lat. gloria, whence 

Eng. glory. 
gloirionn, spotted in the face (H.S.D.), drab-coloured (M'A.) : 
gI6madh, gldmainn, the gloaming ; from the Eng. 
glomhar, a muzzle, an instrument put into a lamb or kid's mouth 

to prevent sucking, E. Ir. ghmar, bridle ; root glom, glem, 

Ger. klew/men, jam, M. H. G. klammer, tenaculum, Lat. 

glomus, a clew. 
glomhas, a rock cleft, chink : 
glong, a slimy substance ; root glen, be slimy, Gr. pXkwa, slime, 

snot, 0. H. G. kletian, cleave. See sglongaid. 
glonn, a deed of valour, Ir. glonn, E. Ir. glond, a deed : *gl-onno-, 

root of gal ? 
glonn, loathing, qualm, Ir. glonn, E. Ir. glonn, crime : " facinus ;" 

extended use of the above word. 
glothagach, frog's spawn (Sh., O'K.) : 
gluais, move, Ir., E. Ir. ghtaisim, 0. Ir. gluas- : *gl-eusso-, from 

root geli Lat. volo-, fly, Gr. /SaAAm ? So Dr Cameron, 
glue, socket of the eye : 
glug, noise of liquid in a vessel when moved, Ir. glug (do.), glugal, 

clucking of a hen ; Eng. elv/ck, All are onamatopoetic. See 


gloe. Also glugach, stammering : " clucking." Cf. Sc. 

glugger, to make a noise in the throat by swallowing any 

gluig, addled (of an egg) ; from the above word. Cf. W. clwc, 

soft, addled (of an egg), 
glumadh, a great mouthful of liquid, glumag, a deep pool ; allied 

to glug above, 
glfln, the knee, Ir., 0. Ir. gliin, W., Br. glin : * gMnos. Stokes 

compares Albanian g'u (g'uri, g'um), knee. Possibly by dis- 
similation of the liquids for *gn'iino8, from *gn'd, *gneu, 

allied to Eng. knee, Gr. yvu^, on the knee, 
glut, voracity, glutair, a glutton, W. glwth (do.), Br. glout ; from 

Lat. glutire, swallow, Eng. glutton. 
gnaithseach, arable land under crop (M'A.) : 
gnamhan, periwinkle (Sh., O'B., H.S.D.), Ir. gnamhan : 
g^ath, custom, usual, Ir. gndth, 0. Ir. gndth, solitus, W. gnawd, 

custom : *gndto- ; Lat. {g)n6i/us, known ; Gr. -yvojTos (do.) ; 

Skr. jndta (do.) ; root gn6, gnd, gen, know, Eng. know, etc. 
gn6, nature, kind, Ir. gne, 0. Ir. gne, gen. gnie, pi. gndthi (neuter 

s-stem) : * gneses- ; root gen, beget, Lat. genus, Gr. -yevicns, 

genesis, ■yevos, Eng. kind. 
g^lomh, a deed, Ir. gniomh, 0. Ir. gnim : *gnimv- ; root gn£, gnd, 

gen, know ; Lat. gnavus, active, nosco, know ; Gr. yiyvwa-Kui, 

Eng. know, ken, can. 
gn6, gnodh, gruff (Arm.) ; cf. Ir., E. Ir. gnd, derision, 
gnob, a bunch, tumour ; from the English knob. 
gnog, a knock ; from Eng. knock. 
gnogach, sulky (Sh., O'R., etc.), gnoig, a surly frown (H.S.D.) ; 

cf . gnii, gruig, 
gnoimh, visage, grin (Arm., M'D., M'A.) ; cf. gnuis. 
gnoin, shake and scold a person (M'A.) : 
gnomh, grunt of a pig (M'A.), for gromh, Ir. grossachd : an 

onomatopoetic word, allied to Lat. grunnire, grunt, Gr. ypv, 

swine's grunt, Eng. grant, gmmph. 
gndmhan, a groaning (of an animal), grunting ; a long-vowel form 

of gnomh ? 
gnos, a snout (especially of a pig), Ir. gros, grossach, having a 

large snout : *grupso- ; Gr. ypvtf/, a griffin, " hook-nosed," 

ypvTTos, bent, Ger. krumm. 
g^6sd, gndsad, gniisd, low noise of a cow, Ir. gmdsachd : *gnMnrSo- ; 

see gnomh, grunt, and gndmhan. 
gnothach, business, Ir. gndthuig (pron. gnaihadgh), gn6 (pi. 

gndthaidhe) : *gnavo-, active, Lat. gnaims, active, Eng. know. 

See gnwmA and gnhth, for root. 
gnii, gno, surly, parsimonious, gatigach, surly. See gnb and gruig 


gndis, the face, countenance, Ir., 0. Ir. gniiis (fern, i-declension) ; 
*gnAsti- ; root gen, know, Eng. know, etc. 

gntith, a frowning look ; see gnu. 

gb, a lie, fault, Ir. g6, lie, fraud, 0. Ir. g6, gdo, gdu, W. gau, Br. 
gou, gaou : *gavo-. Cf. Gr. -yava-os, crooked, yava-dSai, a liar 
(Ernault). Bezzenberger gives several alternatives ; Lit. 
pri-gduti, deceive, or Persian zur, false, or Gr. x"*'"''*, spongy, 
Xaos, abyss. 

gob, a beak, bill, Ir. gob, bill, mouth, E. Ir. gop-chJoel, lean-jawed : 
*gobbo-, root gobh, gehh ; Gr. ■ya/i.<^Aat, yafi,<f>ai, jaws ; Cb. 
SI. «^6m, tooth, zobati, eat ; Skr. jambhas, a tooth. Stokes 
compares it (*gobh-n6-) to Zend, zafan, mouth. The relation- 
ship to Eng. gobbet, gobble, Fr. gobet, 0. Fr. gober, devour, is 
not clear. But cf. also Eng. gab, gabble, G. gai. 

gobha, gobhainn, a smith, Ir. gobha, g. gobhann, 0. Ir. goba, g. 
gobann, 0. W. gob, W. gof, pi. gqfion. Cor. gof, Br. go, Gaid. 
Gobann- : *gobdn- ; root gobh, as in Gr. y6fi.<f>os, a bolt, Eng. 
comb (Windisch), for which see gob. Lat. faber may, however, 
be allied, and the root then be gJiob. 

gobhal, a fork, Ir. gabhal, fork, gable, 0. Ir. gabul, W. gafl, Br. 
gaol : *gabalu- ; Eng. gahle, Ger. gabel, fork ; Gr. Ke^aA.ij, 

gobhai, a goat, Ir. gabhar, 0. Ir. gabor, W. gafr, Corn, gauar, Br. 
gabr, gaffr, Gaul, gahro- : *gabro- ; root gab of gabh, take, as 
Lat. caper is allied to capio, take (Loth) ? Stokes gives the 
stem as *gam.-ro-, root gam of geamhradh, winter, and 
gamhuinn, I. E. g^Ai'm / but im of ^Ai'm could not change to 
Gaul, ab in gabro-. 

gOC, a tap, cock ; from the Eng. cock. 

gocaman, an usher, attendant, sentinel, or look-out man ; Martin's 
(Western Isles, p. 103) gockmin, cochman ; from Scandinavian 
goh-Tnan, look-out man (Arms. ; Mackinnon says it is Danish). 
For root, cf . Ger. gvchen, peep. 

godach, giddy, coquettish (Sh., etc.) ; cf. gabhd. 

gog, a nod, tossing of the head, Ir. gog ; from Eng. cock. 

gogaid, a giddy female, Ir. gogaide ; from Eng., Fr. coquxite. 

gogail, cackling, noise of liquor issuing from a cask, Ir. gogallach ; 
Eng. cackle. The words are onomatopoetic. Also goglals. 

gogan, a wooden milk-pail, also cogan; from Sc. cogue, cog, 
apparently allied to M. Eng. coy, ship, Norse kuggi, a small 
ship, Teutonic kuggon-, ship. 

goic, a tossing of the head in disdain, a scoff, Ir. goic ; founded on 
the Eng. cock, like gog, q.v. 

gold, steal, Ir. goidim, E. Ir. gataim . *gad-d6 ; root gad, ghad, 
ffhed, seize ; Gr. x<»''S«vw, ex"^'"') told, contain ; Lat. pre- 

bP tMb GABLI'C LANOtJAGfi. 181 

hendo, seize, praeda, booty, hedera, ivy ; Eng. gd,. Thur. has 
compared the Lat. hasta, spear, giving a stem *ghazdho-. 
goigean, a bit of fat meat, cluster, thread tangle or kink ; cf. 
gagan : * gaggo- ; cf. Gr. yayy kiov, ganglion, a " knot," Eng. 

goil, boil, Jr. gailim, seethe, boil : *gali- ; I. E. ^el, well, Ger. 

quellen, gush. See next. 
goile, a stomach, appetite, Ir. goile, gaile, stomach, appetite, 

throat, M. Ir. gaile ; also 0. Ir. gelim, I consume ; Lat. gula, 

throat (Eng. gullet), glutire, swallow (Eng. glutton) ; Skr. 

gilati, swallow ; I. E. gel, allied to root of goil. 
goileag, a haycock, cole ; from the Sc. cole, Eng. coll. 
goileam, tattle, chattering, also gothlam {I = le) ; see gothlam. 
goill, distorted face, angry face, grin, blubber lip ; cf . Ir. gailledg, 

a blow on the cheek, G. gailleag. Cf. for root Gr. x^'^os^ liP) 

* X&rXo<; = Skr. ghas, eat, swallow. 
goillir, a Lewis bird of the size of the swallow, which comes to 

land in winter (Arms.) : 
golmh, anguish, pain, Ir. goimh : *gomi-, root gom, gem, press, 

Lat. gemo, groan, Ch. SI. zimq,, compress. 
goin, gointe ; see gon. 
goir, caU, cry, crow, Ir. goirim, E. Ir. gairim, 0. Ir. adgaur, 

convenio : *gard, speak, I. E. ger, cry ; Gr. yipavoi, crane, 

SeLptav, abuse ; Skr. jdrate, cry, crackle ; further Lat. garrio, 

chatter (*gars-), Eng. garrulous. Lit. garsas, noise ; also root 

gdr, as in Gaelic gdir, Gr. y^/ous, voice, etc. 
goireas, convenience, apparatus ; from gar, near, and goirid. 
goirid, short, Ir. gairid, 0. Ir. garit. For root, see gedrr (Skr. 

hrasva, short, etc.), from which comes the comparative g^orra. 

Also gar, near, q.v. 
goirt, sore, sour, Ir. goirt, sore, salt, E. Ir. goirt, bitter : *gorti^, 

I. E. gher, be rough, as in garhh. 
goirtean, a little field of corn, croft, Ir. gwrtin, gort, garden, corn- 
field, 0. Ir. gort, seges, W. garth, enclosure, Br. garz (do.) : 

*gorto- ; Lat. hortus ; Gr. X°P'''°s, straw-yard ; Eng. garden, 

garth, etc. 
gdisinn, g6isne, a snare, Ir. gaisde, 0. Ir. goiste, suspendium. Cf. 

goisridh, company, people ; see gasraidh. 
goisdidh, gossip, godfather, M. Ir. goistihe, godfather ; from 

M. Eng. godsibbe, now gossip. 
golag, a budget : *gulo- ; Gr. yvXios, wallet, 0. H. G. kiulla. 
gdlanach, two-headed (H.S.D.) : "forked," ixom. gohhlan ? 
gomag, a nip, pinch (M'L., gdmag) : 


gon, wound, Ir. gonadh, wounding, E. Ir. gonim : *gond, I wound, 

I. E. ghen; Gr. (jiovos, slaughter, Ouvw, hit; Norse gunnr, 

battle, 0. H. G. gundea (do.) ; Skr. han, strike, slay. 
gdraoh, silly, Ir. gorach ; Gr. yaC/oos, exulting, skittish, haughty ; 

root gav,, be free, Lat. gaudium, Eng. joy. 
gorm, blue, green, Ir., E. Ir. gorm, blue, W. gwrm, dusky : gorsmo-, 

root gor, warm ("warm colour"), as in G. gar (Stokes). 
gorsaid, a cuirass, gorget ; from Eng. gorget. 
tgort, a field, standing corn, Ir. gort ; see garf, goirtean. 
gort, goirt, famine, Ir. gorta, 0. Ir. gorte ; I. E. gher, desire, 

want ; Gr. xp'ws, necessity, Xf^lK*^) wish ; Eng. yearn. 
goth, toss the head contemptuously or giddily (M'A.) ; gdth, airy 

gait (Arm., gothadh, Sh., O'K.) ; possibly from Eng. go. Of. 

W. goth, pride, 
gothlam, prating noise, M. Ir. gothach, noisy ; from guth. 
grab, interrupt, grabadh, hindrance, Ir. grabadh ; apparently 

from Eng. grab. Of. W. crap, prehensio, Eomance graffo. 
grabh, abhorrence : 

g^rabh, grabhail, engrave, Ir. grahh&il ; from Eng. grave, engrave. 
grsLchdan, querulous noise of hens, Ir. gragoill, clucking of a hen, 

crow's crowing. See grag. 
grad, sudden, Ir. grad, grod : *groddo-, root grod, gred, as in 

greas, q.v. 
gr&da, ugly ; usual form of grdmda, q.v. 
gradan, snuff, com kilned by burning its straw, the meal derived 

from the foresaid corn, Ir. graddn. Cf. greadan. 
gradh, love, Ir. grddh, E. Ir. grad : *grddo-, *grd-dho-, root grd ; 

Lat. gratus, Eng. grateful ; Skr. gurdhdya, praise ; Gr. ye/oas, 

gridran, complaining noise of hens ; onomatopoetic. See grog. 
gr&g, croaking of crows, Ir. grdg ; Eng. croak, crake. Onomato- 
poetic words. Cf. I. E. grdq, Lat. graculus, gracillare, hen's 

cry, M.. H. G. kragelen, cackle, 
gragair, glutton (Sh., O'B., etc.), Ir. gragaire (O'B.), grdgaire 

(Con.) : 
graigh, stud, flock of horses ; see greigh. 
griin, abhorrence, disgust, Ir. grdin, E. Ir. grain, W. graen, grief, 

rough : *gragni- (Strachan, Stokes). Ch. SI. groga, horrible, 
griineag, a hedgehog, Ir. grdinedg : the " horrent one ;" from 

grdin above, 
graing, disdain, a frown, Ir. grainc. Cf. sgraing. 
gr^inne, a grain, small quantity, Ir. grdinne, 0. Ir. grdinne, 

granulum, grdn, granum, W. gravm, Cor. gronen, Br. grevm,, 

(pi.) : *qrdno- ; Lat. grdnum {*gfno-) ; Eng. cvm (Stokes), 

Some hold that the Celtic is borrowed from the Latin. 


g^ainnseach, a grange, Ir. grdinseach ; from the Eng. 

grainnseag, a cracknel (M'F.), bear berry (H.S.D. for N.H.) : 

gr^is, prosperity, blessing (N.H.) ; from gras. 

glhisg, a rabble, Jr. grdisg, gramhaisg, gramaisg : 

gramaich, hold, keep fast, Ir. gramuighim, ; see greim. 

gramur, refuse of grain (H.S.D.) : 

gr^n, kiln-dried grain, Ir. gr&n, corn, 0. Ir. grdn ; see grainne. 

granda, gr^da, ugly, Ir. granda, granna, E. Ir. grdnde, grdnna, 
teter, dirus ; from grhin, q.v. 

gr&pa, a graip, dimg fork, Ir. grdpa ; from Sc. graip. 

gras, grace, Ir., M. Ir. grds, W. gras ; from Lat. gratia. 

grath, terror (Dial., H.S.D.) : 

grathuinn, a while ; for *trdthain, from trdth, influenced hj greis? 

g^ead, wound, whip, burn, Ir. greadaim ; cf. W. greidio, scorch : 
*greddo- ; root ghredh ; cf. Eng. grind. Swedish gradda, 
bake, may be compared. 

greadan, a considerable time with all one's might at anything 
(M'A.) ; from gread. 

greadan, parched com ; from gread. Cf. gradan. Ir. greadog 
means " griddle." 

greadhan, greadhuinn, a convivial party, happy band. Ir. 
greadhanach, drolling, G. greadhnach, joyful ; root gred, go, 
as in greas, q.v. ? 

g^ealach, greallach, entrails : *gre-lach, root gr, I. E. ghr, gut ; 
Gr. xop&ri, gut, Eng. cord ; Lat. haruspex, diviner, " entrails- 
inspector," hernia, rupture. Shaw has greathlach. Hence 
greallach, dirty, Ir. greallach, clay, dirty. Cf. Eng. gore. 

greallag, a swingle-tree : 

greann, hair, bristling of hair, surly look, Ir. greann, beard, fair 
hair, E. Ir. grend, beard, W., Br. grann, eyelid, cilium : 
*grenda ; Ger. granne, beard of com or cat, Norse grdn, 
moustache. Span, grena, tangled hair, Prov. Fr. gren, 0. Fr. 
grenon, beard of cheek and lip ; Albanian hrtpide. 

greas, hasten, urge, Ir. greasuighim, M. Ir. gressim : *gred-to- ; 
I. E. ghredh, step out, go ; Lat. gradior, gradus, step ; Got. 
grids, a step ; Ch. SI. gr§d<}, stride, come ; Skr. grdhyati, step 
out. The E. Ir. grisaim, I incite, is a different word, coming 
from gris, fire. 

greidil, a gridiron, Ir. greidil, greideal, W. greidel, gradell, 0. W. 
gratell ; from Late Lat. graticula, from craiis, wicker-work, 
Eng. crate, grate, grill, hurdle. Eng. griddle, M. Eng. gredel, 
are the same as the Celtic words. Skeat has suggested gread 
above as the origin of the Celtic forms ; cf. Ir. greaddg, a 
griddle. Hence greidlean, an instrument for turning the 
bannocks on the griddle. 


^£idh, prepare, dress, Ir. griasaim ; see grUs. 

greigh, a stud of horses, Ir., M. Tr. groigh, E. Ir. graig, W. gre : 

*gragi- ; Lat. grex, flock ; Gr. yapyapa, heaps ; 0. H. G. 

quarter, herd, 
greim, a hold, a morsel, so Ir., 0. Ir. greim, greimm, a hold, 

strength, W. grym, force, strength : * gredsmen- ; root gher, 

hold, Gr. x^Vi hand, Skr. hdras, grip. Stokes separates 

greim, morsel, from greim, hold, strength. Greim, morsel, he 

refers to *gresmen, a bite, Skr. grdsati, devour, Gr. ypdio, 

eat, Norse krds, a dainty, 
greis, prowess, onset, slaughter, a champion, E. Ir. gress, grdss, 

attack ; from the root of greas above (Stokes). 
greis, a while, Ir. do ghreas, always, 0. Ir. do gr4s, do gress, 

semper, M. Ir. do-gres : *grend-to-, going on, root grend, gred, 

1. E. ghredh as in greas. Strachan gives *grencs-, and com- 
pares Norse hringr, round, Ger. kring. See treis. 
gr^is, greus, embroidery, needle-work, Ir. ohair-ghr^is, from gr^as, 

E. Ir. gress, any work of art or trade ; see greusaich. 
greds, expansion of the thighs, gredsgach grinning (H.S.D.) : 

'^grencs- ; Norse hringr, round, Ger. Taring . 
greusaich, griasaich, shoemaker, any worker in embroidery or 

furniture : *greid-to- ; Gadelic greid, dress, broider, I. E. 

ghrei, rub ; Gr. xp°''"'i XP'^f^ hide, skin, colour, xP"^j anoint 

grian, sun, Ir., 0. Ir. grian : * greind, ghr-eind, root gher, warm, 

as in gar. Cf. Skr. ghrnis, sunshine, ghramsa, heat ; W. 

greian, what gives heat, sun. See further under grlos. Hence 

grianan, sunny place, summer house, solarium of Lat., from 

sol, sun. 
griasaich, a species of aculeatcd fish: "cobbler" fish; from 

griasaich, shoemaker, 
grid, substance, quality ; from Sc. grit, grain of stones, grit, grain, 

Eng. grit. Hence grldeil, industrious (M'A.). 
grigirean, the constellation of Charles' wain, grigleachan, a 

constellation ; see grioglachan. 
grlleag, a grain of salt, any small matter : *gris-il-, root greis, 

gravel, as in grinneal. 
grimeach, grim, surly ; from Eng. grim, Norse grimmr. 
grlmeil, warlike (H.S.D. ), Ir. grim^amhuil (Lh., O'B.), grim, war; 

from the Norse grimmr, fierce, wroth ? 
grinn, pretty, Ir. grinn, E. Ir. grind : *grnni-, "bright;" root 

gher, as in grian, grlos. Cf. glinn. 
grinneal, bottom of the sea, gravel, Ir. qrinnioll, channel, bed of 

a river, sand of the sea, sea-bottom, M. Ir. grinnell : *gris-ni-, 

root greis, gris, gravel, E. Ir. grian, gravel (* greisano-), W, 


graian, gravel, greienyn, a grain of gravel. Rhys (Hib. Lect., 

571) refers these words to the root of grian, sun, the particle of 

gravel being supposed to be " a shining thing." This view is 

supported by grioglachan and griogag, q.v. 
griob, nibble (Heb.) ; from Sc. gnip, gnaw, eat, Eng. nip, nibble. 
griobh, a pimple (M'A.) : 
griobhag, hurry : 
grioch, a decaying or lean young deer, g;riochan, consumption 

(Dial., H.S.D.) : 
griogag, a pebble, bead : *grizgo-, root gris, greis, gravel, as in 

grioglaohan, Pleiades, grigleachan, a constellation, Ir. griogcMn, 

constellation. For root, see griogag. 
griomacach, thin-haired, griomagacli, shrivelled grass (H.S.D.) : 
grioman, a certain species of lichen, malt bud (H.S.D.) : 
grios, entreat, pray, Ir. griosaim, encourage, incite, rake up a fire ; 

from, earher grios, heat, which see in grwsach. 
griosach., burning embers, Ir. griosach, coals of fire, burning 

embers, M. Ir. grissach, E. Ir. gris, fire, embers, Br. groez, 

heat : *grens, *grns, heat ; Skr. ghrazasa, sun heat, sunshine ; 

root gker of gar, q.v. Heuce gris, inflammation ; Ir. gris, 

gris, horror ; from Sc. grise, to shudder, M. Eng. gris-, horror, 

griseful, grise, horrible, Eng. grisly. 
grisionn, brindled, gris-fhlonn, "gray-white," gris (Sh. gris), 

gray ; from M. Eng. gris, gray fur. 
gritirach, the measles, griuthach (do.), griobhach (M'A.), 

griuragan, indefinitely small particle, pustules on the skin ; 

root ghru, as in grothlach. 
grob, join by indentation, serrate ; cf. M. Eng. gropin, to groove, 

also grovpe and grave. A borrowed G. word. 
grobag, a poor, shrivelled woman ; from grbb. 
groban, top or point of a rock, hillock : 
groban, mugwort (N.H.) : 
groc, croak, frown on ; from Eng. croak. 
giod., rotten, E. Ir. grot, gruiten, stale butter, small curds in 

whey : a metathesis of goirt 1 
groganach, wrinkled (as heather), Ir. grug, a wrinkle ; cf. gruig. 
groig, awkwardness, perverseness, groigean, awkward man ; see 

_ grilig. 
gr5iseid, a goose-berry ; from the Sc. groset, from 0. Fr. *grose, 

grosele, gooseberry, whence Eng. gooseberry, for grooseberry. 
grdmhan, a groaning, growling ; the same as gnbmhan. 
gros, snout ; correct spelling of gnos, q.v. 
gr6ta, a groat ; from the Eng. 



grothlach, a gravel pit, abounding in gravel (O'B., Sh., etc.), Ir. 

grothlach, W. gro, pebbles, Cor. grow, gravel, Br. growm. 

From these come Eng. gravel, 0. Fr. gravele. Cf. Norse 

grjot, stones, Ag. S. grett, Eng. grit, root grut, Lit. griisti, 

pound, bray, Gr. xpvcro'i, gold ( = xpi'S-o-os). 
grotonach, corpulent (O'B., Sh., etc.), so Ir. : " heavy-breeched" 

(Arms. ) — * grod-tdnach. 
gruag, hair of the head, a wig, Ir. grdag : *grunkd, root gru, 

Eng. crumple ? Hence gruagach, a maiden, brownie, 
gruaidh, cheek, brow, Ir. gruaidh, cheek, E. Ir. gruad, W. grudd, 

Cor. grud, maxilla : *grovdos. Bez. suggests the root ghrud, 

ghreud, as in grothlach, above, the idea being "pounding, 

mashing" (Lit. grusti, bray, pound), and the original force 

"jaw" : cf. Lat. maxilla and macero, macerate. Stokes 

queries if it is from the root of Eng. great. 
gruaigean, a species of sea-weed (H.S.D. for Heb.), birses (M'A.) ; 

from gruag. 
gruaim, gloom, surly look, Ir. gruaim : *grox(,sm£n- ; root grevjt, 

grut, Lat. brutus, dull, Eng. brute, Lettic grdts, heavy. 

Stokes cfs. only Ch. SI. svrgrustiti s§, grieve over, 
grddair, a brewer, Ir. grudaire, griiid, malt : *gruddi- ; Aug. Sax. 

grii,t, coarse meal, Ger. griitze, groats, Dan. grod ; Lit. grddas, 

corn. Eng. grit, groats are allied. Hence grtiid, lees. 
grtiig, a drooping attitude, churlishness, churlish, Ir. gr^, a 

grudge, anger, gruig, churlishness (O'B.), gruc, sulky (O'Cl.) ; 

cf. Eng. grvdge, M. Eng. grucchen, 0. Fr. grouchier, grovjcier. 

Also grdgach, wrinkled. 
gruilleamach, prancing, leaping suddenly (H.S.D.) : 
grunnaich, sound, fathom ; see grvnnd. 
grunn, grunnan, a handful, lot, crowd (Dial, grainnean), 0. Ir. 

grinne, fascis, fasciculum, Br. gronn, a heap : *grendio-, 

*grondo- ; Gr. ypovdo's, closed fist, Skr. grantha, bind, etc. 

(Stokes for 0. Ir.). Cf. for root briid. 
g^unnasg, groundsel ; fonned on the Eng. 
grunnd, bottom, ground, thrift ; from Sc. grund, bottom or 

channel in water, Norse grunnr, bottom of sea or river, Eng. 

ground. Hence grunndail, steadfast, solid, sensible. 
grdnsgul, a grunting ; from * grunn, grunt, Lat. grunnire, Eng. 

gruth, curds, Ir., M. Ir. gmth : *grutu- ; Eng. curds, M. Eng. 

criui, Sc. crowdie, croods ; Gr. ypvo-n, will malt, ypv-n) (y long), 

frippery ; I. E. gru, Eng. crumb, Ger. krauen, Gr. ypv, morsel. 

Hence gruitheam, curds and butter : gruth + im. 
griithaii, grtian, liver, Ir. aev. gnlan (Lh. Comp. Voc. sub "jecur") : 

*grilso- : root ghru, gritty, of grothlach. 


gu, to, ad, Ir. go, gu, 0. Ir. co, cu, W. bw in hivy gilydd, to its 

fellow: *qos; Ch. S). Tcu, to; cf. Lat. usque for *quos-que2 

(Bez.). Used adverbially in gu math, gu k-olc. 
guag, a giddy, whimsical fellow, Ir. gtiag, guaigin, folly, silly one ; 

from M. Eng. gowke, goki, a fool. So. gowk, Eng. gawky. 
guag, a splay-foot ; see cuag. 

guaigean, thick, little and round : *goug-go-, root gu, bend. 
guaillean, a coal of fire ; see yual. 

guaillich, go hand in hand : " shoulder to shoulder ;" see guala. 
guaimeas, quietness ; see guamach. 
guaineas, briskness, liveliness ; see guanach. 
gaairdean, vertigo ; cf. Ir. gHairdedn, whirlwind ; from cuairt ? 
guairsgeach, curled, crinitus, Ir. giiaire, hair of the head ; from 

I. E. gu, bend, as in guala. 
tguais, danger, guaiseach, dangerous, Ir. gtiais, 0. Ir. giiassacht: 
guait, leave (" Gabh no guait e" — Take or leave it) ; from Eng. 

quit ? 
gual, coal, Ir. gnal : *goulo-, *geulo- ; root geul, gul ; Teutonic 

*kola-, Norse kol, coals, Ger. kohle, Eng. coal. W glo, Br. 

glaou, '^gldvo- (Stokes), is allied to Eng. glow. 
guala, gualann, shoulder, Ir. guala, g. gualann, E. Ir. gualu, g. 

gualand : *qoul6n-, root geu, gu, gu, bend ; Gr. yuiov, limb, 

yvakov, a hollow, yvijs, ploughtree (Lat. hura) ; Old Bactrian 

gdo, hand. Strachan and Stokes give the root gvh, bend, 

stem *gubldn-, I. E. ghevhh, bend, Gf. /cv^os {v long), bent, 

stooping ; Lettic gubt, stoop. 
guamach, neat, snug, smirking ; also " plentiful" (Sh., O'R.) : 
guanach, light, giddy, Ir. guanach, guamnach, M. Ir. guamnacha, 

active (O'Cl.) ; root yuam of guamach above. 
gucag, a bubble, bell, globule, bud : *guhko-, Ger. kugel, ball. 
gtida, a gudgeon, Ir. guda ; formed on Eng. gudgeon, M. Eng. gojon. 
guga, the solan goose, a fat, silly fellow, Ir. guga. See next word 

for root. 
gugail, clucking of poultry, Ir. gugailim : an onomatopoetic word. 

Cf. Eng. chtcck. See also gogail. 
guidh, pray, guidhe, a prayer, wish, Ir. guidhim, guidhe, 0. Ir. 

guidiu, gude, guide : *godio-, root ged, god, I. E. ghedh, ask ; 

Gr. TTodeto, desire, Oecrcraa-Oai, pray for ; Got. bidjan, ask, 

Ag. S. biddan, Eng. bid. 
guil, weep, Ir., E. Ir. guilim ; see gal. 
guilbneach, the curlew : " beaked one,'' H Tr. gulbnech, beaked, 

0. Ir. gulban, beak, 0. W. gilbin, acumine, W. gylf, bill, beak, 

gylfant, Cor. gilb, foratorium, geluin, rostrum : *gulbano- ; 

Ger. kolben, piston, knob, gun-stock. Bez. compares only 

N. Slovenic golhati, gnaw. Cf. Lit. gulbe, swan. 


guileag, the swan's note, warbling (Sh. has guillag, chattering of 

birds, O'E. guilleog); root gal, cry, call, Lat. gallus, cock, 

Eng. cam 
gain, a wound, 0. Ir. guin : *goni- ; see gon. 
guir, hatch, lie on eggs, gur, hatching, Ir. gv/r, W. gori, to brood ; 

from the root gor, gar, warm. See gar. 
guirean, a pimple, gur, a festering, Jr., M. Ir. guirin, pustule, 

E. Ir. gur, pus, W. g&r, pus, goryn, pustula : *gory^, fester, 

"heat;" root gor, gar, warm, as in gar. 
guisead, a gusset ; from the Eng. 
guit, a corn-fan, unperforated sieve : *gottid : 
guitear, a gutter, kennel ; from Eng. gutter. 
gulm, a gloom, forbidding look ; from the Eng. ? 
gulmag, sea^lark (H.S.D.) : 

gun, without, Ir. gan, 0. Ir. een ; Gr. Ktvos, empty. 
gu'n, gu'm, that, Gr. oVt, Ir. go, 0. Ir. co, con. Windisch con- 
siders this the prep, con, with, and co, to ; Zim. and Thur. 

regard it as from co, to (see gu). The latter explains the n 

as the relative : *co-sn, a view supported by the verbal 

accent being on the first syllable and by the occasional form 

conn (?). See cha'n. 
giin, gown, Ir. gii,7ia ; from the Eng. gown, from W. gton {*gwun), 

from Celtic *vo-ov,no , root in Lat. ex-uo, dofiF, ind-%io, don, 

Lit. aunii, put on shoes, duti. 
gunna, a gun, Ir., M. Ir. gumma ; from M. Eng. gunne, Eng. gun. 
gur, that, Ir. gur : *co-ro; see gu'n for co. Uses are : Gur 

cfrvaidh e = 0. Ir. corrop cruaid i : corrop is now Ir. gtirab, 

that is co-ro-ha (ba, verb " to be"). 
guraiceach, a blockhead (Sh., H.S.D.) : 
gurpan, crupper ; from Sc. curpoti, Eng., 0. Fr. crowpon. 
gurrach, gurraban, crouching, crouching on the hunkers : *gur- 

t?ia-, from gur, brooding, as in guir ? 
gurt, fierceness, sternness of look ; also gart, q.v. 
gus, to, Ir. gus, 0. Ir. cossin, to the, to which; prep, gu, co, and 

the article or relative. The s of the article is preserved after 

the consonant of co ( = qos). 
gusair, sharp, keen, strong, Ir. gusmhar, strong ; from gus, force, 

smartness : *gustu^, " choice," root gu, Eng. choose. 
gusgan, a hearty draught : 
gusgul, refuse, dirt, idle words, roaring : 
guth, voice, Ir., 0. Ir. guth : *gutu- ; I. E. gu ; Gr. yoos, groan ; 

Skr. ha, call, cry, liavate, calls ; Ch. SI. zova, to call. This is 

different from I. E. g.u, Gr. ^o^, shout, Lat. bovare, cry 

(Prellwitz, Osthoff). 


i, she, Ir. i, si, 0. Ir. i, hi, si, W., Br. hi : *si; Got. si, ea, Ger. 
sie, tliey ; Skr. syd : I. E. sjo-, sja- (Brug.). See sa, so, sin. 

iach, a yell, cry, Ir. iac/idadh, 0. Ir. iacktaim : *eicto-, *eig-to-, 
from eig of ^igh. 

t iach, a salmon, E. Ir. e6, g. iach, W., Br. eog, W. ehawc. Cor. 
ehog : *escue; Lat. esoa; .• Basque izohin (borrowed from Celtic). 

iad, they, Ir. iad, E. Ir. iat, 0. Ir. only in olseat-som, say they, W. 
hwynt : confusion of roots ei, sjo with the 3rd plur. in nt. Of 
E. Ir. iat, siat, Brugmanu says : — " These have the ending of 
the 3rd plur. of the verb ; later on iat, siat were detached, 
and began an independent existence." Stokes similarly says 
they are se and hwy with the nt of the verbal 3d pi. added. 

iadach, jealousy, Ir. ead ; see eud. 

iadh, encompass, Ir. iadJiaim, join, shut, surround, E. Ir. iadaim : 
*eidd6, *ei-dho-, root ei, go ? Stokes analyses it into *ei- 
ddmd, for *epi-ddmfi, Skr. api-ddnd, a lock : for epi, see Gr. 
eTTi under iar ; and ddmd is from dho, dhe, place, Gr. TtOrjfii, 
Lat. facio. It has also been correlated to Gr. Trie^o/jMi, press, 
Skr. ptdapti, press {*pisdd), from pise, stamp, press, Lat. 
pistor, etc. 

ial, moment, season, gleam of sunshine ; a poetic word, seemingly 
a metaphoric use of iall. 

iall, a thong, Ir. iall, E. Ir. iall : 

t iall, a flock of birds, Ir. iall, a flock of birds, E. Ir. iall, grex ; cf. 
eallach, ealta. 

ialtag, a bat, Ir. ialtdg, E. Ir. iathlu {iatlu, O'Cl.), W. ystlum : 
*isatal- (Ascoli). Dial, dealtag aumoch : Lat. vesper-tilio. 

ian, a bird ; see eun. 

iar, after, Ir. iar, 0. Ir. iar re-, post : *e{p)eron ; Skr. aparam, 
afterwards ; Got. afar, post ; further Gr. oKidiv, behind, tTrt, 
to, on, Skr. dpi. Lit. ape, to, on, Lat. ob. See airlfi). 

iar, an iar, siar, west, Ir. iar, siar, 0. Ir. iar, occidens, aniar : a 
special use of the prep, iar above. See ear for force. 

iarbhail, anger, ferocity ; from air and boile ? 

iarbhail, a consequence, remains of a disease : 

iargainn, pain, Ir. iargan, groans of a dying man (O'B.) ; from air 
and gon. 

iargail, the west, evening twilight, Ir. iargiil, remote district, 
iargedl (Con.) ; from iar and ciil, back : " behind," west. 

iargail, battle, contest, so Ir., 0. Ir. irgal : air + gal, the air being 
air{a). See gal. 

iarghuil, sound, noise ; see uirghioll. 

iaria, an earl, Ir. iarla, M. Ir. iarla ; from Norse jarZ, Eng. earl, 
W. has iarll. 


iarmad, ofifspring, remnant, Ir. ia/rmat, oflfspring (O'B.), iarmart, 

consequences of anything, iarmhar, remnant ; root mar, 

remain. See mar. 
iarmailt, the firmament, for *Jiarmaint, Ir. fiormaimeint, M. Ir. 

firmeint ; from Lat. firmamentum. 
iarna, a hank of yarn, Ir. iarna, a chain or hank of yarn ; from 

Eng. yarn. 
iarnaich, smooth with an iron ; from iarunn. 
iarogha, great grandson, 0. Ir. iarmui, ahnepotes ; from iar and 

ogha : " post-nepos." 
iarr, ask, Ir., E. Ir. iarraim, I seek, ask, iarrair, a seeking, iarair : 

* iarn-ari^, "after-go," root {p)ar,per, go, seek, bring, through, 

Gr. Trelpa, experience, Lat. ex-perior, try, Eng. experience, etc. 

(Stokes). See aire further for root, 
iariiitn, iron, Ir. iarann, M. Ir. iarund, 0. Ir. iam, W. haiarn, 

heam, Com. hoem, 0. Br. hoiam, Br. houarn, Gaul, isamo- 

dori, ferrei ostii : *eisarno- ; Got. eisarn, 0. H. G. isarn, Ger. 

eisen, Eng. iron (all borrowed from Celtic according to Brug- 

mann, Stokes, etc.). Shrader regards the eis or is of eisamo- 

as only a different vowel-scale form of I. E. ayos, ayes-, metal, 

whence Lat. des, Eng. ore. 
iasachd, iasad, a loan, Ir. iasachd, E. Ir. iasacht : 
iasg, fish, Ir. iasg, O. Ir. iasc, cesc, g. ^isc : *eisko-, *peisko- ; Lat. 

piscis, fish ; Got. fisks, Eng. Jish. 
t ibh, drink, M. G. ibh (M'V.). Ir. ibhim (Con. ibhim), 0. 1, ibim, 

0. W. iben, bibimus, Cor. evaf, Br. eva : *ib6, *pibd ; Lat. 

bibo ; Skr. pibami. 
ic, cure, heal, so Ir. ; see ioc. 
idir, at all, Ir. idir, 0. Ir. itir, etir : *enteri, a locative case of 

enter, the stem of the prep, eadar, q.v. 
ifrinn, hell, Ir. ifrionn, E. Ir. ifem{d), 0. Ir. ifumn ; from Lat. 

infernum, adj. infemus, Eng. infernal. 
igh, tallow (Sh.), fat (H.S.D., which marks it as obsolete), M. Ir. 

ith, Manx eeh : 
igh, i, a bum, a small stream with green banks (Suth) : 
ilbhinn, a craggy mountain (" Mar ilbhinn ailbhein craige," Oss. 

Ballad) ; if not mere jingle, it means " many-peaked " : 

iol + beann. 
ileach, variegated, Ir. ile, diversity ; see ioU. 
im, butter, Ir. im (g. me. Coneys), E. Ir. imb, W. ymenyn. Cor. 

amenen, Br. amann, amanen : * emben- or *7riben- ; Lat. unffuen, 

Eng. unguent, vb. unguo, I smear : Ger. anke, butter ; Skr. 

dnjas, a salve, ointment. 
im-, about, also with intensive force, Ir. im-, 0. Ir. im-, imm- ; it 

is the prefixive form of prep, mu, q.v. Also iom-. 


imoheist, anxiety, doubt, 0. Ir. imchesti, contentiones ; from im- 

and ceisf. 
imeacM, journeying, imich, go, Ir. imtheachd, imthigUm, 0. Ir. 

imthecht ; from im- and teachd, tighinn : imich is for im- 

thigh, root tig, teig of tighinn, q.v. 
imisg, a sarcasm, scandal : * im-isc ; for isc, see inisq. 
imleag, navel, Jr. imleacan, imlinn, E. Ir. imbliu, ace. imblind, 

imlec, imlecdn : * embilion^, * embilenho- ; Lat. umhiUciis ; Gr. 

o/i^aAos ; Eng. navel ; Skr. ndbhi, ndhhtla ; I. E. onbhelo-, 

imlich, lick, Ir. imlighim, lighim ; inb-lighim, " about-lick." With 

lighim is cognate 0. Ir. ligim, I lick, W. llyaw, llyad, licking, 

Br. leat (do.) : *leigd, *ligo; Lat. lingo; Gr. Xelyu) ; Eng. 

lick ; Ch. SI. lizati (to lick) ; Skr. lihati. 
imnidh, care, diligence, Ir. imnidhe, 0. Ir. imned, tribulatio : *mbi- 

men-eto-, root men of menmna. Ascoli analyses the 0. Ir. as 

* imb-an-eth, root an, breathe. 
impidh, a prayer ; see iompaidh. 

imreasan, controversy, Ir. imreasdn, 0. Ir. imbresan, altercatio, 
imbresnaim, 1 strive, W. ymryson, contention, dispute : *imbi- 
bres-, root bres of M. Ir. bressa, contentions, battles, Br., Cor. 
bresel (from bris, break) ? Windisch suggests for Gadelic 

* imm-fres-sennim (prep, imm or im and/ris, frith), from 0. Ir. 
sennim, I drive. 

imricli, remove, flit, Ir. imircim, E. Ir. invmirge, journey, expedi- 
tion : *imbi-reg-, root reg, go, stretch (as in rach). Windisch 
suggests imm^eirge, from eirigh. 

in-, ion-, ionn-, a prefix of like force as Lat. in^, used especially 
before medials, liquids, and s {ionn- only before s), Ir. in-, ion-, 
inn^, ionn- (before s), 0. Ir. in- ; it is the Gadelic prep, in, ind, 
now an, ann, in (q.v.), used as a prefix. 

inbhe, quality, dignity, rank, Ir. inmhe, patrimony, estate, M. Ir. 
indme, rank : *ind-m£d-, prep, ind (ann) and root nie, med of 
meas ? 

inbhir, a confluence of waters, Ir. innbhear, inbhear, E. Ir. indber, 
inbir, inber, W. ynfer, influxus : *eni-bero-s (Stokes), from eni 
or modem a»,- in, and bero-, stem of beir, Lat. fero. The 
combination is the same as Lat. infero, Eng. inference. 

inghean, a daughter, Ir. inghean, 0. Ir. ingen. Ogam inigena : 
*eni-gend; root gen, beget (see gin) and prep, an; Lat. 
indigena, native ; Gr. iyyovri, a grand-daughter. Also 
nighean, q.v. 

inich, neat, tidy, lively : 

inid, Shrove-tide, Ir. inid, E. Ir. init, W. ynyd, Br. ened; from 
Lat. initium. \jejunii\ beginning of Lent. 


inisg, a reproach ; cf. M. Ir. indsce, 0. Ir. insce, speech : *eni-sqid, 
root seq, say, as in sgeul, q.v. Gr. evunre, Lai. inseque, say, 
are exactly the same as Ir. in root and prefix. 

inn-, ionn- (inat- before s), prep, prefix of Uke force with frith, ri, 
against, to, Ir. inn-, ionn-, 0. Ir. ind- (int- before s), mw-, iri- : 
*nde, Gaul, ande- : *ande, from ndh, Goth, und, for, until, 
0. H. G. unt-as, until ; ^'kr. ddhi, up to (ndhi). 

iune, a bowel, entrail, Ir. inne, innighe, E. Ir. inne, inde, 0. Ir. 
imia, d. pi. innih, viscus, viscera : prep. in+ ? Cf. Gr. 
evTepov, a bowel, Ger. innere, Skr. antaram ; also Dial. Eng. 
innards (for inwards). 

inneach, woof, so Ir., E. Ir. innech -. * (j))nr-mko-, root pan, thread, 
Lat. jjanntcs, cloth, Gr. Trrjvos, woof thread on the bobbin ? 
See further under anart. A compound with in or ind is 
possible : in-neg-, Lat. in-necto ? 

inneadh, want (M'F.) : 

inneal, an instrument, arrangement, Ir. inneal, arrangement, dress, 
E. Ir. indell, yoke, arrangement ; G. innil, prepare, ready, Ir. 
innioUaim, arrange, E. Ir. indlim, get ready : *ind-el-, root 
pel, join, fold, as in alt, q.v. Ascoli joins 0. Ir. intle, insidiae, 
intledaigim, insidior, and G. innleachd, q.v. ; but gives no 

innean, an anvil, Ir. innedin, E. Ir. indedin, 0. Ir. indein, W. 
einion [engion ?], Cor. ennian, Br. anneffn : *ande-bnis, " on- 
hit," from inn- and bend, hit, as iu hean, q.v. 

innear, dung, M. Ir. indebar : *ind-ebar ; cf. E. Ir. cann^bor 
( = cac, O'CL), on the analogy of which Stokes suggests that 
ind- of indebar is ior find, white, but G. is against this. 

innil, prepare, ready ; see inneal. 

innis, an island, Ir. inis, 0. Ir. inis, W. ynys, Cor. enys, Br. enez, 
pi. inisi : *inissi, from 7iss, Lat. *inssa, insula, Gr. v^cros 
(Dor. voKTos). The connection of the Celtic, Lat., and Gr. is 
almost certain, though the phonetics are not clear. Strachan 
suggests for Celtic *eni-sti, " in-standing," that is, " standing 
or being in the sea." 

innis, tell, Ir. innisim, E. Ir. innisim, indisim : *indfiss-, from 
fiss, now fios, knowledge ; root vid. Cf. adfiadim, narro 
(*ve{d6), infiadim. 

innleachd, device, mechanism, Ir. inntleachd, device, ingenuity : 
* indrslig-iio-, root slig of slighe, v/aj ? Ascoli joins 0. Ir. 
intle, insidise, intledaigim, insidior, and W. annel, a gin. Cor. 
antell, ruse, Br. antell, stretch a snare or bow, and Ir. innil, a 
gin, snare. The 0. Ir. intliucht, intellectus (with sliucht, 
cognitio), is considered by Zimmer to be a grammatical word 
from Lat. intellectus. Hence innlicb, aim, desire. 


innlinn, provender, forage : " preparation," from innil, prepare, 
innsgin, mind, courage (H.S.D. from MSS.), innsgineach, sprightly 

(SL, O'E.) : 
inntinn, mind, Jr. inntinn : *md-seni- ; root sem or senn, as in 

Ger. sinn, sense ? Kluge, however, gives ^sentno- as the 

earliest form of the Ger. Possibly it may be a plural from 

0. Ir. inne, sensus, meaning the "senses" originally. The 

Gadelic words can scarcely be from a depraved pronunciation 

of Lat. ingenium,. 
inntreadh, inntreachduinn, a beginning, entering ; from Eng. 

iob, a raw cake, lump of dough (H.S.D. for N.H.) : 
iobairt, an offering, sacrifice, Ir. iodhhuvrt, M. Ir. edpart, 0. Ir. 

edpart, idpart : * aith-od-bart-, root heri, her of heir, q.v. Cf. 

W. aherth ( = ad-hert), a sacrifice. 
ioc, pay, remedy, iocshlaint, a cure, salve, remedy, Ir. iocaim, 

pay, remedy, iocsMdinte, a cure remedy, E. Ir. icaim, heal, 

pay, O. Ir. iccaim, heal, W. iacJidu, to cure, iach, sound. Cor. 

iaeh, sanus, Br. iac'h, healthy, 0. Br. iac : *jakko-, sound ; 

Gr. ttKos, a cure ; Skr. yagas, grandeur. The long vowel of 

the Gadelic forms is puzzling, and these have been referred 

to *isacco-, from iso-, eiso-, Gr. lao/iai, heal, Skr. ishayati, 

iochd, clemency, humanity, Ir. iochd, clemency, confidence, E. Ir. 

icht, progeny, children : 
iochdar, the lower part, bottom, Ir. iochdar, 0. Ir. ichtar. It is 

formed from ws, is, down, on the analogy of uachdar. See 

iod, alas ! Cf. Eng. tut. Also ud, oh dear ! 
iodhal, an image, Ir. iodhal, 0. Ir. idal ; from Lat. idolum, Eng. 

iodhlann, a comyard, Ir. iothlann, granary, 0. Ir. ithla, g. ithland, 

area, W. ydlan, 0. W. itlann, area: * (p)itit-landd, " coru- 

land ;" 0. Ir. ith (g. etho), com, W., Cor. yd, Br. ed, it ; Skr. 

pitu, nourishment, eating, Zend pitu, food. For further con- 
nections, see ith, eat. For -lann, see lann. 
iodhnadh, pangs of child-birth, Ir. iodluma, pangs, E. Ir. idu, pi. 

idmn : *(p)id6n- ; Got. fitan, travail in birth. 
logan, deceit, fraud : 
ioghar, ioghnadh ; see iongar, iongnadh. 
iol-, prefix denoting " many," Ir. ^o^, O.Ir. il, multus : *elu-, *pelu-, 

many ; Got., 0. H. G. Jilv., Ger. viel, many ; Gr. ttoXvs, many ; 

Skr. puni. The root is pel, pld, pU, as in G. Ian, lion, Eng. 

full, etc. 
iola, a fishing station (Heb. and N.H.) : 



iolach, a shout, paean, Ir. iolach, merriment, 0. Ir. ilach, psean ; 

cf. W. elwch, a shout. Cf. Ag. S. eald, oh, alas, 
iolair, eagle, Ir. iolar, M. Ir. ilur, for irur, *eru/ros, W. eryr, Cor., 

Br. er ; Got. ara, O. H. G. aro, Ger. oar, Ag. S. earn ; Lit. 

erelis, Prus. arelie ; also Gr. opvis, a bird, 
iolar, down (Perthshire) : a degraded adverbial form of wrlar ? Or 

for *ior-ar, * air-air, "on-by?" 
ioUagach, frolicsome ; see iuUagach. 
ioUain, expert (H.S.D. ; Sh., O'K. ioUan) ; from eaZaidh. 
iom-, the broad-vowel form of the prefix im-, q.v. 
ioma, iomadh, maay, many a, Ir. ioTna, E. Ir. immad, multitude, 

0. Ir. imbed, copia, immde, multus (*imbde), immdugud, 

exuberantia : *m6e<o-, from the prep, imbi, embi, now im-, mu, 

about (Z.^ 64). Bez. queries if allied to Lat. pinguis, thick, 

Gr. iraxv's ; but gh or ghv gives in Gadelic a simple g (Ost. 

Ind. For.*). Mso G. iomad, many, iomaididh, super- 
abundance, Ir. iom/id, a multitude, much, 
iomadan, concurrence of disasters, a mourning : 
iomagain, imaguin, anxiety : *imh-ad-goni-, root gon of iargain ? 
iomain, a driving (of cattle, etc.), Ir. iom4in, tossing, driving, 

E. Ir. immdin, a driving (* embi-agni-), inf. to iramagim, 

circumago ; Lit. ambdiges, going round, windings ; root dg, ag, 

drive ; Lat. a^o, Gr. ajw, etc. 
iomair, a ridge of land, Ir. iomaire, E. Ir. immaire, imbaire : 

*embi-ario-, root ar, plough ; see ar. 
iomair, need, behove: "serve;" Ir. timthire, servant, 0. Ir. 

timmthirim, I serve. For force, cf. feum. The root is tlr, 

iomair, employ, exercise, play, noun iomairt, Ir. imirt, a game, 

E. Ir. imbert, 0. Ir. vb. imbrim, infero, etc. ; for imb-berim, 

root ber of beir, q.v. 
iomall, a border, limit, Ir. imiol, E. Ir. imbel, W. ymyl : *imb-el, 

" circuit," root el, go, Lat. amb-ulare, walk, which reproduces 

both roots. See further under tadhal. Hence iomallacli, 

iomarbhaidh, a struggle, Ir. iomarbhaidh, E. Ir. immarbdg : 

*imm-ar-bdg- ; root bdg, strive, Norse bdgr, strife, 0. H. G. 

bdga, vb. pdgan. See arahhaig. M'A. gives iomarbhuidh, 

hesitation, confusion. 
iomareach, very numerous, superfluous (Carswell's imarcach), Ir. 

iomarcadi, M. Ir. imarcraid; superfluity (also " carrying," 

from immuirchor, cor, place, as in iom/irchv/r). M'A. gives the 

meaning as " in many distresses, distressed," and the root as 

arc of aire. 


t iomarchur, a rowing, tumbling, straying, Ir. iomarchwr (O'B.), 

E. Ir. immarchor ( = imm-ar-cor, from cor or cuir, put), carry 

ing, errand, 
iomchan, carriage, behaviour : 
iomchar, carriage, behaviour, Ir. iomehar, E. Ir. immckor ; from 

imm- and cuir, q.v. 
iomchoire, blame, a reflection ; from iom^ and coire. 
iomchorc, regards, -Siilutation, petition, also G., Ir. iomchomharc, 

0. Ir. imchomarc, interrogatio, salutatio : * immr^iom^arc-, 

from arc, ask, W. ar chaff, I ask, erchim,, Cor. arghaf, M. Br. 

archas, will command: *(j>)arM, ask, root perk, prek, prk ; 

Lat. precor, Eng. pray, posco ( =porcsco), demand ; Ger. frage, 

forschung, question, inquiry ; Lit. prasz'^ti, beg ; Skr. pra^nas, 

iomchuidh, proper, Ir. iomchuhhaidh, M. Ir. immchviiaid ; from 

iom- and cuhhaidh, q.v. 
lomhaigh, an image, Ir. iamhaigh, M. Ir. iomdig, imagin, Cor. 

auain ; from Lat. imago. 
iomlag, the navel ; see imleag. 
iomlaid, an exchange, Ir. iomlut ; possibly from the G. root lud, 

go (see doV). 
iompaidh, a turning, conversion, Ir. iompbgh, 0. Ir. impdd, 

imp4ih, W. ymod, a turn : * imb-shouth, 0. Ir. s6im, averto : 

*sovi6, root su, sou, Lat. sucula, windlass. It has also been 

referred to the root sup, Lat. dissipo. Lit. supu, swing, 
iomradh, fame, report, Ir. iomrddh, 0. Ir. immrddud, tractatio, 

cogitatio ; from iom^ and radh, say. 
iomrall, an error, wandering, Ir. iomrolladh, iomrulladh, E. Ir. 

imroll, mistake : * ambi-air-al, root al, el, go, as in iomall. 
iomram, iomramh, rowing, Ir. iomramh, iomrdmh (O'B.), E. Ir. 

immram, vb. immrdim ; from iom- and ramh. 
ion, fit, ion-, prefix denoting fitness, Ir. ion-, prefixed to passive 

participles, denotes fitness (O'D., who quotes inleighis, curable, 

inmheasta, believable) : a particular use of in^, in-, which see. 
ion-, negative prefix an before b, d, g, Ir. io»-, 0. Ir. «'»- / see an 

for derivation. The primitive n before b, d, g, becomes in in 

ionad, a place, Ir. ionad, ionnad ; the E. Ir. has inad only, point- 
ing to modern ionadh : 
iona(dh), in c'iona, c'ionadh, whither : co and ionadh or iona, 

E. Ir. inad, place. See above. The Modem Ir. is ca Monad. 
ionaltair, a pasturing, pasture ; from in- and *altair, a shorter 

form of altrum. Cf. for form Ir. ingilim, I pasture, from in- 

and gelim, I eat (root gel, as in G. goile). 


ionann, alike, Ir. ionnan, 0. Ir. inonn, innon, inon. Possibly for 
*sin-dn, * sin-son,, "this-that;" see sin, and s6n of 0. Ir. is for 
*sotir-n, *sou, hoc, Gr. oS-tos (for root, see sa). Cf. for form 
Lat. idem = is-dem, Gr. o aurds. 

ionbhruicli, broth ; see eanraich. 

ionga, g. ingne, pi. Ingnean, inean, a nail, Ir. ionga, g. iongan, 
0. Ir. inga, g. ingen, W. ewin, Cor. euuin, Br. iwrn ; *engind 
(Stokes) ; Lat. unguis ; Gr. ovv^, g. oj/vxos ; Got. nagljan, 
Eng. Jiai^ ; Skr. nakhd. Fick gives the" I. E. root as nogh, 
ngh, with stems nogjilo-, nghlo-. 

iongantach, wonderful, so Ir., ingantach ; formed from the noun 
iongnadh, wonder. 

iongar, ioghar, pus : *in^gor, root gor of guirean, q.v. Dr Cam. 
compared Gr. '^■x'^p-, blood of the gods {Gael, No. 548). 

iongnadh, wonder, so Jr., 0. Ir. ingndd, ingndth (adj. and n.) ; for 
in-gndth, " not wont ;" see ion- (neg. prefix) and gndth. 

ionmhas, treasure, Ir. ionmhas, ionnmhus, E. Ir. indmass ; from 
in- and -mass of tomhas, measure, q.v. Ascoli connects it 
witli 0. Ir. indeb, lucrum, M. Ir. indbas, wealth. 

ionmhuinn, dear, Ir. ionmhuin, 0. Ir. inmain : * eni-moni-, root 
mon, men, mind, remember, for which see cuimJme. 

ionn-, prefix of the same force as fri, ri ; see inn- further. 

ionnairidh, a watching at night ; from ionn- and aire. 

ionnaltoir, a bath, Ir. ionnalt6ir (O'R.), bather (Con.) ; see 

t ionnas, condition, status, ionnas gu, insomuch that, so that, 
cionnas, how, Ir. ionmts, so that, 0. Ir. indas, status : *i7id- 
astu-, " in adstatu," from ad^sta, root sta, stand. Zeuss ^ 
derives it from ind and the abstract termination -assu {-astu-), 
seemingly giving it the idea of " to-ness." 

ionndruinn, missing: * ind-reth-in, "wandering;'' se&faondra. 

ionnlad, washing, Ir. ionnlat, 0. Ir. indlat, Ir. vb. innuilim, M. Ir. 
indalim. There is also an E. Ir. indmat, washing of the 
hands. From *ind-lutto-, *lutto from lu, lov, bathe, Lat. 
lava, etc. ? 

ionnsaich, learn, E. Ir. insaigim, seek out, investigate, noun 
saigid, seeking out, saigim : in- and sag, root sag, seek ; Lat. 
sagio, am keen, sagax, acute ; Gr. rjyeofjiaL, lead ; Got. sdhjan, 
seek, Eng. seek ; I. E. sag, sag. The G. connsaich is from 
co-in-saigim, sagim, say, dispute ; Got. sahan, dispute, Eng. 
forsake, sake. 

ionusuidh, attempt, approach, Ir. ionnsuigh, E. Ir. insaigiU, a visit ; 
from in- and saigid, seeking out, visiting. See ionnsaich. 
Hence the prep. dK ionnsuidh. 

ionntag, a nettle ; see deanntag. 


ionntlas, delight (H.S.D.) ; from in- and tlath ? 

ionntraich, miss (Dial.) ; see ionndruinn. 

ionraic, righteous, Ir. ionnruic, 0. Ir. inricc, dignus : *ind-mcci- 
(Ascoli) ; possibly *rMca- is for *rog-M, root rog, reg of 

ioras, down ; from air and %os. Dial, uireas. 

iorcallach, a robust man : " Herculean ;" from lorcall, Hercules, 
a Gaelic word formed from the Latin one. 

iorghuil, fray, strife, so Ir., 0. Ir. irgal ; from air and gal, q.v. 
Also iorgull. 

iorrach, quiet, undisturbed : 

iorram, a boat song : *air^dm,, " at oar" song. Cf. iomram for 

t ios, down, Ir. t ioi, in phrases a nios, from below, sios, to below, 
so Ir. ; 0. Ir. fe, iss, infra, W. is, comp. isel, sup. isaf, Br. is, 
iz, isel, comp. iseloch. *en,so or *e'ndso, from en, now an, in; 
Lat. i,mus, lowest, from *ins-mus, from in. Stokes cfs. rather 
Skr. adfids, under (ndhas), Eng. under, giving the prehistoric 
form as *endsd ; and there is much in favour of this view for 
the meaning's sake, though most philologists are on the side 
of en or end, now an, being root. Lat. imus or infimus would 
then foUow the Celtic. 

iosal, low, Ir. iosal, 0. Ir. isel : *endslo-s ; see ios above. 

iosgaid, hough, poples, Ir. ioscaid, M. Ir. iscait : 

iosop, hyssop, Ir. iosdip ; from Lat. hyssopum, whence Eng. 

iotadh, thirst, Ir. iota, 0. Ir. itu, g. itad : *isottdt-, root is, desire, 
seek ; Gr. tdrijs, wish, i/j.epo's, desire ; Ch. SI. ishati, seek ; 
Skr. ish, seek, O. Bact. ish, wish. 
iothlann, cornyard ; see iodhlann. 

ire, progress, state, degree of growth, 0. Ir. hire, ire {ire), ulterior : 
*(j))ereio-, from per, through, over; Gr. Trtpaios, on the other 
side. Stokes makes the proportional comparison of these 
forms thus : — (p)ereios : Trepalos = {p)arei (now air) : irapai. 

iriosal, humble : *air-losal, q.v. 

iris, hen-roost, basket or shield handle, M. Ir. iris, pi. irsi, sus- 
pender, shield handle, satchel strap : *are-sfi-, from air and 
sta, stand. See ros, seas. 

is, is, Ir., 0. Ir. is, 0. Ir. iss, 0. W. iss, is — Gt. ecrrl; Lat. est, is ; 
Eng. is, etc. 

is, and, Ir., E. Ir. is ; seemingly an idiomatic use of is, is. Con- 
sider the idiom : " Ni e sin is mise an so" — " He will do it and 
I here ;" literally : " He will do it, T am here." It is usuallj- 
regarded as a curtailment of agus, and hence spelt variously 
as a's, 'us. 


isbean, a sausage ; from Norse ispen, a sausage of lard and suet 

( = irspen, from speni, a teat). 
isean, a chicken, young of any bird, Ir. is^an, E. Jr. essine, 0. Ir. 

isseniu, puUo : *ex-{p)et^io-1 Koot^^e*! fly ; that is, *ea!-&t-, 

4n being eun, bird, 
isneach, a rifle gun ; from oisinn, comer ? 
ist ! whist ! Eng. whist ! hist ! Lat. st ! Onomatopoetic. 
ite, a feather, Ir. iU6g, 0. Ir. ette : *ettid, *pet-tid, root pet, fly; 

Gr. TreTOfjMi, I fly ; Lat. penna, a wing {*pet-7Ui), Eng. pen, ; 

Eng. feather, Ger. fittich ; etc. See eun. W. aden, wing is 

near related, 
iteodha, hemlock. Cameron (29) suggests a derivation from ite, 

the idea being " feather -foliaged." 
ith, eat, Ir., 0. Ir. ithim : *itd, *pit6, I eat ; Ch. SI. pitati, feed ; 

Skr. pitu, nourishment, Zend pitu, food ; further Gr. Trtrus, 

pine. Also t ith, tioth, com, as in iodhlann, q.v. 
iubhar, yew, Ir. iuhhar, E. Ir. ibar, Gaul. Ebwros ; Ger. eberesche, 

service-tree {*ebarisc). So Schrader. It does not seem that 

Ir. e6, W. yw, Br. ivin, * ivd-, Eng. yew, can be allied to 

ivhhar. Hence iubhrach, a yew wood, stately woman, the 

mythic boat of Fergus M" Ro in the Deirdre story. 
iuchair, a key, Ir. eochair, E. Ir. eochuir, Manx ogher, W. egoriad, 

key, egor, agar, opening : *eM,ri- : 
iuchair, the roe, spawn, Ir., M. Ir. iuchair : *jekvuri- ; Lat. jecv/r, 

liver ? 
iuchar, the dog-days : 

iugh^ a particular posture in which the dead are placed : 
iill, guidance, Ir. iul ; cf . eblas. 
iuUag, a sprightly female, lullagach, sprightly : 
itinais, want, E. Ir. ingudis, O. Ir. ingnais, absence : *in-gndth, 

from gndth, known, custom ; see gnctth. Also aonais. 
iunnrais, stormy sky : 
iunntas, wealth : 

lurpais, fidgeting, wrestling ; cf . farpuis. 
fiursach, suspensory (Oss. Ballads), applied to the mail-coat. 

From iris. H.S.D. gives the meaning as "black, dark." 
iuthaidh, fiuthaidh, itithaidh, arrow, gun, etc. : 
iutharn, hell ; for * if hem, a side-form of ifrinn. 

li,, latha, day, Ir. Id, g. laoi, 0. Ir. lathe, laithe, iae, g. lathi, d. 

lau, I6u, 16 : * lasio-, root las, shine ; Skr. Idsati, shines ; Gr. 

Aao), behold, 
liban, lipan, mire, dirt, Ir. Idbdn ; also laib. Cf. for root 

lathach {* Iclth-bo-). 


labanach, a day-labourer, plebeian, Ir. lahdnach (O'B., etc. ; Sh.) ; 

from Lat labor ? 
labhair, speak, Ir. labhraim, E. Ir. labraim, 0. Ir. Idbrur, lahrathar, 

loquitur, W. llajar, vocalis, lleferydd, voice. Corn, lauar, 

sermo, Br. lavar, Gaul, river Labarus : *lab)-o-, speak ; Gr. 

A(£/3pos, furious, AayS/Devojuat, talk rashly. Bez. prefers the 

root of Eng. flap. Others have compared Lat. labrwm, lip, 

which may be allied to both Celtic and Gr. (Xa^pevojjML). 

Hence G. and Ir. labhar, loud, 0. Ir. labar, eloquens, W. 

llafar, loud, Gr. Xd^p<ys. 
lach, a wild duck, Ir., E. Ir. lacha ; cf. the Lit. root lah, fly. 
lach, reckoning, contribution per head ; from the Sc. lauck, tavern 

reckoning, lawing (do.), from the root of Eng. law. 
lachan, a laugh ; from the Sc, Eng. laugh. 
lachduinn, dun, grey, tawny, Ir., M. Ir. lachtua, grey, dun ; cf. 

Skr. rakta, coloured, reddened, ranj, dye, whence Eng. lake, 

lad, lod, a load, Ir. Idd ; from the M. Eng. laden, to lade, 
lad, a mill lead ; from the Eng. lead, lade. For the N.H. meaning 

of " puddle," see lod. 
ladar, a ladle ; from the Eng. ladle by disimilation of the liquids. 
ladarna, bold, so Ir., M. Ir. latrand, robber, W. pi. lladron, 

thieves ; from Lat. latro, latronis, a thief. 
ladhar, a hoof, fork, so Ir., E. Ir. ladar, toes, fork, branch : 
lag, a hoUow, Ir. log, a pit, hollow : *luggo-, root lug, bend ; Gr. 

Xvyi^iD, bend ; Lit. lugnas, pliant. Stokes gives the basis as 

*lonho-, root lek, lenk, bend. Lit. lankas, a curve, lanka, a 

mead, Ch. SI. lakit, bent ; but this would give a in G. 
lag, weak, Ir. lag, E. Ir. lac, W. Hag, sluggish : *laggo-s, root lag ; 

Lat. langueo, Eng. languid ; Gr. Aa-yyafo), slacken, Aaya/jos, 

thin ; Eng. slajdc, also lag, from Celtic, 
lagan, sowens : *latag-ko- ? Koot lat, be wet, Gr. Aaro^, drop, 

Lat. laiesc. See lathach. 
lagh, law, Ir. lagh (obsolete, says Con.) ; from the Eng. The 

phrase air lagh, set in readiness for shooting (as of a bow) is 

hence also. 
laghach, pretty, Ir. laghach ; cf. M. Ir. lig, beauty, root leg, Lat. 

lectus, chosen, Eng. election ? Cf. 0. W. lin, gratia. 
laidir, strong, Ir., E. Ir. Ididir : 
laigh, Mgh, lie, Ir. luigh, E. Ir. laigim, 0. Ir. lige, bed, W. gwe-ly, 

bed (Cor. gueli, Br. gmk), Gaul, legasii ( = posuit ?) : * logS, 

leg6, to lie, * legos, bed, I. E. root legh, lie ; Gr. Aexos, bed, 

Afxerai, sleeps (Hes.) ; Got. ligan, Ger. liegan, Eng. lie, etc. 
laimhrig, landing place, harbour : 


laimhsich, handle, Ir. ImwJmghim : * Idm-asf^o-, from * lamas, 
handling, from Idmh, q.v. 

lainnir, brightness, polish, E. Ir. lainderda, glittering, glancing ; 
also loinnear, bright, q.v. 

laipheid, an instrument for making horn-spoons : 

Ijtir, a mare, Ir., 0. Ir. Idir, g. l^ach : *ldrex. Stokes suggests 
connection with Alban. pele, pele, mare. 

lairceach, stout, short-legged, fat, lairceag, a short, fat woman : 

lairig, a moor, sloping hill ; cf. M. Ir. laarg, fork, leg and thigh, 
0. Ir. loarcc, furca : 

laisde, easy, in good circumstances ; cf. Ir. laisti, a heavy, stupid 
person ; from las, loose ? 

laisgeanta, fiery, fierce ; from las, q.v. 

laithilt, a weighing as with scales, Ir. laitke, scales ; *platio-, root 
plat, plet, as in leathan. 

lamban, milk curdled by rennet (Dial.) ; see slaman. 

lamh, able, dare, Ir. lamkaim, E. Ir. lamaim, 0. Ir, -laimwr, audeo, 
W. llafasu, audere. Cor. lavasy, Br. lafvaez : *plam6, a short- 
vowel form of the root of Ictmh, hand, the idea being " Ttianage 
to, dare to?" Stokes says it is probably from *tlanii, dare, 
Gr. ToXfia, daring, Sc. ihole ; see tlctth. Windisch has com- 
pared Lit. lemiii, lemii, fix, appoint. 

14mh, hand, Ir. Idmh, 0. Ir. Idm, W. llaw. Cor. lof, 0. Br. lau : 
*ldmd, *pldmd; Lat. palma, Eng. palm; Gr. Trakafjur) ■ Ag.S. 
folm, 0. H. G.folm^. Hence limhainn, glove, E. Ir. Idmind. 

lamhrag, a slut, awkward woman, lamhragan, awkward handling ; 
from IdmA : " under-hand." 

Ian, full, Ir., 0. Ir. Idn, W. llawn, 0. "W. lawn. Cor. leun, len, Br. 
leun : *ldno-, *pldno-, or pl-no- (Brug.), root pi, pld, pel ; 
Skr. puripds, full ; further Lat. plenus ; Gr. Trhjfyqs, iroX.vs, 
many ; Eng. full ; etc. See also iol, Vwn, Vinn. 

linain, a married couple, Ir. Idnamhain, E. Ir. Idnamain, 0. Ir. 
Idnamnas, conjugium : * lag-no-, root log, leg, lie, as in laigh 1 

langa, a ling ; from Norse langa, Sc. laing, Eng. ling. 

langaid, a fetter, fetters (especially for horses), langar, Ir. lang- 
fethir (O'B. ; Lh. has i langphetir), E. Ir. langfiter (Corm. Gl., 
" English word this"), W. llyfethar, M. W. lawheihyr ; from 
Eng. lang (long) and fetter. The Sc. has langet, langelt, 
which is the origin of G. langaid. 

langaid, the guiUemote (Heb.) ; from Sc. (Shetland) longie, Dan. 
langivie (Edmonston). 

langan, lowing of the deer ; from the Sc, Eng. lowing ? 

langasaid, a couch, settee ; from Sc. langseat, lang-settle, " long 


lann, a blade, sword, Ir. lann : *lag-s-na 1 Eoot lag, as in E. Jr. 
laigen, lance, W. llain, blade, Lat. lanceo, Gr. Adyxij, lance- 
point. Tliur. (Zeit. 26) suggestti *plad-s-na, "broad thing;" 
Gr. TrXaOdvTj, Ger. fladen, flat cake, further G. kathann, 
broad, etc. 0. Ir. lann, squama, is referred by Stokes to 
*lamna, allied to Lat. lamina, lamna ; which would produce 
rather 0. Ir. * lamn, Modern lamhan. Ii-. lann, gridiron, is 
doubtless allied to 0. Ir. lann. 

lann, an inclosure, land, Ir. lann, E. Ir. land, W. llan, 0. W. lann, 
area, ecclesia, Br. lann: *land4; Teut. land, Eng. land. 
See iodhlann. 

lannsa, a lance, Ir. lannsa , from the Eng. 

lanntair, a lantern, Ir. laindiar ; from the Eng. 

laoch, a hero, Ir. laoch, a soldier, hero, E. Ir. laech, a hero, 
champion: *laicv,s, soldier, "non-cleric," E. Ir. I6£ch, laicus, 
W. lleyg ; all from Lat. laicus, a layman, non-cleric. 

laogh, a calf, so Ir., E. Ir. Ideg, W. llo. Cor. loch, Br. leue, M. Br. 
lue : *l6igo-s, calf, "jumper," root leig, skip, Got. laikan, 
spring. Lit. Idigyti, skip, Skr. rejati, skip (see leum further). 
It is possible to refer it to root leigh, lick : " the licker." 

laodhan, pith of wood, heart of a tree, Ir. laodhan, laoidhean ; 
also G. g laodhan, q.v. 

laoighcionn, lao'cionn, tulchau calf, oalf-skhi ; from laogh and 
t cio7in, skin, which see under hoicionn. 

laoidh, a lay, so Ir., E. Ir. Ided, laid, 0. Ir. I6id : *liidir-'l Alliance 
with Teutonic Hup, Eng. lay, Fr. lai, Ger. lied, is possible if 
the stem is ludi- ; cf. for phonetics draoidk and ancient 
druis, druidos, Druid, Gaul. Lat. druidce (Stokes). 

laoineach, handsome ; cf . loinn. 

laom, a crowd, lodge (as corn), Ir. laomdha, bent : 

laom, a blaze, Ir. laom , from Norse Ijomi, ray, Ag. S. Mama, Sc. 
leme, to blaze. 

laosboc, a castrated goat : 

laoran, a person too fond of the fire-side : 

lapach, benumbed, faltering ; cf. lath. 

lar, the ground, Ir., 0. Ir. Idr, W. llaivr, 0. Cor. lor, 0. Br. laur, 
solum, Br. leur : *ldro-, *pldro- ; Eng. Jloor, Ag. S.fldr, Norse 
flor, Ger. flur ; root pld, broad, broaden, Lat. pldnus, Eng. 
plain, etc. 

ld.racll, a site, Ir. Idithreach, 0. Ir. Idthrach , from Idthair, q.v. 

las, loose, slack, W. llaes ; from Lat. laxus, Eng. lax. 

las, kindle, lasair, flame, so Ir., E. Ir. lassaim, lasaair, W. llachar, 
gleaming : *laksar- ; Skr. lakshati, see, show, 0. H. G. luogen 
(do.). Also by some referred to *lapsar-, Gr. Xafiiroy, shine, 



Eng. lamvp, Pruss. lopis, flame. See losg. Windisoh has 

compared Skr. arc, re, shine. Hence lasgaire, a youth, 

young " spark ;" lastan, pride, etc. 
lasgar, sudden noise : 
lath, benumb, get benumbed : 
l^thach, mire, clay, Ir., E. Ir. lathach, coenum, W. llaid, mire, Br. 

leiz, moist : *latdkd, *latjo-, root lat, be moist; Gr. Xdra^, 

Aarayts, drops ; Lat. latex, liquid, 
lathailt, a method : 
lathair, presence, Ir. Idthair, 0. Ir. Idthar, lathair : *latri-, *ldfro-, 

root plAt, pld, broad ; Lettic pldt, extend thinly ; further in 

G. lar above. Asc. refers it to the root of 0. Ir. Idaim, I 

send, which is allied to Gr. kXavvw, I drive, etc. Hence 

le, by, with, Ir. le, 0. Ir. la, rarer le : * let ; from leth, side, 
l^abag, a flounder ; see lebh. Also leobag. 
leabaidh, a bed, leabadh, Ir. leaba, leahuidh, E. Ir. lepaid, lepad, 

g. leptha: *lehhoti-, *leg-huto-, " lying-abode," from root leg, 

Aex, lie, as in laigh i 
leabhar, a book, so Ir., 0. Ir. lehor, W. llyfr ; from Lat. liber. 
leabhar, long, clumsy, M. Ir. lebur, 0. Ir. lebor, long : *lebro-, 

root leg, hanging, Gr. Xofio's, a lobe ; Eng. lappet ; also Lat. 

liber, book, 
leac, a flag, flag-stone, so Ir., E. Ir. lecc, W. llech : *liccd, *lp-M, 

root lep, a shale ; Gr. AcTras, bare rock ; Lat. lapis, stone. 

Stokes and Stiachan refer it to the root plk, flat, Lat. planca, 

Eng. plank, Gr. irka^, plain, 
leac, a cheek, leacainn, a hill side, Ir. leaca, cheek, g. leacan, 

E. Ir. lecco, g. leccan : '''lekktin-; 0. Pruss. laygnan, Ch. SI. 

lice, vultus. Root liq, lig, appearance, like, Gr. -Xlko% Eng. 

like, lyke--w&k.e, Ger. leichnam body, 
leadair, mangle, so Ir., E. Ir. letraim, inf. letrad, hacking : 

*leddro- : 
leadan, flowing hair, a lock, teasel, Ir. leaddn, teasel : 
leadan, notes in music, Ir. leaddn, musical notes, litany ; from 

Lat. litania, litany, 
leag, throw down, Ir. leagaini, inf. leagadh : *legg6, from leg, root 

of laigh, lie (cf. Eng. lay) ? The preserved g may be from 

the analogy of leig, let ; and Ascoli refers the word to the 

0. Ir. root leg, lig, destruere, sternere : foralaig, straverat, 

dolega, qui destruit. 
leagh, melt, so Ir., 0. Ir. legaim, legad, W. Uaith, moist, dad 

leithio, melt, Br. leiz : * legd ; Eng. leak, Norse leka, drip, 

Ger. lechzen. 


leamh, foolish, insipid, importunate, Ir. leamh ; cf. E. Ir. lem, 
everything warm (Corm. sub lemlacht, new milk, W. Uefrith, 
sweet milk, Corn, leverid, liuriz , 0. Ir. lemnact, sweet milk) ; 
consider root lem, break, as in Eng. lame, etc. 

leamhan, elm, Ir. leamhann, leamh, M. Ir. lem ■."*lmo- ; Lat. ulmws, 
Eng. elm : *elmo-. W. Uwi/f (*leimd) is different, with 
which is allied (by borrowing ?) Eng. lime in lime-tree. 

leamnacht, tormentil, Ir. neamhain : 

leamhnad, leamhragan, stye in the eye, W. llefrithen, Uyfelyn : 
*limo-, "ooze"? Cf. Lat. limus, mud, lino, smear, Eng. loam. 

16an, l^ana, a lea, swampy plain, Ir. leana (do.) : *lekno-1 Cf. 
Lit. lehis, lekna, depression, wet meadow (cf. Stokes on lag 
above) ; this is Mr Strachan's derivation. The spelling 
seems against referring it, as Stokes does, to the root lei, Gr. 
Xufibn/, meadow. Lit. Idija, a valley ; though W. llwyn, grove, 
favours this. Cf. W. lleyn, low strip of land. 

lean, foUow, Ir. leanaim, 0. Ir. lenim, W. can-lyn, dy-lyn, sequi : 
*linami, I cling to ; Skr. lindmi, cling to ; Lat. lino, smear ; 
Gr. aklv<M (do.) ; root It, li, adhere. Inf. is leanmhuinii. 

leanabh, a child, Ir. leanbh, E. Ir. lenah : * lenvo- ; from lean 1 
Corm. gives also lelap, which, as to termination, agrees with 
G. leanahan. 

leann, ale ; see lionn. 

leannan, a sweetheart, Ir. leanndn, a concubine, E. Ir. lennan, 
lendan, concubine, favourite : lex-no-, root leg, lie, as in laigh I 

lear, the sea (poetical word), Ir. lear, E. Ir. ler, W. llyr : '^ lira-, 
root li, flow, as in lighe, flood. Stokes gives the Celtic as 
lero-s, but offers no further derivation. 

learag, larch ; from Sc. larick, Eng. larch, from Lat. larix {*darij:, 
as in darach, q.v.). 

learg, leirg, plain, hillside, Ir. learg, E. Jr. lerg, a plain ; cf . Lat. 
largus, Eng. large. 

leas, advantage, Ir. leas, 0. Ir. less, W. lies. Cor. les, Br. laz : 
*lesso-, mot pled, fruit ; Slav, plodii, fruit (Stokes, Bez.). 

leas-, nick-, step-, Ir. leas-, 0. Ir. less-, W. llys- (W. Uysenw = G. 
leas-ainm), Br. les- ; same as leas above : " additional." Cf. 
Fr. use of beau, belle for sUp-. Stokes suggests * lisso-, blame, 
root leid, Gr. Xoi&opiu), revile (Lat. Ivdere ?) ; others compare 
leas- to Ger. laster, vice (see Lodid) ; Bez. queries connection 
with Ag. S. lesve, false, Norse lasinn, half-broken. 

leasg, leisg, lazy, Ir. leasg, 0. Ir. lesc, W. llesg : *lesko-s , Norse 
loshr, weak, idle, 0. H. G. lescan, become extinguished, Ger. 
erloschen (Stokes). Brugmann and others give stem as *led- 
SCO-, comparing Got. latz, lazy, Eng. late, to which Norse 
loskr may be referred {*latkwa-z) ; root Hd, lad. 


leasraidh, loins, Ir. Leasruigh, pi. of leasrach; see leis. 
leathad, declivity, hillside ; cf. Ir. leathad, breadth. See lend. 
leathan, broad, so Ir., 0. Ir. lethan, W. llydan, 0. W. litan, Br. 

ledan, Gaul, litano-s : *ltano-s ; Gr. irXarvs, broad ; Skr. 

prdthas, breadth ; Lat. planta, sole of the foot, sprout : root 

plet, plat, extend, 
leathar, leather, so Jr., E. Ir. letJmr, W. lledr, M. Br. lezr, Br. ler : 

*letro- ; Eng. leather, Ger. leder, Norse leSr. 
leatrom, burden, weight, leatromach, pregnant, Ir. leathtrom, 

burden, pregnancy ; from leth and trom. 
leibhidh, race, generation (M° Ithioh, 1685) ; from Eng. levy ? 
leibid, a trifle, dirt, leibideach, trifling, Ir. libideach, dirty, awkward : 
leideach, strong, shaggy, Ir. Uidmlieach, strong (O'B.), 0. Ir. 

I'etenach, audax : 
leig, let, Ir. leigim, 0. Ir. leiccim, lecim : * leinqio , Lat. linquo ; 

Gr. Aewrw ; Got. leihvan, Eng. loan. 
I^igh, a physician, leigheas, a cure, Ir. leigheas, M. Ir. leges ; see 

l^ine, a shirt, so Ir., E. Ir. lene, g. Unith, pi. Unti : *leinet-, from 

lein, Itn ; Lat. linum, flax, Eng. linen, Sc. Under ; Gr. Afra, 

cloth, Ai'vov, flax. See hon. Strachan refers it, on the 

analogy of dewr = dakro-, to laknet-, root lah, of Lat. lacema, 

cloak, lacinia, lappet, 
leir, sight, Ir. l^ir, sight, clear, 0. Ir. leir, conspicuous. If 

Strachan's phonetics are right, this may be for *lakri-, root 

lak, see, show, W. llygat, eye. Cor. lagat, Br. lagad, eye, Skr. 
• lakshati, see, show, O. H. G. luogen (do.), as in las, q.v. 
leir, gu leir, altogether, Ir. leir, M. Ir. le'ir, complete, W. lltoyr, 

total, altogether : *leiri-s : 
16ir, torment, to pain : *lai:ro-, root lak, as in Lat. lacero, lacerate ? 
leirg, a plain ; see learg. 

leirist, a foolish, senseless person, slut (leithrist) : 
leis, thigh, Ir. leas, leis, hip, 0. Ir. less, clunis. Nigra connects it 

with leth, side. See slios. 
leisdear, arrow-maker; from the Eng. jietcher, from Fr. Heche, 

arrow, ^eejleasg. 
leisg^, laziness, lazy, Ir. leisg (n.) ; see leasg. 
leisgeul, excuse ; from leth and sgeul, " half-story." 
leithid, the like, so Ir., E, Ir. lethet ; from leth, half, side, 
leitir, a hillside, slope, E. Ir. lettir, g. lettrach, W. llethr, slope : 

*lettrek-. It maybe iiora * leth-tir, " country-side," or from 

let of leathan : cf. W. lleth, flattened, "broadened." 
leob, a piece, shred, Ir. leab, a piece, leadhb, a patch of old leather, 

M. Ir. ledb : * led-ho- ; for root led, cf . leatlwr ? Hence leob, 

a hanghig lip, leobag, l^abag, a flounder. 


leobhar, long, clumsy ; see leahhar. 

leocach, sneaking, low : 

leodag, a slut, prude, flirt : 

leogach, hanging loosely, slo'venly : 

leoir, enough, Ir., E. Ir. leor, lor, 0. Ir. lour, W. llawer, many . 
*lavero-, root lav, lau, gain, Lat. lucrum, gain, Laverna, Skr. 
I6ta, booty, Eng. loot, etc. Stokes refers W. llawer to the com- 
. parative stem of pie, full ; see liuth. 

leth, side, half, Jr., 0. Ir. letli, W. lied, 0. Br. let : ^leton ; Lat. 
latiis. Brugmann refers it to the root plet, broad, of leathan. 

lethbhreac, a correlative, equal, match ; from leth and Ireac (?). 

lethcheann (pron. lei'chean), the side of the head, cheek ; from 
leth and ceann, with possibly a leaning on the practically 
lost leac, leacann, cheek. 

leug, a precious stone, Ir. Hag, a stone, M. Ir. leg, Ieg-I6gmar, 0. Ir. 
lia, g. liacc : *levink-; Gr. Aaty^, g. Aat-yyos, a small stone, 
Aaas, stone ; Ger. lei, stone, rock, Ital. lavagna, slate, schist. 

leud, lead, breadth, Ir. leithead, 0. Ir. lethet ; see leathan. 

leug, laziness, lazy, slow ; see sUig. 

leugh, leagh, read, Ir. leaghaim, M. Ir. legim, 0. Ir. legim, roleg, 
legit, legend, reading ; from Lat. lego, I read, Eng. lecture, 

leum, a jump, Ir., 0, Ir. leim, Uimm, W. llam, Br. lam, 0. Br. 
lammam, salio : *kng7nen^, 0. Ir. vb. lingim, I spring, root 
leg, leng ; Skr. langhati, leap, spring ; M. H. G. lingen, go 
forward, Eng. light, etc. The 0. Ir. perfect tense leblaing 
has made some give the root as vleng, vleg, Skr. valg, spring, 
Lat. valgus, awry, Eng. walk ; and some give the root as 
svleng, from svelg. It is diificult to see how the v or sv before 
I was lost before I in leum. 

leus, lias, a torch, light, Ir. leus, E. Ir. les, Mss, 0. Ir. leshoire, 
lightbearer : *plent-to-, from plend, splend, Lat. splendeo, Eng. 
splendid (Strachan). Cf. W. llun/s, clear, pure. 

li, colour, 0. Ir. K, Hi, W. Uiw, Cor. liu, color, Br. liou, 0. Br. 
liou, liu : *ltvos-; Lat. livor, lividus, Eug. livid. 

t lia, a stone, 0. Ir. lia, g. liacc ; see leug. 

liagh, a ladle, Ir., M. Ir. liach, 0. Ir. liag, trulla, scoop, W. llivy, 
spoon, spattle, Cor. loe, Br. loa : leigd, ladle, root leigh. Ugh, 
lick (as in imlich, q.v.) ; Lat. ligula, spoon, ladle. 

liath, gray, so Ir., E. Ir. Hath, W. llwyd, canus, 0. Br. loit, M. Br. 
loet : *leito-, *pleito-, for * peleito- ; Gr. ttcAitvos, livid; Skr. 
palitd, gray ; Lat. pallidus ; Eng. fallow, Ag. ^.fealo, yellow 
Cf . 0. Fr. Hart, dark grey, Sc. lyaH (* leucardus ?). 

lid, a syllable ; see Hod. 

ligeach, sly ; from the Sc. sleekie, sleekit, sly, smooth, Eng. sleen. 


lighe, a flood, overflow, Ir., E. Ir. lia, 0. Ir. lie, eluvio, W. Hi, 

flood, stream, lliant, fluctus, fluentum, Br. livad, inundation ; 

root li, leja, flow ; Skr. riyati, let run ; Lit. leti, gush ; Gr. 

XlfjiVT), lake, Aetog, smooth, Lat. levis, level, limits, mud ; etc. 

Stokes hesitates between root li and roots pleu (Eng. Jlow) 

and lev, lav, Lat. lavo, luo. 
lighiche, a physician, Ir. liaigh, g. leagha, E. Ir. liaig, 0. Ir. legiO, 

medicis ; Got. leikeis, Eng. leech. 
linig, lining ; from the Eng. 
linn, an age, century, offspring, Ir. linn, 0. Ir. linn, lin, pars. 

Humerus : *lSnu-, from plen, as in lion, fill (Brug.), q.v. 
linne, a pool, linn, Ir. linn, E. Ir. lind, W. llpn, M. W. linn. Cor. 

lin, Br. ^«?ire : * linnos, root /i, ^i, flow ; Gr. X.ifivrj, lake, etc. ; 

see lighe. 
linnean, shoemaker's thread ; from Sc. lingan, lingel, from Fr. 

ligneul, Lat. *lineolimi, linea, Eng. /me. 
linnseag, shroud, penance shirt ; founded on the Eng. linsey. 
liobarnach, slovenly, awkward, so Ir. ; founded on Eng. slippery ? 
liobasda, slovenly, awkward, so Ir ; see slihist. 
liomh, polish, Ir. liomhaim, liomhaim, M. Ir. limtha, polished, 

sharpened, W. llifo, grind, whet, saw ; Lat. Wrno, polish, 

whet, limatus, polished, root li, lei, smooth, flow. 
lion, flax, lint, Ir. lion, E. Ir. lin, W. llin, Cor , Br. lin : * linvr ; 

Lat. linum, flax ; Gr. XLvov, flax, Atra, cloth ; Got. lein, 

0. H. G. lin ; Ch. SI. linu ; root lei, li, smooth, flow, 
lion, a net, Ir. lion, O. Ir. lin ; from the above word. 
lion, fill, Ir. lionaim, 0. Ir. linaim : * Un6, *plSn6 ; Lat. plenus, 

full ; Gr. irXyprj?, full ; root pie, pld, as in Ian, q.v. Hence 

lionar, lionmhor, numerous. 
lionn, leann, ale, so Ir., 0. Ir. Ii7id, W. llyn : *lennu- , same root 

and form (so far) as linne, q.v. This is proved by its 

secondary use in G. and Ir. for '• humours, melancholy." 

Stokes suggests for both connection with Gr. xAaSa/Dos, moist. 
lionradh, gravy, juice; from lion, "fullness"? 
lios, a garden, Ir. lios, a fort, habitation, E. Ir. liss, less, enclosure, 

habitation, W. llys, aula, palatium, Br. les, court, 0. Br. lis : 

*lsso-s, a dwelling enclosed by an earthen wall, root plet, 

broad, Eng. place, Gr. irAariJs, broad ; O. H. G. jilezzi, house 

floor, Norse ^«<, a flat. For root, siee leat/ian. 
liosda, slow, tedious, importunate, so Ir., M. Ir. liosta, lisdacht, 

importunity, E. Ir. lista, slow : *li-sso-, root li, smooth, Gr. 

Akto-os, smooth, Aefos, as in lighe. 
liosraig, smooth, press (as cloth after weaving), dress, sliosraig 

(Badenoch) ; compare the above word for root and stem, 
lip. Hop, Hob, a lip, Ir. liob ; from Eng. lip. 


lipinn, lipinn, a lippie, fourth of a peck ; from Sc. lippie. 

lirean, a species of marine fungus (H.S.D.) : 

lit, porridge, M. Ir. lite, E. Ir. littiu, g. Utten, W. Uith, mash : 

*littidn- (Stokes), *plt-ti6, irompelt, polt, Gr. ttoAtos, porridge, 

Lat. puis, pultis, pottage. 
litir, a letter, so Ir., E. Ir. liter, W. llythyr, Br. lizer , from Lat. 

liubhar (H.S.D. liiibhar), deliver; from the Lat. lihero, Eng. 

liug, a lame hand or foot, sneaking look, Ir. Hug, a sneaking or 

lame gait, liugaire, cajoler, G. liugair (do.) : 
liuth, liutha, liuthad, many, many a, so many, Ir., 0. Ir. lia, 

more, (). W. liaus, Br. liez : *(p)lejds, from pie, full, 6r. 

Trkeimv ; ha,t. pliis, pMres, older pleores ; Norse Jkiri, more. 
loban, Idban, a creel for drying corn, basket, wooden frame put 

inside corn-stacks to keep them dry, basket peat-cart : 
lobanach, draggled, lobair, draggle ; from lob, puddle (Arm- 
strong) : */oi/t-6o-, loth of Ion, q.v. ? 
lobh, putrefy, Ir lohhaim, 0. Ir. lobat, putrescant, inf. lobad, root 

lob, wither, waste ; Lat. Wn, to fall, Idhes, ruin, Eng, lapse. 
lobhar, a leper, so Ir., 0. Ir. lobar, infirmus, W. llwfr, feeble, 

0. W. lobur, debile, M. Br. loffr, leprous, Br. laour, low, lor, 

leper. For root see above word. 
lobht, a loft, Manx lout, Ir. lota (Connaught) ; from Norse lopt, 

Eng. loft. 
locair, plane (carpenter's), Ir. locar , from Norse loiar, Ag. S. 

loch, a lake, loch, Ir., E. Ir. loch : *loktir- ; Lat. lacus : Gr. 

AaKKOS, pit. 
lochd, a fault, so Ir., 0. Ir. locht, crimen : *l6ktu-, root lok, lak, 

Gr. Aa/c-, Xaa-Kb), cry ; 0. H. G. lahan, blame, Ag. S. leahan, 

Ger. laster, a fault, vice, Norse lostr. 
lochdan, a little amount (of sleep), Ir. lochdain, a nap, wink of 

sleep : 
lochran, a torch, light, Ir. I6chrann, 0. Ir. I6cham, liiacham, W. 

lltcgom, Cor. lugam : *loukamd, root louq, levq, light ; Lat. 

lucerna, lamp, lux, light ; Gr. Aevkos, white. 
lod, lodan, a puddle, Ir. lodan : *ltisdo-, *lut-s, root lut, la, Lat. 

lutum, mud, Gr. AC/na, filth. 
16d, a load, Ir. I6d ; from the Eng. 

lodhainn, a pack (of dogs), a number : " a leash ;" see lomhainn. 
lodragan, a clumsy old man, plump boy : 
logais, logaist, awkward, unwieldy person ; from Eng. log. 
logh, pardon, Ir. loghadh (n.), E. Ir. logaim, 0. Ir. doluigim. 

Stokes refers it to the root of leagh, melt. 


loguid, a varlet, rascal, soft fellow, M. Ir. locaim, I flinch from : 
loibean, one who works in all Aveathers and places ; cf. laib, under 

loiceil, foolishly fond, doting, Ir. loiceamhlaehd, Imceamhlachd 

(O'B.), dotage : 
loigear, an untidy person, ragged one : 
Idine, a lock of wool, tuft of snow : 
loinid, chum staiF, Ir. loinid : 
loinidh, rheumatism, greim-16inidh : 

loinn, good condition, charm, comeliness, joy, Ir. Ixrinn, joy : 
loinn, glade, area ; oblique form of lann, the locative case in 

place names, 
loinn, a badge ; a corruption of sloinn ? 
loinnear, bright, elegant, E. Ir. lainderda, glittering : *lasno-, 

from las, flame, q.v. ? Cf. lonnrach. 
loinneas, a wavering : 
loirc, wallow : 

loirc, a deformed foot, lorcach, lame ; cf. lure. 
loireag, a beautiful, hairy cow ; a plump girl, pan-cake ; cf. lur, 

loireanach, male child just able to walk ; cf. luran. 
Idiseam, pomp, show : 
loisneach, cunning : "foxy;" Ir. loisi, los, a fox : *luxo-; Gr. 

^vy^, lynx, 0. H. G. luhs, Ag. S. lox, lynx, 
loistean, a lodging, tent, Ir. loistin ; from the Eng. lodging. 
lorn, bare, Ir. lom, 0. Ir. lomm, W. llwm : *lummo-, * lupa-mo-, 

root lup, peel, break off' ; Lit. lupti, peel, Ch. SI. Ivpiti, 

detrahere ; Skr. lurapaTni, cut off". Hes. has Or. Av^vos = 

•yu/xvds, which Stokes suggests alternately. Hence lomradh, 

fleecing, 0. Ir. lommraim, tondeo, abrado, lorn/mar, bared, 

stripped ; which last Stokes compares rather to Lat. lamberat, 

scindit ac laniat. 
lombair, bare ; cf. 0. Ir. lommar, bared (see lom). Possibly the b 

is intrusive, as in Eng. number, dumber. 
lomchar, bare place ; from lom and cuir, cor. 
lomhainn, a leash, Ir. lomna, a cord (O'CL), 0. Ir. Imnan, funis, 

lorum, W. llyfan, Cor. louan, Br. louffan, tether : *lomand. 
lomhair, brilliant : 
lomnochd, naked, so Ir., E. Ir. lomnocht ; from lom and nocJid, 

lompair, a bare plain ; see lombair, which is another spelling of 

this word, 
lompais, niggardliness, Ir. Inmpais ; from *lommas, from lom. 
Ion, food, Ir., M. Ir. Idn, 0. Ir. l6on, adeps, commeatus, 0. Br. Ion, 

adeps : * louno-. Strachan and Stokes cf . 0. SI. pluti, caro. 


Lit. pluid,, a crust, 'Lettic pluta, a bowel. Bez. queries'-if it is 
allied to L. Ger.fldm, raw suet, 0. H. G:.floum. . It was' usual 
to refer it to the same root as Gr. ttAoStos, wealth ; and 
Emault has suggested connection- with fi/owagf (*Wo»), which 
is unlikely. , , ' ' 

Ion, marsh, mud : *lut-no-, root lut, muddy, 0. Ir. loth, mud, Lat. 
lutum ; further root lu, lou, as in lod. ■ It may be from 
*louno-, with the same root;cf. M. Ir. coaZware, hounds' 

Ion, lon-dubh, the blackbird, Ir., M. Ir., 0. Ir. Ion. Stokes refers 
it to * lux-no- (root Irnq, light, Lat. lux, etc.), but this in the 
G, would give lonn. 

Ion, elk, M. G. Ion (D. of L.), Ir. Ion : *lono-; cf. 0. Slav, lani, 
hind, and, further, Celtic *elant, roe (see eilid). 

Ion, a rope of raw hides (St Kilda) : possibly a condensation of 

Ion, lon-chraois, gluttony, M. Ir. Ion crdis. Kuno Meyer ( Vision 
of M'Conglinne) translates Ion separately as "demon." For 
craois, see crcbos. 

Ion, prattle, forwardness, Ir. lonaiyh, a scoff, jest, W. Uon, cheer- 
fal : *luno-, root lu, lav, enjoy, win, W. llawen, merry ; Gr, 
oTTokavdi, enjoy ; Got. laun, reward. See further under Ittach, 

long, a ship, Ir, long, E. Ir. l<yng, vessel (vas), ship, W. /fowgi, ship j 
*l<mgd; Norse lung, ship (Bez.); cf. Lat. lagena, flagon 
(Stokes). Usually supposed to be borrowed from: Lat. (navis) 
longa, war ship. Cf. Ptolemy's River Aoyyos, the Norse 
■ SMpaf jSr&r r nov Looh Long. 

lonn, timber put under a boat for launching it j frbm Norse 
hlunwf, a roller for launching ships. 

lonn, anger, fierce, strong, Ir. lonn, 0. Ir. lond, wild. Stokes 
{Zeit.^, 557) doubtfully suggests connection with Skr. 
randhayati, destroy, torment. 

lonnrach, glittering, so Ir. ; cf. loinnir. 

lopan, soft, muddy place (Suth.) ; see laban. 

lorg, a stafi', Ir., E. Ir. lorg. Cor. lorc'h, baculus, Br. lorc'hen, temo : 
*lorgo-, Norse Iv/rkr, a cudgel (Bez., Cam.).. 

lorg, track, footstep, Ir., E. Ir. lorg, 0. Ir. lore, trames, lorgarecht, 
indago, W. llyr, course, duct. Cor. lergh, lerch, Br. lerc'h, 
track : *lorgo-. Bez. compares L. Ger. lurken, creep. Rhys 
adds W. llwrw, direction (Manx I'ray?, 127). 

los, purpose, sake, Ir., E. Ir. los, sake, behalf, part : 

losaid, a kneading trough, Ir. losad, E. Ir. losmt : *lossantd, 
*lok-s-, root lok, lek ; Gr. Aekos, a dish, pot; Lit. lekmene, a 
puddle ; Lat. lanx, dish, 



losgadh, a burning, Ir. loscadh, E. Ir. loscud, W. llosg, urere, Cor. 

lose (n.), Br. losh : *losk6, 1 bum, *lopsM, root lop, lap ; Gr. 

A,a/tffO), shine ; 0. Pruss. lopis, flame, Lett, lapa, pine-torch 

(Stokes). See lasair, to whose root it is usually referred, 
losgann, a toad, Ir. loscain, E. Ir. loscann ; from Insg above, so 

named from the acrid secretions of its skin, 
lot, wound, so Ir., E. Ir. lot, damrige, loitim, laedo : *loU6, *lut-to-, 

root lut, lu, cut ; Skr. lii-, cut ; Gr. Xvta, loose ; Eng. loss, 

lose ; Pruss. avAaut, die. Stokes refers it to a stem * lud-nS-, 

root Ivd, Teut. root, lut, Eng. lout, little, Norse I4ta, to lout, 

bow, Ag. S. lot, dolus, etc. 
loth, a colt, Manx Ihi^, W. llwdn, young of deer, sheep, swine, 

Jiens, etc.. Cor. lodn (do.), M. Br. lozn, beast, Br. loen, animal : 

*pl'uto-, *plutno- ; cf. Lat. pullus, foal, Eng. filly. 
lothail, the plant brook-lime, Ir. lothal (O'B.), lochal : 
luach, worth, value, Ir. liuwh, 0. Ir. I6g, luac/i : *lougos, root lou, 

lit, gain ; Lat. Idcrum, gain, Lwverna, the thieves' goddess ; 

Got. laun, a reward, Ag. S. lian (do.) ; 0. Slav, lomi, catching, 
luachair, rushes, Ir., E. Ir. luachair : " light-maker," from louh, 

light (Lat. Ivnc, etc.), M. W. lieu bahir, rush-light. 
Inadh, fulling cloth ; cf. Ir. luadh, motion, moving, root plovd. 

(Lit. plaudzu, wash, Eng. fleet), a side-form of the root of 

l%ath. But Qompare dol, 
luaidhj caention, speaking, Ir. luadh, 0. Ir. luad, : ^laudo-; Lat. 

lauSflavdis, praise. Hence luaidh, beloved one : " spoken or 
_ thought of one." 
luaidh, lead, Ir., M. Ir. luaidlie : *loudid; Eng. lead, Ag. S. l^ad 

{*lauda-), Ger. loth. 
luaimear, a prattler, Ir. luaimearachd, volubility ; see next word, 
luaineach, restless, Ir. luaimneach, E. Ir. luamnech, volatile (as 

birds), Mamain, flying; root ploiigi, fly; Eng._^y, Ger. fliegen, 

Norse fljuga. 
luaireagan, a grovelling person, a fire-fond child ; from liudth, 

ashes : " one in sackcloth and ashes 1" 
luaisg, move, wave, luasgadh (n.), Ir. luasgaim, M. Ir. luascad, 

0. Br. hiscou, oscilla, Br. luskella, to rock : *loush6, * ploud-sko-, 

root ploud or plout, plou, go, flow, move, as in limth, q.v. 

Bez. queries connection with Lit. pMsTcdt, pliikt, pluck, tear. 
luan, moon, Monday, so Ir. ; M. Ir., 0. Ir. Ivan, moon, Monday : 

* kmkno-, Lat. Ivm, l-uceo, lUna, laoon. The Gadelic is possibly 

borrowed from Lat. 
luaran, a dizziness, faint : 
luath, ashes, Ir. luaith, E. Ir. liiaiih, W. Ihidw, Cor. lusu, Br. Ivdu : 

Houtvi-. Bez. queries if it is allied to Ger. lodern, to flame. 


luath, swift, Ir. hiath, 0. Jr. Math : *louto-, root plout, plou, go, 
flow, be swift ; ^ing. fleet, Norse fljdtr, swift (root pieud) ; Gt. 
ttXco), I sail ; Lat. pluit, it rains ; Skr. plavate, swim, fly. 

lib, bend, Ir., M. Ir. Mbaim, E. Ir. liipaim. {ro-liipstair, they bent, 
L. Leinster) : Mbbd, root leub, luh ; Eng. loop, M. Eng. Icfwpe, 
noose. Skeat regards the Eng. as borrowed from the Celtic. 
Hence Itiib, a fold, creek, angle. 

luch, a mouse, Ir., 0. Ir. luah, g. loekat, W. Uyg, llygoden. Com. 
logoden, Br. logodenn, pi. logod : *lvJcot-, *pluko-, "gray one ;" 
Lit. pilkas, gray, pele, mouse ; root pel, pol, gray, as under 
liath. Stokes refers it to the Gadelic root luko-, dark (read 
lau&o- or louko-), whence E. Ir. lock (read Idch), which he tabes 
from I. E. leuq, shine (Lat. Itox, etc.), comparing W. llvjg, 
livid, blotchy, to which add W. llug, blotch, dawning. From 
this obsolete G. word Idch, dark, come the name of the rivers 
Lbchaidh, Adamnau's Nigra Dea or Loch-dae, which we may 
take as the G. form of it from another of his references. 

luchairt, a palace, castle : 

luchd, people, Ir. luchd, 0. Ir. lucht, W. llwyth, tribe : *lukto-, 
from plug, pvlg, Eng. folk, Ger. volk, whence 0. Slov. pluku, 
a troop. 

luchd, a burden, Ir. luchd, E, Ir. liicht, W. llywth, a load : lukto-. 
The 0. W. tluiih (or mawr-dluithruim, multo veote) has 
suggested *tlukto-, allied to Lat. toUo, raise (Stokes). 

ludag, the little finger, Ir. lughaddg, 0. Ir. Mta, dat. lutain : 
*lMd&nr, root lud, hid, Eng. little, Ag. S. Iptel, 0, H. G. luzil ; 
root lu, lu, Eng. loss, -less, Gr. Xvo>, etc. 

liidag, l&dan, liidnan, a hinge, ludanan, hinges, Ir. ludrach (FoL), 
ludach, ludann (O'R.) : 

ludair, a slovenly person, ludraig, bespatter with mud, luidir, 
wallow, Ir. ludar (n.), ludair (vb.) ; two words from lod, mud, 
and luid, rag. 

ludhaig, permit, allow ; from the Eng. 'lovdng, allowing. 

lugach, having crooked legs, Idgan, a deformed person, liiigean, 
a weakling : *l&ggo-, root leug, Iv^, bend, Gr. \vyi(w, bend. 
Lit. lugnas, pliant. 

lugh, swear, blaspheme, 0. Ir. luige, oath, W. llw, Br. le : *lugio-n, 
oath, " binding ;" Got. liugan, wed, 0. H. G. urliugi, lawless 
condition, Ag. S. orlege, war. 

lugha, less, Ir. lugha, 0. Ir. lugu, laigiu, positive lau, 14, little, 
W. llai, less, from llei, Br. lei, from lau : * legios, from *legvrs, 
little : Lat. levis ; Gr. eXaxw, little ; Skr. laghd-s, light, Eng. 

luibh, an herb, Ir. luibh, 0. Ir. luib, lubgort, herb-garden, garden, 
W. lluarth, garden, Cor. luvorth, Br. liorz, garden : *lubi-, 


herb; Norse Ipf, herh, Got. Mja-leisei, witchcraft, "herb- 
lore," 0. H. G. Ivppi, poison, magic, Ag. S. Ipb (do.). 

luid, luideag, a rag, a slut, Ir. Ivid : *luddi-, root lu, cut, lose, as 
under lot. 

luidhear, a vent, chimney, louvre; from M. Eng. lowre, lover, 
smoke-hole, 0. Fr. lover. The Norse lj6ri, a louvre or roof- 
opening, is from ijds, light. 

luidse, a clumsy fellow ; from the Sc. lotch, lout, louching, louting. 

liigean, a weak person ; see lugach. 

luigh, lie ; see laigh. 

luighean, an ankle ; of. E. Ir. Ivn, foot, kick, 0. Ir. lue, heel : 

luighe-siiibhladh (laighe-sitbhladh), child-bed, Ir. luidhsiiihhail 
(Fol.), M. Ir. hen siuil, parturient woman. Stokes refers siuil 
to M. Ir. siul, bed, and compares the Eng. phrase to be brought 
Orbed. The G. and Ir. seems against this, for the idea of 
luighe-siiibhladh would then be " bed-lying ;" still worse is it 
when leabaidh-shiiiladh is used. 

luigheachd, requital, reward : *higi-, root, hig, long, as in luach. 

luim, a shift, contrivance : 

luimneach, active (Smith's S. D.) ; cf. luaineach. 

luinneag, a ditty, Ir. luinnioc, chorus, glee, M. Ir. luindiuc, 
/«?Wigr, music-making : *lundo-, root lud, as in laoidh, Eng. lay? 

luinneanach, tossing, floundering, paddling about ; see lann, a 
heaving billow. 

luinnse, luinnsear, a sluggard, lazy vagrant, Ir. lunnsaire, idler, 
watcher ; from Eng. lungis (obsolete), lounger. 

IMreach, a coat of mail, Ir. liiireach, E. Ir. liiirech, W. llurig ; 
from Lat. lortea, from lorum, a thong. Hence Itlireach, a 
patched garment, an untidy female. 

luirist, an untidy person, tall and pithless : 

luman, a covering, great-coat, Ir. lumain. In some dialects it 
also means a " beating," that is, a " dressing." 

Itinasd, Itinasdal, Ifinasdainn, Lammas, first August, Ir. lughnas, 
August, E. Ir. lUgnasad, Lammas-day : "festival of Lug ;" 
from Lug, the sun-god of the Gael, whose name Stokes con- 
nects with Ger. locken, allure, Norse lohka (do.), and also 
Loki{1). E. Ir. nassad, festival (?), is referred by Ehys to the 
same origin as Lat. nexus, and he trauslates Mgnasad as 
" Lug's wedding" (Hib. Lect., 416). 

lunn, a staff, oar-handle, lever ; from Norse hlunnr, launching 
roller. See lonn. Dial. lund. 

lunn, a heaving billow (not broken) ; also lonn. See lonn, anger. 

lunndair, a sluggard ; cf. Fr. lendore, an idle fellow, from M.H.G. 
lentem, go slow, Du. lentern. Br. landar, idle, is borrowed 
from the Fr. 


lunndraig, thump, beat ; from the Sc. Imnder, beat, laundering, a 

lur, delight, lurach, lovely, luran, darling, a male child : *luru-, 

root lu, lav,, enjoy, as in Ion. 
lure, a crease in cloth ; from Sc. lirk, a crease, M. Eng. lerke, wrinkle, 
lurcach, lame in the feet ; see loirc. 
lur dan, cunning, a slyfeUow ; from Sc. lurdane, worthless person, 

M. Eng. lourdaine, lazy rascal, from 0. Fr. lowrdein (n.), lourd, 

dirty, sottish, from Lat. luridum. 
lurg, lurgann, a shank, Ir., E. Ir. lurga, g. lurgan ; cf. W. llorp, 

llorf, shank, shaft, 
lus, an herb, plant, Ir. lus, E. Ir. luss, pi. lossa, W. llysiau, herbs, 

Cor. les, Br. louzaouen : *lunsik-, from *lubsu-, root lub of luibh. 
luspardan, a pigmy, sprite, Martin's Lusbirdan ; from lugh, little 

(see higha), and spiorad. 
liltb, strength, pith, Ir. Mth, E. Ir. I4th ; cf. 0. Ir. lilth, velocity, 

motion, from the root pl&u, plu of luath. Or tluth, from tel ? 


ma, if, Ir. md, 0. Ir. md, ma, Cor., Br. ma (also mar) ; cf. Skr. 
sma; smd, an emphatic enclitic ( = "indeed") used after 
pronouns, etc., the -s»i- which appears in the I. E. pronoun 
forms (Gr. d/xjci£ = jw-sme, us). 

mab, a tassel ; a side-form of pab, q.v. 

mab, abuse, vilify : 

mabach, lisping, stammering ; cf. M. Eng. maflen, Du. mafelen, to 

mac, a son, Ir. mac, 0. Ir., mace, W. mab, 0. W. map. Cor. mab, 
Br. jjiop, mab. Ogam gen. maqvi : *makko-s, *mahvo-s, son, 
root mak, rear, nutrire, W. magu, rear, nurse, Br. maguet ; 
I. E. mak, ability, production ; Gr. jxaKpos, long, ii.a,Kap, 
blessed ; Zend wiapanA, greatness ; Lettic mdzu, can, be 
able. Kluge compares Got. magaths, maid, Ag. S. mcegp, 
Eng. maid, further Got. magvs, boy, Norse mogi", which, 
however, is allied to O. Ir. mv,g (pi. mogi), slave. The Teut. 
words also originally come from a root denoting " might, 
increase," Gr. fi'5x°s, means, Skr. mahas, great. Hence 
macanta, mild : " filial." 

macamh, a youth, generous man, Ir. macamh, macaomh, a youth, 
E. Ir. maccoem ; from mac and caomh. 

mach, a mach, outside (motion to "out"), Ir. amach, E. Ir. 
immach ; from in and magh, a field, mach being its accusative 
after the prep, in, into : "into the field." Again a muigh, 
outside (rest), is for E. Ir. immaig, in with the dat. of magh : 
" in the field." See an, ann and magh. 


machair, a plain, level, arable land, Manx magher, Jr., M. Ir. 
machaire, mocha : *makaijo-, a field ; Lat. mdceria, an 
enclosure (whence W. Tumgwyr, enclosure, Br. moger, wall). 
So Stokes. Usually referred to * magh-tKvr, "plain-land," 
from mobgh and t%r. 

machlag, matrix, uterus, Ir. machldg (O'B., etc.) ; cf. Ger. magen, 
Eng. maw. 

macnas, sport, wantonness, Jr.. macnas (do.), macrcbs, sport, 
festivity ; from mac. 

mactalla, macalla, echo, Ir., M. Ir. macalla ; from mac and 
obsolete all, a cliff, g. aille {* alios), allied to Gr. iriWa, 
stone (Hes.), Norse fjall, hill, Eng. fell. See also fail, 
which is aUied. 

madadh, a dog, mastiff, so Ir., M. Ir. madrad : *maddo-, * mas-do-, 
the mas possibly being for m:at-s, the mMt of which is then the 
same as math- of mxvthghamhuin, q.v. Connection with Eng. 
mastiff, Fr. mMin, 0. Fr. mastiff, from *mmisatinvs, "house- 
dog," would mean borrowing. 

mdidog, madog, a mattock, W. matog ; from M. Eng. mattok, now 
mattock, Ag. S. motive. 

md,dar, madder, Ir. vnadar, the plant madder ; from the Eng. 

madhanta, valiant, dexterous in arms, Ir. madhanta : " over- 
throwing," from the E. Ir. verb maidim, overthrow, break, 
from *mat6, Ch. SI. motyha, ligo, Polish motyka, hoe (Bez.) 

maduinn, morning, Ir. maidin, 0. Ir. matin, mane, maten. ; from 
Lat. matviina, early (day), Eng. matin. 

mdig, a paw, hand ; from the Sc. Ttmig, to handle, maigs, hands, 
mMcgs, seal flippers (Ork. and Shet.). 

magadh, mocking, Ir. magadh, W. modo , from the Eng. mock. 

magaid, a whim ; from Sc. maggai, magget. 

magairle(an), testicle(s), Ir. magairle, magarla, E. Ir. macraille 
(pi.) : * magar-aille, "magar stones j" mngar, and all of 
mactalla : magar = * maggaro-, root mxig, m^g, great, powerful, 
increase ? Cf., however, mx)gvl. 

m^gan, toad; properly mial-mh&gain, "squat beast;" from mag 

magh, a plain, a field, Ir. magh, 0. Ir. Tnag, W. ma, jnaes 
(*magestiir), Cor. mes, Br. matss, Gaul, magos : *magos, images-, 
field, plain, " expanse," from root magh, great, Skr. rrwM, the 
earth, mahas, great ; Gr. /t'ijxos, means, Lat. machina, machine ; 
Got. magan, be able, Eng. may. 

maghar, bait for fish, so Ir., P]. Ir. magar (Corm.), small fry or fish : 

maibean, a cluster, bunch ; see mab. 

maide, a stick, wood, Ir., E. Ir. matan, a club : *maddio-, 
*mMS-do-; Lat. mdhts (^ = *mddus), mast; Eng. mast. 


mdiidhean, delay, slowness : 

mdiidse, a shapeless mass : 

m&idsear, a major ; from the Eng. 

Maigh, May, E. Jr. Mai ; from Lat. Maim, Eng. May. 

m^gean, a child beginning to walk, a fat, little man ; from mag. 

maighdeag, concha veneris, the shell of the escallop fish ; from 

maighdean I 
maighdean, a maiden, so Ir., late M. Ir. maighden (F. M.) ; from 

M. Eng. magden, maiden, Ag. S. maegden, now maiden. 
maigheach, a hare, Ir. miol bhuidhe (for miol mkuighe), E. Ir. mil 

maige, " plain beast ;" from mial and magh. The G. is an 

adj. from magh : '^mageco-, " compestris." 
maighistir, maighstir, master, Ir. maighisdir, M. Ir. magisder, 

W. meistyr, Corn, maister ; from Lat. magiUer, Eng. master. 
mdiileid, a bag, wallet, knapsack, Ir. mdileid, mdilin ; see mAla. 
maille ri, with, Ir. Tnaille re, 0. Ir. immalle, malle ; for imb-an- 

leth, " by the side," mu an leth now. 
mdiille, mail armour ; from the Eng. mail. 
mainisdir, a monastery, so Ir., E. Ir. manister; from Lat. monas- 

mainne, delay, Ir. mainneacMna ; cf. 0. Ir. mendat, residence, 

0. G. mandaidib (dat. pi.), Skr. mandiram, lodging, habi- 
tation ; Lat, mandra, a pen, Gr. jxavhpa (do,). 
jnainnir, a fold, pen, booth, Ir. mainreach, mainneir, M. Ir. 

^aaindir ; Lat. mandra, Gr. fidvSpa, pen, as under mainne, 

K, Meyer takes it from early Fr, maneir, dwelling, Eng, 

mair, last, live, Ir. mairim, 0. Ir. maraim : *mar6 ; Lat. mora 

delay {*mr-). 
md.ireacli, to-morrow, Ir. mdrach, E. Ir. imbdrach, to-morrow, 

iamabdrach, day after to-morrow, W. bore, boreu, morning, 

y /ory to-morrow, M. W. avory, Br. beiire, morning, *bdrego- 

(Stokes, Zimmer) : *mf-ego-, root mfgh, mrgh {mrg ?) ; Got. 

maurgins, morning, da mav/rgina, to-morrow, Eng. morrow, 

Ger. morgen, etc. 
mairg, pity ! Ir. mxiirg, E. Ir. mairg, vae : *margi- ; Gr. fidpyos, 

niad, Lat. morbus (?). Usually referred to *mo-oirc, *mo 

oirg, " my destruction," from org, destroy (See tuargan). 
mairiste, a marriage ; from the Eng. 
md^irneal, a delay, Ir. mairneulachd, tediousness, a sailing : 
mairtir, a martyr, so Ir., E. Ir. martir, W. merthyr ; from Lat. 

martyr, from Gr. jxAprvi, /lapTvpos, a witness. 
maise, beauty, so Ir., E. Ir. maisse, from mass, comely ; root mad, 

Tned, measure, Eng. m^et, Ger. mMSsig, moderate ; further Eng. 

mete, etc. 


maistir, urine, so Ir. ; possibly borrowed, like the following word, 

from Lat. mistura, mixture. Otherwise from *mixori-, root 

migh, metgh, urinate, Lat. mingo, Gr. ofux^o}. Got. maihstus, 

maistreadh, churning, so Ir. ; from Lat. mistura, Eng. mixture. 
maith, math, good, Ir., O. Ir. maith, W. mad, Cor. mas, M. Br. 

mat : *mati^, root mat, met, measure, I. E. me, measure, as 

in meas, q.v. ? Bez. suggests as an alternative Skr. ■dpor-yndti, 

affabilis, Gr. fiark ( = /*£yas, Hes.). 
maith, math, pardon, Ir. mmtheam (n.), E. Ir. mathem, a forgiving, 

W. madden, ignoscere, root mad, " be quiet about," Skr. 

mddati, linger, Tnandas, lingering. Got. ga-m6tan, room ; see 

. mainnir. 
md.1, rent, tax, M. Ir. mdl, W. mxtl, bounty ; from Ag. S. mdl, 

tribute, M. Eng. mat, now m^il, (black-mai7), So. niail. 
m&la, a bag, budget, Ir. mdla ; from the M. Eng. mnle, wallet, 

bag (now mail), from 0. Fr. rnale, from 0. H. G. malha. 
mala, pi. malaichean, eyebrow, Ir. mal,a, 0. Ir. mala, g. malach, 

M. Br. malvenn, eyelash : * malax ; Lit. blalcstenai, eyelashes, 

blakslini, wink, Lettic mala, border, Alban. mxil', hill, border, 
malairt, an exchange, so Ir., M. Ir. malartaigim, I exchange, also 

" destroy" : in E, Ir. and 0. Ir. malairt means " destruction," 

which may be compared to Lat. mains, bad. 
.male, putrefy: *rnalq6', Lit. nvrsmelkiii, decay, Servian mlak, 
. lukewarm (Straobau), 0, H. G, mola{h)win, tabere (Bez.) It 

has also been referred to the root mel, grind, 
mdilda, gentle, Ir. mdlta ; Gr. jxakdaKoi, so^ (see meall), 
■mall,, slow, Jr., 0. Ir. mall (W. mall, want of energy, softness!); 

Gr. niXkm, linger {*melno-) ; Lat. pro-m^llo, litem promovere. 

It has also been referred to the root of Gr. fiakOaKos, soft 

(see meall) and to that of Lat. mollis, soft, Eng. mellow. 
mallachd, a curse, so Ir., 0. Ir. maldacfU, W. mellith, Br. malloc'h ; 

from Lat. maledictio, Eng. malediction. 
m^m, large round hill, Ir. mam, mountain, M. Ir. mamm, breast, 

pap (O'Cl.) : " breast, pap," Lat. mamma, mother, breast, 

Eng. mamvia, etc. Hence mam, an ulcerous swelling of the 

mim, a handful, two handfuls, Ir., M. Ir. mdm, handful, W. 

mawaid, two handfuls : *mdmmA (Stokes), from *manmd, 

allied to Lat. manus, hand ! Cf., however, mag. 
manach, a monk, Ir., E. Ir. manach, W. mynach, Br. manacli ; 

from Lat. monaehus, Eng. monk. Hence manachainn, a 

manaoh, the angel fish : 
manachan, the groin : 


manadh, an omen, luck, E. Ir. mana, omen ; Lat. moneo, warn, 
advise ; Ag. S. manian, warn, exhort. 

manas, the portion of an estate farmed by the owner, a large or 
level farm ; from the Sc. mains, Eng. manor. 

mandrag, mandrake, Ir. mandrdc ; from the Eng. W. mandragar 
is from M. Eng. mandragores, Ag. S. mandragora. 

mang, a fawn, M Ir. mang, E. Ir. mang (Conn.) ; Celtic root mag 
(mang), increase, Eng. maiden, Got. magus, boy (see mac). 

mangan, a bear ; see mathghamhain. 

mannda, manntach, lisping, stammering, Ir. manntajch, toothless, 
stammering, E. Ir. mant, gum, W. mant, jaw, mmitach, tooth- 
less jaw : *mMnds>to-, jaw ; Lat. mandere, eat, m/mdibula, a 
jaw ; further is Eng. meat, Gr. ii.ajj-a.ofi,ai, chew, eat, root mad. 

manran, a tuneful sound, a cooing, humming, Ir. manrdn : 

maodail, a paunch, stomach, Ir. wAadail, maodal, meadhail (Lh.), 
M. Ir. medhal (Ir. GL, 235), mdtail : *mand-to-'i Eoot mad, 
mand, eat, as under mannda 1 

maoidh, grudge, reproach, Ir. maoidhim, grudge, upbraid,, brag, 
E. Ir. mdidim, threaten, boast, O. Ir. m6idem, gloriatio : 
*mmdo- ; root m^id, meid; M. H. G. gemeit, grand, 0. H. G. 
kameit, jactans, stolidus, 0. Sax. gemed, stupid, Got. gamaids, 
bruised. See miadh. 

maoidhean, personal influence, interest; from Sc. moyen (do.), Fr. 
moyen, a mean, means, Eng. means, from Lat. medianus, 
median, middle. 

maoile, brow of a hill ; see maol. 

maoim, terror, onset, eruption, surprise, Tr. mmdhm, a sally, 
eruption, defeat, E. Ir. maidm, a breach or breaking, defeat : 
*matesmen- (Stokes), *m^td, break ; Ch. SI., Pol. motyha, a 
hoe. Some give the root as allied to Skr. math, stir, twirl. 
Lit. mentiiris, whorl. 

maoin, wealth, Ir. maoin, 0. Ir. main : * moini- ; Lat. munus, 
service, duty, gift (Eng. munificence), communis, common ; 
Got. gor-mains, common, Eng. Tnean ; Lit. mainas, exchange. 

maoineas, slowness ; see mdidhean. 

maoirne, a bait for a fishing hook (N.H.), maoirnean, the least 
quantity of anything ; cf. magliar, root mag, grow. 

maois, a large basket, hamper, maois-eisg, five hundred fish, Ir. 
maois, W. mwys, hamper, five score herring. Cor. muis, moys; 
Sc. m^e, five hundred herring, Norse meiss, box, wicker 
basket, meiss sild, barrel-herrings, 0. H. G. meisa, a basket 
for the back ; Lit. maiszas, sack, Ch. SI. mechH. The relation- 
ship, whether of affinity or borrowing, between Celtic and 
Teutonic, is doubtful. The Brittonic might come from Lat. 
mensa, a table, and the Gadelic from the Norse. 



maoiseach, a doe, heifer : 

maol, bald, Ir. maol, 0. Ir. mdel, mail, W. mod, Br. maol : *mailo-s ; 

Lit. mailus, something small, smallness, Ch. SI. melulcu, small ; 

further root mei, lessen (see maoth). The Ir. mug, servant, 

has been suggested as the basis : *mag{w)lo-, servile, " short- 
haired, bald ;" but this, though suitable to the W., would 

give in G. mdl. Cf. Ir. mdl, prince, from *maglo-. Heuce 

maol, brow of a hUl or rock, W. moel, a conical hill, 
maolchair, the space between the eyebrows ; from maol. 
maol-sneimheil, lazy, careless : 
maor, an officer of justice or of estates, Ir. moor, an officer, 0. G. 

moer, mdir (B. of Deer), W. mxner, steward ; from Lat. major, 

whence Eng. mayor. 
maorach, shell-fish, Ir. maorach ; cf. Gr. fjLvpaiva (v long), lamprey, 

cr/jLvpo';, eel. 
, maoth, soft, Ir. maoth, E. Ir. moeth, 0. Ir. moith : * moitirS ; Lat. 

mJUis, mild ; further root mei, lessen (see mXn). 
mar, as, Ir., M. Ir. mar, E. Ir., 0. Ir. immar, quasi : *amhi-are, 

the prepositions imm (now mu) and air ? W. mor, as. Corn., 

Br. mar, is explained by Eruault as unaccented Br. meur, G. 

mbr, big. 
mar ri, M. G. far ri (D. of L.), with, Ir. a bh-farradh, together 

with, tiom. farradh, company, q.v. 
marag, a pudding, M. Ir. mardc, hilla, E. Ir., mar, sausage ; from 

the Norse miirr, dat. morvi, suet, bld'd-morr, black pudding. 
marasga.1, a master, regulator, Ir., M. Ir. marascal, regulator, 

marshal ; from M. -Eng. and 0. Fr. marescal, now marshal. 
inarbh, dead, Ir. marbh, 0. Ir. marh, W. marw. Cor. marow, Br. 

maro, M. Br. marv : *marvo-s, root mr ; Lat. mm'ior, die ; 

Lit. mirti, die ; Gr. fiapaiva, destroy ; Skr. wm?; die. 
marc, a horse, G. and Ir. marcach, a horseman, E. Ir. marc, horse, 

W., Cor., Br. march, Gaul. ix.apKa.-v (ace.) : *marko-s, *markd ; 

0. H. G. marah, mare, meriha, horse, Norse marr, mare, 

Ag. S. mearh, Eng. mare and marshal. 
marg, a merk : from the Eng. mark, Sc. merk, Norse mork, g. 

margadh, a market, so Ir., M. Ir. margad, marcad, E. Ir. marggad, 

from M. Eng. market, from Lat. mercatus. 
marla, marl, Ir. wArla, W. m.arl ; from Eng. marl. The G. has 

the sense of " marble" also, where it confuses this word and 

Eng. marble together. 
marmor, marble, Ir. marmur ; from Lat. marrrwr. A playing 

marble is in the G. dialects marbul, a marble. 
md.rsadh, marching, Ir. marsdil ; from the Eng. 


mart, a cow, Ir. mart, a cow, a beef, E. Ir. mart, a beef ; hence 

Sc. mart, a cow killed for family (winter) use and salted, 

which Jamieson derives from Martinmas, the time at which 

the killing took place The idea of mart is a cow for killing : 

*martd, from root mar, die, of marhh ? 
Mart, March, Ir. Mart, K. ir. mairt, g. marta, W. Mawrth ; from 

Lat. Martins, Eng. March. 
martradh, maiming, laming, Ir. mairtrighim, murder, maim, 

martyi-ise, O. Ir. martre, martyrdom ; from Lat. martyr, a 

martyr, whence Eng. 
mas, the buttock, Ir. mAs, E. Ir. mdss : *mdsto-; Gr. /xijSea, 

genitals, /aoo-tos, /^afos, breast, cod, fiaSdu), lose hair ; Lat. 

madeo, be wet ; root vidd, mad. 
mas, before, ere ; see mus. 
m^san, delay, Ir. masdn (U'B., etc.) : 
masg, mix, infuse ; from the Sc. tnash, Swed. maske, to mash, 

Fries, mask, draff, grains, Eng. m,ash. 
masgul, flattery : 

masladh, disgrace, Ir. masla, masladh, despite, shame, disgrace : 
math, good, Ir. m,ath ; see maith. This is the commonest form in 

G., the only Northern Dialect form, 
math, forgive ; see maith. 
mathaich, manure laud ; from math 2 
m^thair, mother, Ir. mdthair, 0. Ir. mdthir, W. modryh, dame, 

aunt, 0. Br. motrep, aunt: *mdter; Lat. mdter; Gr. fi'^Trjp, 

Dor. fxar-qp (a long) ; Norse mttsir, Eng. mother ; Skr. mdtdr. 
mathghamhuin, a bear, Ir. mathgliamJiuin, E. Ir. mathgaman, 

from math- and gamhainn ; with math, bear (?), cf. W. 

madawg, fox, and possibly the Gaul, names MatVrgenos, 

JIatuus, Teuto-matus, etc. 
meacan, a root, bulb, Ir. meaean, any top-rooted plant, 0. Ir. 

meccun, mecon : * mehhon-, root Tnek, mah of rrmc 1 
meachainn, mercy, an abatement, meachair, soft, tender, 

msachran, hospitable person, Ir. meach, hospitality : 
meadar, a woodeu pail or vessel, Ir. meadar, a hollowed-out 

drinking vessel, churn, M. Ir. metur ; from Lat. metrun, 

measure, metre, meter. 
meadar, verse, metre ; for root, etc., see above word, 
meadhail, joy ; see meadhrach. 
meadh-bhl^th, lake- warm : "mid-warm;" 0. Ir. midr, mid-, root 

med, medh, as in next, 
meadhon, the middle, so Ir., 0. Ir. med6n, im-medon, M. W. ymeun, 

W. mevm, within, Br. y meton, amidst ; cf. for form and root 

Lat. medidnum, the middle, Eng. mean, further Lat. medius, 

middle ; Gr. /^ecros ; Eng. middle ; etc. 


meadhracli, glad, joyous, Ir. meadhair, mirth, meadhrach, joyous, 

E. Ir. Tnedrach : *medro- ; Skr. mad, rejoice, be joyful, mdda, 

meag, whey, It. meadhg, E.Ir.medg, W. maidd {*me&jo-),Gor. 

maith, 0. Br. meid, Gallo.-Lat. mesga, whey, whence Fr. megue : 

*mezgd, whey ; 0. Slav, mozgu, succus, marrow (Thurneysen), 

to which Brugmami adds 0. H. G. marg, marrow (Eng. 

marrow). Lit. mazgoti, wash, Lat. mergo, merge. 
meaghal, barking, mewing, alarm ; see miamhail. 
meal, possess, enjoy, Ir. mealadh (n.), M. Ir. melaim, I enjoy : 

possibly from the root mel, mat, soft, as in mealbJiag. Cf. 

0. Ir. meldach, pleasant, Eng. mild. 
mealasg, flattery, fawning, great rejoicing ; see miolasg. 
mealbhag, com poppy ; cf. Lat. malva, mallow, whence Eng. 

mallow ; Gr. /juiXaxi}, root m/xl, mel, soft, " emollient," Gr. 

/lakaKos, soft, Lat. mulcere. 
mealg, milt of fish; for *fealg = sealg? 
meall, a lump, hill, Ir. meall, lump, knob, heap, E, Ir. mell, Gaul. 

Mello-durmm (?), now Melun : *mello-, from *melno- ; 0. Slav. 

iz-molSti, jut out, protuberate (Bez. with query). 
meall, deceive, entice, Ir. meallaim, M. Ir. mellaim, deceive, E. Ir. 

mell, error : melsd (Stokes), root m,el, mal, bad ; Lat. malus ; 

Lit. mllyti, mistake, melas, lie ; Gr. /aeAcos, useless ; Armen. 

j»eA, peccatum. 
meallan, clach-mheallain, hail, Ir. mealldn (Fol., O'R.); from 

meall, lump? 
meambrana, parchments, Ir. meamrum, 0. Ir. membrum ; from 

Lat. meTTibrana, skin, membrane, from membrum,. 
meamhair, meomhair, memory, Ir. meamhair, 0. Ir. mebuir ; from 

Lat. memoria, Eng. memory. 
meamna, meanmna, spirit, will, Ir. meanma (n.), meanmnach (adj.), 

0. Ir. menme, g. menman, mens ; *m,enmSs, g. menmenos, root 

men, mind, think ; Skr. mAnmMn, mind, thought, manye, 

think ; Lat. m^emini, remember, mens ; Gr. fiefiova, think, 

f.vrjfm, monument ; Eng. mean, mind ; etc. 
mean, meanbh, small, E. Ir. m^nbach, small particle : *mino-, 

*minvo-, root min ; Lat. m,inus, Eng. diminish, Lat. minor, 

minutus, minute ; Gr. fiivvdio, lessen ; Got. mins, less : root 

mi, mei. See mi-. Stokes gives also an alternate root mere, 

Skr. mandk, a little, Lat, mancus, maimed, Lit. menkas, little. 
meanaohair, small cattle, sheep or goats (Dial ) ; for meanbh- 

m^anan, a yawn, Ir. meanfach, E. Ir. mdn-scailim, I yawn, 

" mouth-spread," v/iin, mouth, menogvd, hiatus ; cf. W. min, 

lip, edge, Cor. min, meen, Br. min, snout. Strachan and 


Stokes suggest the stem * mdknd, *mehno-, root mak ; Ag. S. 

maga, stomach, Ger. magen, Eng. ttmw. 
meang, guile, Jr. meang, E. Ir. meng : *mengd; Gr. iiayyavov, 

engine (Eng. mangle), /xayyaveuu, juggle ; Lat. mango, a 

dealer who imposes, 
meang, whey ; Dial, for meag: 
meangan, meanglan, a twig, Ir. meangdn, beangdn . *mengo-, 

Celtic root meg, mag, increase ; see under maiglidean, mac. 
meann, a kid, Ir. meanndn, meann, W. myn. Cor. min, Br. menn : 

*m£ndo-, kid, " suckling ;" Alban. merit, suck ; 0. H. G. 

nianzon, ubera ; perhaps Gr. fia^os, breast (Stokes, Strachan). 

It may be from the root min, small {*minno-), a form which 

suits the W. best. 
meannd, mint ; from the Eng. 
meantairig, venture ; from Eng. venturing. 
mear, merry, Ir. m^ar ; cf. Eng. merry, Ag. S. merge, m/yrige, 

0. H. G. murg, murgi (root mrgh). The E. Ir. mer, mad, is 

alUed to mearachd. 
mearachd, error, Ir. mearaighim, I err, mearuglvadh, a mistaking, 

erring, M. Ir. merugud, wandering, root merj mr ; Gr. 

a/jiapTavw, miss (see Irrath) ; Eng. mar, (lot. marzian, cause to 

stumble. Cf. E. Ir. mer, mad, meracM, mad act, 0. Ir. 

meraige, a fool, 0. Br. mergidhaam, I am silly, which Loth 

joins to Gr. fidpyo^, mad. 
mearcach, rash ; from the root of m^ar. 
mearganta, brisk, lively, meargadaich, be impatient (Suth.), Ir. 

mearganta, brisk ; from mear. 
m^arsadh, marching ; see marsadk. 
mearsuinn, vigour, strength ; cf. marsainn, abiding, from mar, 

meas, fruit, Ir. meas, fruit, especially acorns, measog, acorn, E. Ir. 

m^ss, fruit, W. vies, acorns. Cor. mesen, glans, Br. mesenn, 

acorn : *7nessu-, root med, mad, oat (see manntach), and, for 

force, cf. Eng. mast, fruit of forest trees, Ag. S. maest, fruit 

of oak or beech, Ger. mast. 
meas, judgment, opinion, respect, Ir. meas, 0. Ir. mess, *messu-, 

root med ; Lat. meditari, think, modus, method ; Gr. /xeSojuat, 

think of ; Got. mitan, measure, Eng. mete : further root m£, 

measure, Eng. metrr, meter, etc. 
measan, a lapdog, Ir. measdn, E. Ir. mesan, meschu : 
measair, a tub, measure ; see miosar. 
measarra, temperate, modest, Ir. measarrd/ia, 0. Ir. mesurda : 

"measured;" probably borrowed from the hsit. mensuratus, 

mensura (Stokes). But it may be from meas, judgment. 


measg, am measg, among, Ir. ineasg, a measg, among, W. t/m mysg, 

M. Br. e mesg : * med-slco-, root med, medh, as in meadhon, 

measg, measgach, mix, Ir. measgaim, E. Ir. mescaim, W. mysgu ; 

*misM, *mig-sh6, root mig, mik ; Gr. fiiyvo/jbc, fj-ia-yw ; Lat. 

misceo ; Eng, mix, Ger. mischen ; Lit. maiszfiti ; Skr. miksh. 
measgan, a dish to hold hutter, Ir. mlosgan ; see miosgan. But 

cf. E. Ir. mescan, a lump of butter, M. Ir. mesgan, massa ; 

from measg, mix ? 
meat, feeble, soft, cowardly, Ir. mea.ta, E. Tr. m^ta, cowardly : 

'''mit-tavo- ; see meath. W. has meth, failure, 
meath, faU, fade, become weak, dishearten, Ir. meathaim, fail, 

droop, soften, E. Ir. m^th, failure, decay : * mitO, root mit, the 

short form of root m^it, moit (see maotli). 
meidh, a balance, Ir. meadh, 0. Ir. med, d. rtuid : *medd, root 

med, mete ; Lat. modius, a peck : Gr. [jteSifxvos, a measure 

(6 modii); Eng. mete. See meas further. 
meidhinnean, meigean, hip-joints : 
meigead, the bleating of a goat or kid, Ir. meiqiodaigh ; Gr. 

jttijKao/iai, bleat, /iij/cas, she-goat, " bleater ;" Ger. meelcem, 

bleat ; Skr. makakas, bleating ; root mek, mek, mak, an 

onomatopoetic syllable. 
mMl, bleat, Ir. meidhlighim, M.Ir. meglim, I bleat, rn^giU, bleating; 

Ger. meckern : see meigead. G. is for *megli- or *mekli. 
meil, bail, grind, Ir. meilim, 0. Ir. melim, W. m^lu, Br. malaff: 

*meld ; Lat. molo ; Gr. fivkkm ; 0. H. G. mala.n, grind, Eng. 

meaZ, mill ; Lit. mAlti, molo. Hence meildreach, meiltir, a 

quantity of' com sent to grind, meiltear, miller; 
meile, the thick stick by which the quern is turned, a quern, Ir. 

waVe, hand-mill : "grinder;" horn meil 'i 
meilearach, long sea-side grass ; from Norse melr, bent, 
meilich, become chill with cold, be benumbed ; from the root met, 

crush, grind. See meil. 
meiligeag, pea-pod, husk of peas, etc. : 
meill, the cheek, Ir. meill ; G. m6ill, blubber-lip (M'L., M'E.), 

m6illeach, beilleach, blubber-lipped (meilleaeh, H.S.D.) ; see 

m^illeag, beilleag, outer rind of bark : 
mMn, meinn, ore, mine, Ir. mein, mianach, E. Ir. mianach, W. 

m,wyn: *meini-, meinni-, root mci, stoct', smi; 0. SI. m^di, 

aes ; O. H. G. smtda, metal, Eng. smith (Schriider). 
mein, meinn, disposition, Ir. m^in : " metal, mettle ;" seemingly a 

metaphoric use of the foregoing word. A root m^in, mind, 

mean, appears to exist in Eng. mean, Ger. m^inen ; cf . W. 

myn, mind- Thurneysen compares Eng. mien, 


meineil, flexible, sappy, substantial ; from m^in, ore : " gritty" ? 

meirbll, spiritless, delicate, so Ir., E. Ir. meirh, W. merw : *mervi-; 
O. H. G. maro, soft, mellow, Ger. milrhe, Ag. S. mearo, Norse 
inerja, crush ; Gr. frnpalvta, destroy, fmpvaf]i,ai, fight ; Lat. 
martus, hammer, " crusher ;" etc. See marhh from the same 
root \iltimately {mer, mar). Hence meirbh, digest. 

meirean nam magh, agrimony, Ir. meirln na magh (O'B., meirin, 
_ Con.): 

meirg, rust, Ir. meirg, 0. Ir. Tneirg, meirc, Br. mergl : * mergi-, 
"red, dark;" Eng. m/urk, Ag. S. miree, Norse myrhr (cf. G. 
dearg and Eng. dark). Emault compares Gr. fidpyos, sense- 
less ; and it has been joined to 0. W. mergid, debilitas, 0. Br. 
mergidhekan, evanesco, root mar, mer, fade, die. 

meirghe, a banner, Ir. meirge, E. Ir. mergge; from the Norse 
merki, a banner, mark, Eng. mark (Zimmer). 

meirle, theft, meirleach, thief, Ir. meirleach, E. Ir. merle, theft, 
merlech, thief ; root mer, mra (as in bradach) ; see Tnearaclid. 
Stokes compares Gr, dfieipo), deprive ; but this is likely 
n-p-tpjui, privative w. or a and root raer {p^ipoi, share). 

meirneal, a kind of hawk ; from the Eng. merlin. 

meiteal, metal, Ir. miotal ; from the Eng. metal, Lat. metallum. 

meith, fat, sappy, Ir. meith, meath, 0. Ir. rrteth, W. mwydo, soften : 

* meito- ; the e grade of the root seen in * moiti- (in maoth, 
q.v.), the root being mit, meit, moit (meath, meith, maoth). 

meoraich, meditate, remember, Ir. mdamhruighim ; from Lat. 

memoria. See meamhair, also spelt meomhair, with the 

verb meomhairlch = medraich. 
meud, miad, size, Ir. meid, mead, W. mami. Cor. myns, Br. merit : 

* mnti-, merit, " measure," a nasalised form of the root met, 
measure, Lat. mensus, having measured, metior (vb.), Gr. 
jxkrpov, measure ; etc Bez. queries its alliance only with 
Norse munr, importance. Usually referred to the root mag, 
meg (* maganti-), great, or to that of minig, q.v. 

meur, miar, a finger, Ir. meur, 0. Ir. mer. Strachan suggests the 
stem *makro-, root mak, great, mighty, Gr. juaK/aos, long, 
Lat. maeer, lean, maete, good luck, Zend mar^, great. Brug- 
mann has compared it to Gr. /toK/otova (Hes.), shai^ (Lat. 

mhain, a mhain, only, Ir. amhdin, E. Ir. amdin. It has been 
divided into a prefix and root form : a-mdin, the latter being 
parallel to Dor. Gr. /iui/os, Gr. fiovos, alone. Cf. 0. Ir. nammd, 
tantum, " ut non sit magis" {na-ti-md, Zeuss). 

mi, I, Ir., O. Ir. m^, W. mi. Cor. my, me, Br. me : *me, *me; Lat. 
me; Gr. fie; Eng. me; Skr. md. 


mi-, un-, mis-, Ir., 0. Ir. mi-, root mi, mei, mi, lessen ; Gr. fxumv, 
less ; Lat. minus, less ; Eng. mis-. Got. missa^ (*mifito-). See 
maoth, rmn. Stokes makes mi- a comparative like /ietW, 
and rejects the Teutonic words. 

miadan, miadar, miad, a meadow, mead ; from the Eng. Tneadow. 

miadh, respect, esteem, so Ir., 0. Ir. miad, fastus, dignity, O. Br. 
miwet, fastu : *m£ido-, fame ; O. H. G. kameit, jactans, 
stolidus, M. H, G. gemeit, bold, 0. Sax. gemed, haughty (Bez.) 

mial, louse, animal, Ir. miol, animal, whale, louse, E. Ir. mil, W. 
mil, beast, Cor., Br. mil: *m£lo-n,, animal : Gr. ^iJqXov, sheep; 
Norse smali, sheep, Eng. small. Hence G. mial-chu, grey- 
hound, W. milgi. Cor. mylgy. 

mialta, pleasant (H.S.I).), 0. Ir. Tneld, wMltach, pleasant ; Eng. 
m.ild; Gr. ixakdaKos, soft. See jnalda. 

miamhail, mewing (of cat), Ir. miamhaoil ; Eng. m,ewl, from 
0. Fr., Fr. miauler : an onomatopoetic word. 

miann, desire, Ir. mian, 0. Ir. mian: *meino-; Eng. mean, Ger. 
m^inen, to mean ; 0. Slov. menji^ (do.) Cf. W. myn, desire, 
Br. menna, to wish, which may be from the short form min 
beside wieiw. (Otherwise Loth in Voc. Viewx-Br., 145). 

mias, a dish, Ir. mias, a dish, mess, platter, E. Ir. mias; from 
L. Lat. m^sa, mensa, a table, whence Ag. S. myse, table. Got. 
mes, table, dish. 

mil, honey, Ir. mil, 0. Ir. mil, g. Tnela, W. mil. Cor., Br. mU : 
*meli-; Lat. mel ; Gr. fieA-t, ; Got. Tnilip ; Arm. m^Xr. 

mile, a thousand, a mile, Ir. mile, 0. Ir. mile, a thousand, W., 
Br. mil. Cor. myl, my II ; Lat. mMe (whence Eng. mile), m,ille. 
The Celtic words are borrowed doubtless. 

mileag, a melon ; from the Eng. 

milidh, a champion, Ir. mileadh, milidh (O'B.), E. Ir. milid; from 
Lat. miles, militis, soldier. 

mills, sweet, Ir., 0. Ir. milis, W. m^lys : *melissi- ; from mil. 

mill, destroy, Ir., 0. Ir. millim : *mel-ni-, root wieZe, fail, miss ; 
Lit. mUyti, fail ; Gr. /AtAeos, useless, wretched, dfi,p\CarKto, 
cause miscarriage. The root of Eng. Tnelt (^meld, Gr. 
d/taA.8wo), destroy) has been suggested, the meZ of which is 
the same as above. It may be root mel, crush, mill. 

millteach, mountain grass, good grass ; Norse melr, bent grass. 

min, meal, Ir., g. mine, 0. Ir. men : *mind, root min, lessen. 
Strachan suggests two derivations ; either allied to (1) Lit. 
mlnti, tread, Ch. Slav. m§ti, crush, Gr. /jLario), tread on, from 
root men, tread, or from (2) *m^csn, root m^q, menq, grind, 
Ch. Slav, w^ka, meal, Gr. fMra-m, knead. But mexn- would 
give G. menn. 


min, soft, delicate, Ir., E. Ir. min, W. mwyn, gentle, Cor. muin, 

gracilis, Br. moan, fine : *mino-, meino-, root mei, lessen ; Gr. 

fidiav, less, fxivvdu), lessen ; Lat. miruyr, less, minuter. Hence 

minich, explain. Stokes has apparently two derivations for 

mW— the one above and *'niino-, allied to Gr. ;u.avds (a long), 

minidh, an awl, Ir. meanadh, E. Ir. menad, W. mynaioyd, Br. 

■minaotied, M. Br. menauet : * minaveto- ; Gr. a-fiivvr), mattock, 

crp.ihr] (l long), chisel. 
minicionn, kid's skin ; from meann and *cionn (see hoicionn). 
minig, minic, often, Ir. minic, 0. Ir. menicc, W. mynycli. Cor. 

menough : *me7iekki-s ; Got. manags, many, Ger. manch, Eng. 

ministear, a minister, Ir. ministir ; from Lat. minister, servant, 

whence Eng. minister. 
miodal, flattery, Ir. miodal : 
miodhoir, a churl, niggard one ; see mikghair. 
miog, miog (H.S.D.), a smile, sly look, Ir. miog : * smincu-, root 

smi, smile, Eng. smile, Gr. fieiSaw, Skr. smayate, laughs. 
miolaran, low barking or whining of a fawning dog : see next 

miolasg, flattery, fawning (as a dog), keen desire ; from the root 

smi, smile 1 See mhog. 
mion, small, so Ir. ; root min, Lat. minor, etc. Also mean, 

meanhh, q.v. 
mionach, bowels, so Ir., E. Ir. m^nach ; cf. W. monoch. 
mionaid, a minute ; from the Eng. 
mionn, an oath, Ir. rnionn, g. m,ionna., E. Ir. mind, oath, diadem ; 

the mmd was the " swearing reliques" of a saint, 0. Ir. mind, 

a diadem, insignia, 0. W. minn, sertum : *menni-; cf. 

0. H. G, m,enni, neck ornament, Ag. S. m^ne, neck chain, Lat. 

monile. See muineal further. Stokes gives the stem as 

*mindi-, but no etymology, 
mlontan, a titmouse, Ir. miontdn ; from mion, small, *minu-, Lat. 

minor, etc., as under mm. 
miorbhuil, a miracle, Ir. miorbhuil, E. Ir. mirbail ; from Lat. 

mirahile, Eng. m.arvel. 
mlortal, myrtal, Ir. miortal (Fol.) ; from the English. W. has 

myrtwydd, myrtle trees. 
mios, a month, Ir. mi, mios, g. miosa, 0. Ir. mi, g. mis, W. mis. 

Cor. mis, Br. mis, miz : *m£ns, g. *m6nsos; Lat. mensis ; Gr. 

ivr'jv ; Skr. mds ; further Eng. month. 
mios, miosa, worse, Ir. measa, 0. Ir. messa : *miss6s ; Got., 

0. H. G. missa-, mis-, Eng. mis-, miss. See mi-. 



miosach, fairy flax, purging flax, Ir. miesach: "monthly;" from 

■mhos, "from a medicinal virtue it was supposed to possess" 

miosar, a measure (as of meal), Ir. miosiir ■ from the Lat. mensv/ra, 

Eng. measure. 
miosgan, butter kit, Ir. miosgdn ; from mias, a dish. 
miosguinn, envy, malice, Ir. mioscuis (mioscuis, Con.), E. Ir. miscen, 

hate, 0. Ir. miscuis ; Gr. /x«ros ( = mltsos) ; Lat. miser, 

■wretched ( = mit-s-ro-s) ; root mit, mi. 
miotag, a mitten, Ir. miotdg, mitin, mittens ; from Eng. mitten, 

0. Fr. mitaine. 

mil, a bit, piece, Ir., 0. Ir. mir, pi. mirenn : *mSsren^, piece of 
flesh ; Skr. mdmsd, flesh ; Got. mimz (do.) ; Lit. mesa, flesh 
(Stokes, Thur., Brug.). Allied also is Lat. membrum, member ; 

1. E. memso-m, flesh. 

mire, pastime, Ir. mire, sport, madness, M. Ir. mire, madness ; see 

mirr, myrrh, Ir. miorr, E. Ir. mirr, W. mt/r ; from Lat. myrrha, 

Eng. myrrh. 
misd, the worse for, Ir. misde, meisde, M. Ir. meste, E. Ir. mesai- 

die = messa-de, "worse of ;" from mios and de, of. 
misg, drunkenness, Ir. meisge, misge, E. Ir. mesce, 0. Ir. mescc, 

drunk : *mesko-, *meihjA, from *med-sko-, also E. Ir. mid, g. 

meda, mead, W. medd, hydromel, 0. Cor. m,ed, sicera, Br. met, 

hydromel : * mediir- ; Gr. fieOv, wine ; Eng. m^ad ; Ch. Slav. 

medu, honey, wine ; Skr. mddhu, sweet, sweet drink, honey, 
misimean-dearg, bog-mint, Ir. misimin dearg : 
mlslean, a mountain grass, sweet meadow grass (Cameron) ; for 

milsean, from milis, sweet ; cf. Ir. milsean mara, a sort of 

misneach, misneachd, courage, Ir. meisneach, M. Ir. mesnech : 

*med-s-, root med of meas : " think, hope." 
mistear, a cunning, designing person ; from misd. 
mith, an obscure or humble person ; from the root mi, mei as in 

mi-, miosa. 
mithear, weak, crazy, Ir. mithfir, weak ; see mith. 
mithich, proper time, tempestivus, Ir. mithid, 0. Ir. mithich, 

tempestivus : *meti-, Lat. maturus, Eng. mature. 
mithlean, sport, playfulness : 

mitighair, niggardly; from mi andj?M or fiic-mhort cf. miodhoir. 
mnathan, wives, Ir., E. Ir. mnd, wives : *bnds ; see bean. 
mo, my, 0. Ir. mo, mu, W. fy, M. W. my (from inyn). Corn., Br. 

ma (which aspirates) : *mou, *movo: formed on the analogy 

of do, du, from the pronominal root me (see mi). W. myn or 

my n- is allied to Zend mana, Lith. mane (for me-n^, Ch. 

Slav, mene. 


md, greater, Ir. m6, 0. Ir. mda, mdo, mda, m6o, m6, W. mwy, 
0. W. mui, Corn, moy, Br. mui : *mdj6s ; Lat. mdjor, greater 
(Eng. Tnajor) ; Got. mais, more (adv.), maiza, greater, Eng. 
more : root md of Trwr q.v. 

mobainu, maltreating, handling roughly ; see moibean. 

moch, early, Ir. mach, early, O. Ir. moch, mane : *moq- ; also 0. Ir. 
mos, soon, W. moch, early, ready. Corn, meugh: *mx)qsu; 
Lat. mox, soon ; Zend, moshu, Skr. makshu, soon ; also Gr. 
iM^, idly, rashly. See mws. Hence mocheirigh, early rising, 
mochthrath, early morning, M. Ir. mochthrath, 0. Ir. nwch- 
tratae, matutinus. 

mochd, move, yield (Oss. Ballads) ; cf. M. Ir. mocht, gentle, weak, 
W. mwytho, soften, pamper, Eng. w^ek, Norse mjuhr, soft, 

Ji^, a court, trial, meeting ; from the Norse mJbt, meeting, town- 
meeting, court of law, Ag. S. tnot, gemot, Eng. m,oot, meet. 

modh, manner, Ir. modh, 0. Ir. mx)d, W. modd ; from Lat. modus. 
Hence modh, respect, E. Ir. mxid; cf. Eng. manners for sense. 

modhan, th« sound of a bagpipe or other musical instrument 
(H.S.D., also moghun) : 

mddhar, soft, gentle (modhar, M'A.) ; from modh. 

mog, clumsy hand or foot ; see mag, smog. 

mogach, shaggy, hairy : 

mogan, a footless stocking ; from the Sc. moggan, moggans. 

mogul, a husk, mesh (of a net), Ir. mogal, cluster, mesh of a net, 
husk, apple of the eye, E. Ir. mocoll (do.), 0. Ir. mocol, subtel: 
*mozgvr, I. E., mozgho, knot, mesh; Lit. mdzgas, knot, mesh ; 
0. H. G., mascd, Ger. masche, Eng. mesh ; Gr. juocrxos, sprout, 
calf. Lat. macula, a mesh, is not allied. Dialect G. 
mugairle, bunch of nuts (Glenmoriston). 

mogur, bulky, clumsy : 

moibean, moibeal, a mop, broom, Ir. moipal ; from Eng. mop. 

moibleadh, a gnawing, half -chewing : "making a mop of ;" from 

mdid, a vow, Ir. moid, M. Ir. m6it, E. Ir. moit (Corm.) : *monti-, 
W. gofuno, to vow, 0. Br. guomordan, polliceri, which Bugge 
and Stokes connect with W. m,un, hand (cf. Ag. S. mund, 
Lat. manus). But see bdid. 

moid, the greater, Ir. moide, more, M. Ir. mdti : *md + de. Cf. 

moighre, robust, handsome : 

moil, matted hair ; see molach {*ml-). 

moilean, a fat, plump child ; cf. Ir. moil, molan, a heap. To this 
Lat. mdles may be compared. 

22g Etymological bici'iONARY 

m6in, moine, peat, moss, Ir. moin, g. m6na, E. Ir. mbin, pi. mdinte, 
W. mqwn, peat, turf: *mdn-; Lat. mdno, flow, Eng. emanate. 
Straclian takes it from *moini-, root mok, mah, Ch. Slav. 
mohru, wet, Lit. makone, puddle ; Stokes agrees, giving Celtic 
as *mdkni^, mdkni-. It is doubtful if W. k would disappear 
before n (cf. deur). W. has also a form migen, mign, a bog. 

moineis, false delicacy (M'A.), moinig, vanity, boasting; f rom _ 
root mon, Tnen, mind ? 

moirear, a lord, 0. G. mormmr (Book of Deer), M. G. morbhair. 
(M'V.), M. Ir. mormhaer (Muireach Albanach), murmor 
(M'Firbis) ; from 7n6r and rnaor, "great steward." 

moirneas, great cascade, streams (Oss. Ballads) ; from m6r and eas ? 

moit, pride, sulkiness, Ir. moiteamhuil, sulky, nice, pettish (Con., 
O'R, M'F.) ; cf. E. Ir. mochtae, magniiied, *mog-tio-s, root 
mog, mag, great. 

mol, praise, advise, Ir. molaim, 0. Ir. moHd, laudat, W. moli, 
mawl, laus, Br. meuli: *mol6, *ndl6, "magnify;" root moL, 
mel, be strong ; Gr. /taAa, very ; Lat. melior, better ; Lit. 
milns, very many, Ch. Slav, iz-moleti, eminere (Stokes). 
Windisch has compared it to Ch. SI. moliti, ask. Lit. myleti, 
love, Gr. fikXe., friend, [idXixos, gentle. 

mol, mal, a shingly beach ; from Norse mol, g. malar, pebbles, 
bed of pebbles on the beach ; root mel, grind. 

molach, hairy, rough, Ir. mothlach, rough, bushy (O'R.), muthalach, 
shaggy (FoL). If the Irish form is right, it cannot be allied 
to I. E. mlo-s, wool, Gr. fiaAAds, wool, tuft, Lit. millas, woollen 

moll, chaff, Ir. m/ill (O'E.), W. mwl ; *muldo- ; Eng. mould. Got. 
mulda, dust, 0. H. G. molt, dust, mould ; root mel, grind. 

mollachd, a curse ; the Northern form of mallachd, q.v. 

m611tair, a mould ; from Eng. moulter, mould. 

monadh, a mountain, range, W. mynydd, mons. Cor. menit, m,eneth, 
0. Br. -monid, M. Br. menez, mountain : *monijo-, *menijo-, 
root men, eminere, Eng. eminent. Cf. Welsh Inscription 
Monedorigi, " mountain-king ;" also middle G. name of St 
Andrews — Big-monatk (Chronicles). The Ir. monadh appears 
only in Lh. ; O'Br. gives monadh. The G. word may have 
been borrowed from the Picts along with the place-names in 
which it appears. 

monais, slowness, negligence ; root vien, stay, Gr. fi.kvix>. 

monar, a diminutive person or thing, monaran, a mote ; see munar. 

monasg, chaff, dross ; from the root of the above. 

monmhuT, monag'har, a murmuring noise, Ir. monmkar, monhhar, 
murmuring, mxmghair, monghar, roaring : * mon-mur ; cf . 
Lat. mwrmur. 


in6r, great, Ir. mbr, 0. Ir. unhr, mar, W. mawr, 0. W., Cor. maur, 
Br. imewr, Gaul, -m&ro-s ; Gr. -fiiopos, great, famed (iyxta-i- 
/itu/jos, in spear-throw great : Got. -mSrs, famed, mSrian, 
proclaim, 0. H. G. mdri, famed, -mar in Germanic names, 
Ger. marchen, a tale, Norse mcerr, famous ; Slav, -meru 
{Vladimir, etc.); Lat. merus, Eng. mere. A shorter form of 
the stem {*mdro-) appears in mb, greater l*md-), q.v. 

morbhach, land liable to sea flooding, Ir. mwrhhaah, M. Ir. 
murmhagh ; from muir and magk. Hence the locative 
A' Mhor'oioh, the G. name of Lovat. 

morghath, a fishing spear : " sea-spear," from muir and gath 1 

mornan, a small timber dish, Ir. m6man : 

mort, murder, Ir. mort, M. Ir. martad, slaughtering ; from Lat. 
mort- of mors, mortis, death. 

mortar, mortar, Ir, mortaoil ; from the Eng. 

mosach, nasty, dirty ; see musach. 

mosgail, waken, arouse, Ir. miXsguilim, mUsglaim, M. Ir. romuscaiL, 
he awoke, musclait, they wake : *imw^od-sc-al, root sec of 

mosradh, coarse dalliance, mosraiche, smtittiness ; from mos with 
suffix radh. See musach for root. 

mothaich, perceive, Ir. mothuighim, M. Ir. mothaigim, perceive, 
0. Ir. mothaigid, stupeat (?) ; root mot, met, Lit. mMyti, see, 
Lettic matit, perceive, Ch. Slav, motriti, spectaie, Gr. [mTevio, 

mothar, loud noise, swelling of the sea : 

mu, about, Ir. um, im, 0. Ir. im,b, im.7n-, W. am. Cor., Br. am,-, em-, 
Gaul, ambi : * amhi, *mbi ; Lat. ambi- ; Gr. d/x<^i ; Ag. S. ymb. 

muc, a pig, Ir. muc, 0. Ir. mucc, W. moch, pigs, Br. moc'h, pigs : 
*mukkv^ ; Lat. mucvs, mucous, mucus ; Gr. [i-v^a, phlegm, 
aTTOftiJo-o-cu, wipe the nose, ixvKTrjp, nose ; Skr. muncdti, let 

mucag, a hip or hep, fruit; of the dog-rose, M. Ir. mucora ; from 
mue above. Cf. Gr. [ivkyis, a mushroom, from the same root. 

much, smother, press down, Ir., 0. Ir. miichaim, also E. Ir. viuch, 
smoke, W. mwg, smoke, Cor. moh, megi, stifle, Br. mik, sufib- 
cation, miga, be sufibcated, moguet, smoke: *muko-, root 
smak, smug {smUgh, smaugh), Eng. sm,oke, Gr. a-jutvx'") 
smoulder {v long). Stokes suggests old borrowing from the 
Ag. S. Hence muchan, a vent or chimney, Ir. miichdn (O'B.). 

mudan, a covering, covering for a gun : 

mugha, destruction, decay, Ir. m4gha, a perishing, straying, M. Ir. 
mugud, slaying, mogaim, I slay : 

mugharn, ankle, so Ir. ; cf. W. migwrn, ankle, joint, Br. migorn, 
cartilage, which Stokes compares to Lat. mucro, point. 


muidhe, a churn, E. Ir. muide, a vessel, huide, a churn, W. huddai, 

churn. Stokes compares buide and huddai to Gr. ■n-tdos, jar, 

Lat. fidelia, pot, which is related to Eng. body. The form 

mmdhe has been compared to Lat. modius, a peck, Fr. muid, 

muidse, a mutoh ; from the Sc. mutch, Ger. miitze. 
mtig, miig, cloudiness, gloom, surliness, Ir. muic/ : *mwnM-, root 

muk, smoke, as in miich ? Or *muggi-, allied to Eng. muggy 1 
muigh, a muigh, outside ; see Tnach. 
muilceann, fell-wort, Ir. muilcJiearm : 
muileach, dear, beloved : *molico-, from mol, praise ? 
muileag, a cranberry : 
muileann, a mill, so Ir., 0. Ir. mulenn, muilend, W., Corn., Br. 

melin ; from Lat. molina, a mill, molo, grind (see meil). 

G. muillear, miller, E. Ir. muilledir, is ior * muilnedir. 
mulled, a mule, Ir. miiille ; from Lat. mulus. 
muillean, a husk, particle of chaff ; from moll. 
muillean, a truss (of hay or straw) ; cf. Sc. mvllio (Orkney), and 

see under wmI, heap. 
mullion, a million, Ir. millivtn ; from the L. Lat. millionem, coined 

from mille, a thousand. 
muilteag^, a certain small red berry (Dial., H.S.D.). See muileag. 
muime, a step-mother, nurse, Ir. huime, muime, a nurse, E. Ir. 

mumme, nurse, stepmother: *mud-s-mjd, nurse, " stickler," 

root mild, suck ; Lat. mulier, woman ; Gr. [J^v^o), suck, jutjSos, 

damp ; Lit. mdudyti, bath. It has also been paralleled to 

Lat. m/imma, Ger. muhme, mother's sister, stepmother. 
muin, teach, instruct, Ir. muinim, 0. Ir. mimim : 
muin, the back, Ir. muin, E. Ir. muin, back, neck, W. mwn, neck : 

*moni-, neck; Skr. mdnyd, neck; 'Ld.t. monile, necklace; 

0. H. G. menni, neck ornaments, Ag. S. mene, neck-chain ; 

Ch. Slav, monisto, necklace. See muineal, muing. Gaulish 

had also fiavidK-q^, collar or torque. 
mtlin, micturate, Ir. miin, urine, E. Ir. miin, root meu, mH, befoul ; 

Skr. m4ira, urine ; possibly also Lat. muto, mutto, penis, 

E. Ir. moth, ball ferda. 
muineal, the neck, Ir. muineul, E. Ir. muinel, W. mwnwgl : 

*moniklo-; from *mon.i- of muin, back, q.v. 
muing, a mane, Ir. muing, O. Ir. mong, W. myng (m.), M. Br. We, 

Br. moue : *mongd, *mongo-, root mon of muin, back, q.v. 

Further is Eng. mane, Norse mow, Ger. mMhne; Swed. and 

Dan. manhe is especially close to Gaelic. 
muisiichill, a sleeve, Ir. muinichille, muinckille, E. Ir. munchille ; 
■ from Lat. manicula, manica, long sleeve, from manus, hand. 


muinighin, confidence, trust, so Ir., E. Ir. muinigin; from *moni- 

love, desire, Norse munr, love, 0. Sax. munilik, lovable ; root 

men, think (Lat. mews, Eng. mind, etc.). 
muinnte, munnda, beauteous ; of. Lat. m,wndus. 
muinntlr, household, people, Ir. muinntir, 0. Ir. muinter, mimtar. 

This is regarded by Stokes, Zimmer, and Giiterbock as an 

early borrowing from the Lat. monasterium, monastery ; the 

"word familia is often applied to monasteries by Irish writers. 
muir, the sea, Ir. m,uir, 0. Ir. muir, gen. m,ora, W. Tndr, Cor., 

Br. mor, Gaul, mori- : *mori-, sea; Lat. mare; Eng. mere, 

Ger. meer ; Ch. Slav, morje. 
mtiire, leprosy ; from mur, a countless number, q.v. 
muirgheadh, a fishing spear ; see morgliath. 
muirichinn, children, family : *mori-, care, charge, root mer, 

smer, remember ; Lat. memoria, memory ; Gr. fiepifiva, care ; 

Skr. smarati, think, mind. 
muirn, joy, affection, Ir. miiim, miiirnin, darling (Eng. mavoumeen, 

my darling), M. Ir. muirn, muirn : *morni-, root m/yr, mer, 

smer, as in muirichinn above. 
mtiiseag, a threat, muiseag (Arm.) ; from mus of musach. 
muisean, a mean, sordid fellow ; see musach for tlie root, 
muisean, a primrose, Ir. miiisedn (O'B.) : 
muiseal, a muzzle, Ir. muisiall ; from the Eng. 
miiisginn, an English pint, mutchkiu ; from the Sc. mutchhin, 

Dutch mutsje, an eighth part of a bottle. 
mill, a conical heap, mound, Ir. mul, moil, E. Ir. mul-, eminence : 

*mulu- ; cf. Norse mMi, jutting crag, " mull," Ger. maul, 

snout. Cf. Fr. mulon, little heap of dried grass. 
mill, axle, Ir. mul, mol, E. Ir. mx)l, shaft ; cf. Gr. jueXny, ash, spear. 
mulachag, a cheese, Jr., M. Ir. mulchdn : 
mulad, sadness ; root mu, mutter ? 

mulart, dwarf elder, Ir. mulahhurd, mxtlabhur, mulart (O.B.) : 
mule, push, butt ; cf. Lat. mulceo, mulco, stroke, beat. 
muUach, the top, Ir., 0. Ir. mullach : *mulddko-, *muldo-, top, 

head ; Ag. S. molda, crown of the head ; Skr. mArdMn, top, 

mult, a wedder, Jr., 0. Ir. molt, W. mollt, Coi\ mols, vervex, Br. 

ma/mt, a sheep (mas.) : *molto-, root mel, mol, crush, grind, 

" mutilate ;" Euss. moliti, cut, exit up, 0. H. G. muljan, 

triturate. Hence M. Lat. multo, whence Fr. mouton, a sheep, 

Eng. mutton. 
munar, a trifle, a trifling person, monar, diminutive person or 

thing : 
munganachd, bullying : 
jntinloch, a puddle, Ir. miinloch, gen. miinlocha ; from miln and loch. 


mur, unless, Ir. muna, M. Ir. m/an, moni, mona, E. Ir., 0. Ir. Tuani ; 

from ma, if, aud ni, not : " if not." The G. r for n is possibly 

due to the influence of gur and of the verbal particle ro- (in 

robh) ; mun-rohh becoming Tuiur-robh. 

mdr, a wall, bulwark, palace, Ir., E. Ir. miir, W. mur ; from 

Lat. mUrus, a wall. 
mdr, countless number (as of insects), E. Ir. miir, abundance ; Gr. 

fivpios (v long), countless, ten thousand ; Skr. hkdri, many. 
Stokes compares rather Gr. -juvpa of jrA^ju/xvyoa (v long), 
TrXriimpk (v short or long), flood tide, flood. 
muran, sea-bent, Ir. muraineach, bent grass ; from muir, the sea. 

Norse has mura, goose-grass, 
murcach, sorrowful, Ir. murcach, m-Arcach ; cf. M. Br. morcliet, 

anxiety, now morc'hed, Cor. moreth, chagrin. Eng. murky, 

Norse myrkr could only be allied by borrowing. Cf. Lat. 

marceo, droop, 
mtirla, a coat of mail : 
murlach, the king-fisher : 
murlag, murluinn, a kind of basket, murlach, fishing basket 

(M'A.), Ir. muirleog, a rod basket for sand eels and wilks 

(Donegal). Cf. Sc. murlain, a narrow-mouthed basket of a 

round form, 
murlan, rough head of hair : 
murraeh, able, rich, Ir. murrtha, successful (O'B.), murthadh, much 

wealth (O'R.) ; cf. miir. 
murt, murder ; see mort. 

murtachd, sultry heat, weariness produced by heat : 
mus, before, ere ; cf . 0. Ir. mos, soon, mox, used as a verbal 

particle : it is allied to modi, being from *m,oqsu, Lat. m.ox. 
musach, nasty, Ir. mosach (O'R., Sh.), W. mws, effluvia, stinking, 

Br. mous, muck, mouz, crepitus vcntris : *musso-, *mud-so-, 

root mud, be foul or wet ; Gr. fivcros ( = ju.ijS-a-os), defilement, 

f/.vSo's, clamminess, decay ; Lit. mudas, dirty sea-grass : root 

mu (mu), soil, befoul, G. mitln, Eng. mMd, etc. 
musg, a musket, Ir. m'Asgaid, L. M. Ir. muscaed (F. M.) ; from the 

miisg, rheum about the eyes, gore of the eyes ; from the root mu, 

befoul, be wet, as discussed under musach, muin. 
musgan, dry-rot in wood, Ir. musgan, mustiness, mouldiness ; Lat. 

muscns, moss ; Eng. moss, mushroom ; Lit. musai (pi.), mould. 

This word is not in H.S.D., but it is implied in Arm. and is 

in M'E. ; also in common use. 
miisgail, pith of wood, porous part of a bone (H.S.D.). Armstrong 

gives also the meanings attached to musgan above ; the 

words are evidently the same, 



musgan, the horse fish : 

miisuinii, confusion, tumult : 

mutach, short, E. Ir. mut, everything, short : *m.uUo-, root mut, 

dock ; Lat. mMtilus, maimed (Eng. mutilate), mutmis, docked ; 

Gr. /itruA.os, hornless, 
mutan, mutan, a mufi", fingerless glove, also mutag (Arms.) ; from 

miotag, with a leaning on mutach, short. Thurneysen takes 

it from mutach without reference to Tniotag. Ir. has muth6g 

muth, change, M. W. mvdaw ; from Lat. mUto, I change. 


n-, from, in a nuas, a nios, Ir., 0. Ir. an- ; see a number 5. 

na, not, ne, Ir., 0. Ir. na : used with the imperative mood solely. 
It is an ablaut and independent form of the neg. prefix in 
(see ion-, an-), an ablaut of I. E. ne, Lat. ne, Gr. vrj- ; shorter 
form Lat. nS-, Got. ni, Eng. not (ne-cUviht), etc. ; further I. E. 
n^, Gr. dv-, Lat. in-, Eng. un-, Gaelic an-. See nach, which is 
connected herewith as Gr. ovk, ov ; the W. is nac, nag, with 
imperative, Br. na. 

na, or, vel, Ir. nd, E. Ir., 0. Ir. n6, W. neu : *nev (Stokes, who 
allies it to Lat. niio, nod, Gr. vevu), Skr. ndvate, go, remove ; 
but, in 1890, Bez. Beit.^^ 51, he refers it to the root nu, Eng. 
now). It can hardly be separated from neo, otherwise, q.v. 

na, than, Ir. nd, M. Ir. ind, E. Ir. inda, indds, 0. Ir. inda as, indds, 
pi. indate (read inddte) ; from the prep, in and td, to be 
(Zeuss^, 7 1 6-7, who refers to the other prepositional compara- 
tive conjunction oldaas, from ol, de). The use of in in 0. Ir. 
as the relative locative may also be compared. 

na, what, that which, id quod, M. Ir. ina, ana, inna n-, E. Ir. 
ana n- : " the that," the article and relative. In 0. Ir. the 
rel. an is regularly used for id quod. 

'na, 'na-, in his, in her, in (my) ; the prep, an with the possessive 
pronouns : 'nam, 'nar, 'nad (also ad, E. Ir. at, it), 'nur, 'na, 

nabaidh, nabuidh, a neighbour ; from the Norse nd-hUi, neighbour, 
" nigh-dweller," the same in roots as Eng. neighbour. 

nach, not, that not (conj.), that not = quin (rel.), nonne? Ir., E. Ir. 
nach, W. nac, nag, not, Br. na : *naho, from na, not, which 
see above, and ko or k as in Gr. ovk against ov (Stokes). The 
ho has been usually referred to the same pronominal origin 
as -que in Lat. nequ£ ; it does appear in neach. 

nadur, nature, Ir. ndMr, W. natv/r ; from Lat. natura. 

naid, a lamprey (Sh., O'B)., Ir. naid : 


234 Etymological Dictionary 

naidheachd, news, Ir. niiaidheachd, W. newyddion; from nuadh, 

naile, yea ! an interjection : 
niird, a niird, upwards, Ir. andirde, E. Ir. i rv-ardi, i n-airddi ; 

prep, in (now an), into, and airde, height : " into height." 

This adverb is similar in construction to a hliAn, a mach, a 

steach, etc., for which see a number 6. 
naire, shame, Ir. ndire, E. Ir. ndre : *nagro-, shameful, root nacfh, 

be sober, Gr. vij^to (do.), Ger. niichtern, fasting, sober. 
nMsneach, modest ; compare the next word. 
u^istinn, care, wariness ; from Norse nj6sn, spying, looking out, 

Got. niukseini, visitation (eTrto-KOTrij), Ag. S. nedsan, search out. 
uaitheas, harm, mischief : 
nail, from over, to this side, Ir., O. Ir. anall ; from an (see a 5) 

and all of thall, q.v. 
nsimhaid, an enemy, Ir. ndmhaid, g. namhad, 0. Ir. ndma, g. 

ndmat, pi. n. tidmait : * ndmant-, root nfym, new,, seize, take ; 

Gr. vifna-us, wrath, nemesis, viafrnta, ve/iw, distribute ; 0. H. G. 

ndma, rapine, Ger. nehvien, take, Eng. nimble ; Zend nemaxJi, 

crime, AJb. nam, a curse. Cf. W., Corn., and Br. nam, 

na'n (na'm), if (with false supposition), M. G. dane, dan-, dMirv- 

(D. of Lis.), Ir. da, dd (for da n-, eclipsing), E. Ir. dd n-, 

did n-, 0. Ir. dian : the prep, di or de and rel. an. The G. 

form with n for d is puzzling, though its descent from da n- 

seems undoubted. 
uaoi, nine, so Ir., 0. Ir. ndi n-, W., Corn, naw, Br. ncto : *nevn ; 

Lat. novem ; Gr. kv-vka. ; Eng. nine, Ger. neun ; Skr. ndvan. 
naoidhean, an infant, so Ir., 0. Ir. ndidiu, gen. ndiden : *ne-vid-, 

" non-witted " ? Cf. for force Gr. vijttios, infant ( = v7-;rtos, 

not-wise one), from -irt/os, wise, ttwvto's (do.), root qei of ciall, 

naomh, holy, Ir. naomh, E. Ir. n6em, ndeh, 0. Ir. n6ih : * noibo-s ; 

0. Pers. naiba, beautiful, Pers. niw (do.). Bez. suggests the 

alternative of Lettic naigs, quite beautiful. 
naosga, a snipe, Ir. naosga : *snoih-sko-, root sneih, snib of Eng. 

snipe ? 
nar, negative particle of wishing : *ni-air, for not ; air and nt. 
nasag, an empty shell : 
nasg, a band, tieband, collar, Ir., E. Ir. nasc : *nasIco-; 0. H. G. 

nuRca, fibula, Norse nist, brooch : '^ndh-sho-, root ndh (Brug.). 

The verb nasg, 0. Ir. -nascim, appears in Br. as nasha. The 

root nedk is in Skr. nahyati. Others make the root negh of 

Lat. nexvLS, etc., and the root snet of snath, q.v., has been 

suggested. See snaim further. 


nasgaidh, gratis, free, Ir. o n-aisge, freely, aisge, a gift. See 

natar, nitre ; from Eng. natron, nitre. 

nathair, a serpent, so Ir., 0. Ir. nathir, W. neidr, Corn, nader, 
M. Br. azr : *nat'nx; Lat. natrix, water snake; Got. nadrs, 
Norse natSr, Eng. adder. The Teutonic words are regarded 
by Kluge as scarcely connected with Lat. natrix, whose root 
is nat, swim. 

-ne, emphatic particle added to the pi. of 1st pers. pron., sin-ne, 
ar n-athair-ne, "our father;" 0. Ir. ni, -ni, used independ- 
ently ( = nos) and as a sutfix. See further under sinne. 

neach, anyone, Ir. neach, 0. Ir. nech, aliquis, W., Cor., Br. nep, neb, 
qiiisquam : *neqo-, ne-qo- ; Lit. nelcas, something, nekurs, 
quidam, Lett. M ne M, anyhow. Stokes takes the ne from 
the negative root ne (see na) ; the qo is the pronominal stem 
of the interrogative (of. Lat. -que, neque). 

nead, a nest, Ir. nead, E. Ir. net, W. npth, Corn, neid, Br. nez, neiz : 
*nizdo-s ; Lat. n%dv,i ; Eng. nest ; Skr. ni&as. Supposed to 
be from *ni-sed~, " sit down." 

Ii6amh, heaven, Ir. neamh, 0. Ir. nem, W., Corn, nef, M, Br. neff, 
now env : * nemos ; Skr. na/nias, bowing, reverence ; Lat. 
neimis, grove ; Gr. vefios, pasture : root nem, distribute, Gr. 
vejuo) (do.), Ger. nehmen, take. Gaulish has ve/tr;Tov or 
vifterov, 0. Ir. nemed, sacellum. Often, and lately (1895) by 
Prof. Khys, referred to the root nebh, be cloudy, Gr. vc<^os, 
cloud, Lat. nebula (see neul) ; but the Gaelic nasalized ea is 
distinctly against this, as also is the Br. env (Stokes). 

neamhniiid, a pearl, Ir. neamhunn, E. Ir. nemanda, pearly, 0. Ir. 
nim, onyx (for nem. ?) ; root nem of neamh. 

neanntag, nettle, Ir. neantdg, E. Ir. nenntai, nettles, nenaid. See 

neapaicin, a napkin ; from Eng. 

n^araclid, happiness, usually mo nearachd, lucky to, Ir. moigheaniar, 
happy is he (O'B.), is meunar duit-se, happy is it for you 
(O'Growney), M. Ir. mo ghenar duit, good luck to you (F. M.), 
mongenar (L. B.), E. Ir. mogenar. The root seems to be mag 
(I. E. magli), increase (see mac) ; cf. Lat. made, root mdk. 

nearag, a daughter (Oss. Ballads) ; if a word properly handed 

down, it is interesting to compare it with the root of the 

neart, strength, Ir. neart, 0. Ir. nert, W., Corn, nerth, Br. nerz, 

Gaul, nerto-, root ner ; Skr. ndr, man ; Gr. a.vr)p (root ner) ; 

Lat. Umbr. nerus, viros. Sab. Nero, fortis ; Tent. Nerthus, 

Norse NjorSr ; Lit. noreti, to will. 


neasg, neasg^aid, a boil, Ir. neascdid, E. Ir. nescoit : * ness-contir, 
from E. Ir. nes^, wound {*snit-so-, root snit, cut, Ger. schneide, 
Sc. sned), and -conti- found in urchoid ? 

neimh, poison, Ir. nimh neimh, 0. Ir. nem, pi. neimi : *ne7iies-, 
"something given," root nem, distribute (as in neamh) ? 

nMp, a turnip ; from the Sc. neep, M. Eng. tiepe, from Lat. ndpus. 

neo, air neo, otherwise, alioquin (conj.) ; see next. 

neo-, un-, Ir. neamfi^, neimh-, M. Ir. nem-, 0. Ir. neb-, neph- : * ne-bo-; 
the ne is the negative seen in na, ni, but the bo is doubtful. 
Zimmer suggests that b is what remains of the subj. of bu, 
be : " be not." 

ne6iiiean, ne6nan, the daisy, Ir. n6inin : " noon-flower,'' from 
nbin, noon. Cf. the Eng. daisy for force. 

nebnach, eccentric, curious : * neo-gnathach, "un-wont." 

neoni, nothing, a trifle, 0. Ir. nephni ; from neo- and ni, thing. 

neul, nial, a cloud, Ir. neul, 0. Ir. nel, pi. ace. niulu, W. niwl, mist : 
*neblo-s ; Lat. nebula ; Gr. ve^kX-q ; Ger. nebel, mist ; 0. Slav. 
nebo, sky ; Skr. nabhas, mist. 

ni, hot, Ir. w.j, 0. Ir. ni, ni, W. ni : *nei ; 0. Lat. nei, Lat. wi-, m^/ 
0. H. Ger. ni, Ger. nein ; 0. Slav, rei, neque ; Zend twA- ; 
Gr. v»y-. 

ni, a thing, [r. nidh, 0. Ir. w^, res, probably a curtailed form of 
0. Ir. ani, id quod, from the art. ueut. and the pronominal 
suffix ei, which Zimmer compares to Got. ei, that (conj.), 
sa-a, that-ei, which is either the locative of pronominal o- 
(Gr. ei, I. E. ei-so, this here), or the particle seen in Gr. 
ovToa--t (t long), an instrumental of Lat. is, Gaelic e, he. 
Some have regarded ni as from *gnithe, factum, which see in 
ni, will do. 

nl, cattle ; this is the same as ni, thing. 

ni, will do, Ir. gnim, I do, 0. Ir. dogni, facit ; see dean, gniomh. 

niata, courageous, Ir. nia, gen. niadh, a champion, niadhas, valour, 
M. Ir. forniatta, brave, E. Ir. nia, g. niath, possibly Ogam 
neta, netta i^neta 1) : *neid-, Gr. dvetSos, revile. Lit. ndids, 
hatred, Skr. nind, mock, or *ni-sed-, down-setter ? Rhys 
{Led.) cfs. the Teut. nanp, venture, strive ; this would give 
Gaelic preserved d. 

nic, female patronymic prefix, M. Gaelic nee (D. of L.), Ir. nl, 
M. Ir. ini, an abbreviation of 0. Ir. ingm, now inghean or 
nighean and m', nepotis (Stokes). The G. nie, really " grand- 
daughter," stands for inghean mhic or ni mhic ; we have 
recorded in 1566 Ne V Kenze (M'Leod Charters). 

nigh, wash, Ir. nighim, E. Ir. nigim, 0. Ir. dofonuch, lavo, nesta, 
laveris : *nig6, I. E. neigd ; Gr. vi((a, vitttw ; Eng. nick, Auld 
Nich, a water power, Ger. nix ; Skr. nij, clean. 


nighean, a daughter ; a corruption of inghean, q.v. 
nimh, poison, Ir. nimh; see neimh. 

nior, not (witli perfect tense), Ir. nior, E. Ir. nir = ni-ro ; ro is the 
sign of past tenses. 

nios, neas, a weazel, Ir. neas, 0. Ir. ness : 

nios, from below, up, Ir. anios, E. Ir. anis ; from an (see a number 
5) and \o&. 

nis, now, Ir. atiois, M. Ir. anosa, E. Ir. innossai, 0. Ir. indossa ; 
ind (now an) of the article and G. fois, rest. The word 
appears in a bhos, q.v. The form indorsa, this hour ( = now), 
is rejected by Ascoli as a misspelling for indossa. 

ni 's, id quod, the usual classical Gaelic with the verb substantive 
to denote comparative state : tha i ni 's fhe^rr, she is better, 
Ir. nios, M. Ir. ni is : " thing that is," from ni and is. The 
usual Gaelic form is na 's, whose na is due to the influence of 
na, id quod, na, in his, etc. 

nitic, a comer ; from the Sc. neuk, M. Eng. noL Dial. iiic. 
Skeat thinks the Eng. is the boiTOwer. 

no, or, vel, Ir. nd, E. Ir., 0. Ir. n6, W. neu ; see na. 

nochd, to-night, Ir. anochd, 0. Ir. innocht, hac nocte : the art. and 
nocJid, night, W. henoeih, Corn, neihur, Br. neyzor, nos : 
*nokti- ; Lat. nox, noctis ; Gr. vv^, vvktos ; Got. nahts, Eng. 
night ; Lit. nakCis ; Skr. nalcti. 

nochd, naked, Ir. nochdadh, manifestation, 0. Ir. noclit, W. noeth, 
Corn, noyth, Br. noaz : *noqto- ; Got. Tuxqaps, 0. H. G. nacot, 
Eng. naked ; further cf. Lat. nudus {* nogvidus) ; Slav, nagu ; 
Skr. nagnd. 

nodadh, a nod, suggestion ; from the Eng. 

nodha, new ; see nuadh. 

noig, the anus : 

noigean, a noggin, Ir. noigin ; from the Eng. noggin. Skeat 
thinks the English are the borrowers ; but this is unlikely. 

noin, noon, Ir. ndin, g. ndna, evening, noon, E. Ir. n6in, ndna, W. 
navm ; from the Lat. nSna hora, ninth hour of the day or 3 

noir, the east, Ir. anoir, 0. Ir. anair, " from before," if one looks a't 
the morning sun ; from an (see a number 5) and air. 

noUaig, Christmas, Ir. nodlog, E. Ir. notlaic, W. nadolig ; from 
Lat. natalicia, the Nativity. 

norra, a wink of sleep (Arran) : 

nos, a custom, Ir., E. Ir. nis, W. naws, M. Br. neuz : *nomso-, Gr. 
vojjios, law, Lat. numems. Thumeysen thinks the Gadelic 
words are borrowed from the Welsh naws, from gnaws (see 
gndtth). Stokes gives *nomso- as stem for Gadelic alone ; the 
W. he regards as from gnd, as above. The ideal stem would 
be *ndsto-, root ndd. 


nos, a cow's first milk, E. Ir. nus ; from mta, new, and ass, milk. 

ndtair, a notary, Ir. ndtaddir, 0. Ir. notire ; from Lat. notarius. 

nothaist, a foolish person : 

nuadarra, angry, surly ; see nuarranta. 

nuadh, new, Ir. ndadJi, 0. Ir. »w, niiide, W. newydd, 0. Br. 

nouuid, Br. neuez, Gaul, novio- : *novio-s ; Lat. novus, Novivs ; 

Gr. v«os, young, new ; Got. niujis, Eng. new ; Lit. nailjas , 

Skr. navya. 
'nuair, when, " the hour that," Ir. anuair, E. Ir. innuair : the art. 

and the word uair, q.v. 
uuall, nuallan, a howling, cry, Ir. mtaill, E. Ir. nilall : *nouslo-n ; 

Skr. nv, cry, navati ; Lettic nauju, cry ; 0. H. G. niumo, 

praise, rejoicing. 
nuarranta, sad, surly ; cf. the Ir. interjection mo nuar, my woe, 

root nu as above, 
nuas, down, from above, Ir. arntas ; see a number 5 and vas. 
nuig, as far as, O. G. gonice (B. of Deer), Ir. nuir/e, go nuige, E. Ir. 

conniei : *con-do-icci ; see thig, come. 
niiimhir, number, so Ir. ; from Lat. numerus. Usually uimhir, 

'n uiridh, last year, Ir. 'nuraidh, E. Ir. innuraid ; the art. and 
0. Ir. dat. urid. See uiridli. 

null, over, to beyond ; for nunn on the analogy of nail, and for 
dissimilation of the ws. See nunn, the only Argyleshire form. 

nunn, over, beyond, Ir. anonn, 0. Ir. inunn ; from the prep, an 
(see a 5) and sund, here ("from here"), W. hwni, Br. hont : 
*suno-fo-, pronominal roots sou and to ; for both cf. Gr. oStos 
( = so-u-to-s), this. The pronominal forms beginning in so and 
to, or s and t without o, are all from the roots so and to 


0, the interjection " ! oh ! " Ir. o ; see vocative a. 

0, from, ab, Ir. 6, 0. Ir. 6, ua {ho, hud) : *ava ; Skr. dva, away, 

off; Lat. au-, as in aufero, take away ; Ch. SI. it-, Pruss. 

au-. Also bho, q.v. 
0, since, when, with the rel. as o 'n, Ir. 6, 0. Ir. 6, ex quo ; it is 

merely the prep, o used as a conjunction. 
ob, refuse, Ir. obaim, 0. Ir. obbaim, ohbad (inf.) ; referred to ud- 

bad, " out-speak," the prefix wl^, out (allied to Eng. ovi, Skr. 

ud, out, of) and ba, speak, I. E. bha, Lat. fari, Gr. <f>a in 

(^rifiL Ascoli gives the root as hen (see bean), repellere. 
6b, a creek ; from Norse h6p, small land-locked bay, Sc. hope, 

Ag. S. h6p, valley. 
pbaidh, a charm ; see uhag. 


obair, a work, so Ir., E. Ir. opair, oper, 0. Ir. opred, operatio ; from 

Lat. ojms (g. (^eris), opera. 
t obair, a confluence ; the usual pronunciation of the Aber- in 

place names. See abar. 
obann, sudden, Ir. obann, E. Ir. opond : *od-bond, e vestigio, from 

bonn 1 Stokes refers it to the root of Gr. a^vw, 0. Slav, ahije, 

immediately, suggesting *ob-n6-. W. huan also suggests itself. 
ocar, interest on money, Ir. ocar, W. ocr ; from Norse ohr, usury, 

Ag. S. wocer, Got. wokrs, Ger. vmeher ; root veg. 
och, an interjection, alas ! Ir. och, imh, 0. Ir. itcA, vae, ochfad, 

sighing : *uh ; Got. adhjdn, make a noise, Norse ugla, Eng. 

owl ; Let. aulca, stormwind, Serb, uka, a cry. 
ochd, eight, Ir. ochd, 0. Ir. ocht n-, W. wyth (^ohti), Br. eiz : * oTcto; 

Lat. octo ; Gr. oktu ; Got. aktau ; Skr. a&htaiii,. 
ocboin, alas, Ir. och 6n ; literally "alas this !" From och and the 

old pronoun &n, discussed under eadlion. 
ocras, hunger, Ir. ocrvs, ocarus, E. Ir. accorus. See acras. The 

Lat. careo, want, may be suggested as allied : root ker, kor. 
od, yonder, yon ; see vd. 
odhar, dun, so Ir., E. Ir. odar : *odro-s, for *odh-ro-, shady, Lat. 

umbra ( = *o-n-dhra), dter, dark, Umbrian adro, atra. Bez. 

suggests, with query, *jodros, allied to Lit. jSdas, dark. 

Thumeysen has referred *odro-s to I. E. udro-, otter, hydra, 

watery, the idea being "otter-like" or "water-like" (Gr. 

{iSfc)/3, Eng. water). 
ofrall, an offering, Ir. ofrdil, M. Ir. offrdil, E. Ir. oifrend ; from 

Lat. offerendwm. 
Og, young, Ir. 6g, 0. Ir. dc, 6ac, W. iewanc, Corn, ioiienc, Br. 

iaouanh, Gaul. Jovinc-illos : *jovnko-s, comparative jov6s ; 

Lat. juvenis, juvencus ; Eng. young, Got. juggs ; Skr. yuvafd, 

juvenUe, yuvan, young. 
Ogha, a grandchild, Ir. 6, ua, g. ui, a grandson, descendant, 0. Ir. 

ua, aue, haue, g. haui : * (p)a'vio-s ; Gr. ;rats, for Jra/i's, boy ; 

further Lat. puer, for pov-er ; W. wyr ; root pit, pav, pov, 

beget. Brug. (Grund.^ 122) refers it to *avio-s, an adj. from 

avo-s, grandfather, etc., Lat. avus. 
t Oghum, the " Ogam" writing, so Ir., E. Ir. ogwrn, Ogma mac 

Elatlian (son of Knowledge), the Hercules of the Gaelic gods, 

Gaul. Ogmios, the Gaul. Hercules and god of eloquence : 

*Ogambio-s. Cf. Gr. oy/j,os (*7-f<.os?), a furrow, line, Skr. 

djmas, course, run, root ag : the comparison is very doubtful. 

See oidheam. 
dglach, a youth, servant, Ir. 6glach, 0. Ir. bclach ; from bg and 

suffix -lack (see teaghlach). 


Ogluidh, gloomy, awful, bashful, Ir. ogluidh, bashful ; from Norse 

uggligr, fearful, Eng, ugly. 
oich, interjection of pain, Ir., 0. Ir. mcA. See och. 
oide, foster-father, step-father, Ir. oide, 0. Ir. aite : *attio-s ; Gr. 

axTa, father ; Got. atta, father ; Ch. SI. otid, father ; Skr. 

attd., mother, 
oidhche, oiche, night, Ir. oidhche, 0. Ir. aidche, later oidche, also 

adaig : *ad-aqid, *ad-aqi, root aq, dark ; Lat. aquilus, dad^ ; 

Lit. aklas, blind ; Gr. aKapov, blind (Hes.). Skr. andhas, 

darkness, with root andh, adh, Lat. ater, etc., have been 

suggested, the ad of *ad-aqia being made the root and not 

the aq (see odhar). 
foidheadh, tragical death, so Ir., E. Ir. oided, aided; root pad, 

ped, fall, Lat. pestis (Stokes). See eas. 
oidheam, a secret meaning, inference, idea (M'A., M'E.), a book 

(M'F., H.S.D.). Properly oigheam, the same as ogham above 

(Zeuss, Rhys' Hih. Led.). 
oidheirp, oirpe, an attempt : *ad-erb-, root erb of earb, q.v. ? 
oifig', an office, Ir. oifig, M. Ir. oifficc ; from Lat. officium (Eng. 

digeach, a stallion, young horse ; from bg and each. Commonly 

digeach, q.v. 
6igh, a virgin, Ir. digh, E. Ir., 0. Ir. 6g, uag, integer : *augi-, root 

aug, increase ; Lat. awgeo ; Got. duhan, increase ; Lit. dugu, 

(Brug.). Bez. (in Stokes' Urhel. Spr.) suggests Czech pouhp, 

pure, and a stem *pougo-s. 
oigheam, obedience, homage ; cf. taidhe. 
oighionnach, aigheannach, a thistle (Perth, according to M'A.) ; 

see fobhannan. 
oighre, ice, Ir. oidhir, M. Ir. digred, E. I& aiqred, snow ; see deigh. 
oighre, an heir, so Ir., M. Ir. oigir ; founded on Lat. heres, pos- 
sibly on M. Eng. heir rather, which is from h^eres. 
oighreag, cloudberry ; founded on Sc. averin. 
oil, vexation, offence, Ir. t oil. The E. Ir. ail has a long, and is 

for agli-, Got. agls, disgraceful (Strachan). The G. is perhaps 

from the root of oilU. 
oil, rear, educate, Ir. oilim, 0. Ir. ailim ; root al as in altrum. 
oilbheum, offence, stumbling-block, Ir. oilbheim, M. Ir. aiMim : 

"stone-dashing," "stone-stumbling;" from ail, rock, and 

beum, blow, q.v. (Atk.). 
oilean, eilean, training, nurture, Ir. oileamhuin, nurture, M. Ir. 

oilemain, inf. to ailim, I rear; root al, as in altrum, q.v. 
oillt, horror, disgust, Ir. oilt ■.*aleti-, toot pal, strike, whence Lat. 

palma, palm, palpo, palpitate, etc. ? 
oineach, liberality, Ir. oineach, mercy, liberality. See eineach. 


oinid, a fool, Ir. 6inmhid, E. Ir. dinmit, dnmit ; from 6?i-, fooli^i, 

and ment, mind. See next. 
dinnseach, a foolish woman, Ir. oinseach; from dn^, foolish, and 

the feminine termination -seach. 
oir, edge, border, Ir., E. Ir., 0. Ir. or, W. gor-or, ora superior : *oro-. 

Cf. Lat. ora, coast, from which Thur. regards it as borrowed ; 

it is not allied to Ger. u/er, coast. 
oir, for, 0. Ir. ar, air ; the prep, air (*are) used as a conj. The 

Ir. Sir, because, for, 0. Ir. 6re, ■dare, abl. of 0. Ir. uar, huar, 

is from Lat. h6ra, Gaelic vmr. 
oir-, prefix denoting "ad" or "on," Ir. oir-, 0. Ir. air-, ar- ; this is 

the prep, air {*are). Hence oirbheart, a good deed, Ir. do., 

from heart ; oirbheas, act of charity, from heihs, conduct, etc. 

Sometimes confused with 6r-, gold, as prefix ; cf. oirdheirc. 
oircheas, pity, charity, Ir. oircheasachd, need, charitableness ; cf. 

0. Ir. airehissecht, gratia, indulgentia, vb. airchissim, parcit, 

indulget : air + cess- ; root of cead 1 
oirde, a piece or lump of anything ; see ord. 
oirdheirc, glorious, Ir. dirdhearc, 0. Ir. airdirc, erdirc ; from air 

and dearc, see : " con-spicuous." See oir- for the oir-. 
oirfeid, music, Ir. oirjid, E. Ir. air-fitivd., playing, inf. to arleitim, 

arpeitim ; from air and peitim, M. Ir. peiteadh, music ; peit 

or pet is from svettd, whistle, pipe, G. fead, q.v. 
cirleach, an inch, Ir. drlach, ordlach, M. Ir. ordlacli, from ordu, 

thumb, now G. ord-ag, q.v. 
oirtMr, the east, so Ir., 0. Ir. airther ; comparative of air, ante — 

" in front," as one faces the sun in the morning. 
oirthir, border, coast, so Ir. ; from air and t\r. 
oisg, a sheep, yearling ewe, E. Ir. disc ; for di-shesc, di, sheep, 

and seasg, barren, q.v. The word 6i is from *ovi-s; Lat. 

ovis ; Gr. ots ; Lit. avis ; Skr. Avis. 
oisinn, a comer : *orf-s<awi-, " out-standing" (?). See ursainn, 

oisir, an oyster, Ir. oisre ; from M. Eng. oistre, from Fr. oistre, 

from Lat. ostrea. 
oistric, ostrich, Ir. ostrich ; from the Eng. 
oit, an interjection to denote the sense of biiming heat ; cf. 0. Ir. 

uit mo chroh, alas for my hand ! 
oiteag, a breeze, puff of wind, Ir. oitedg : *aUi-, root at, as in Gr. 

ar/ids, vapotu^, Eng. atmosphere ; Ag. S. aeSm, breath ; Skr. 

dtmdn, breath, soul, 
oitir, a ridge or bank in the sea, a low promontory, Ir. oitir : *ad- 

tir, from tir, land, " toland." 
61, drink, drinking, Ir. 6L, blaim, E. Ir. dl, inf. to ihim, 0. Ir. oul, 

drinking : *potlo-, root po, p6, drink ; Lat. p6to, Eng. potate, 



etc. ; Skr. pd-, drink. Zimmer considers it borrowed from 

Norse ol, Eng. ale. The root pele, plS, full, has also been 

suggested ; but it is unlikely here, 
ola, oil, Ir., 0. Ir. ola, W. olew, 0. W. oleu, Br. eol; from Lat. 

oleum, Eng. oil. 
diach, a hospitable person : "boon-companion ;'' from bl. 
olann, wool, so Ir., E. Ir. oland, O. W. gulan, W. gwlan, Com. 

gluan, Br. gloan ; * viand, *vlano- ; Lat. Idna ; Gr. \avos, 

krjvo'i ; _ Eng. wool. Got. milla ; Lit. wilna ; Skr. M«i(i ; I. E. 

vlnd, vlnd. 
olc, bad, Ir. ok, 0. Ir. ofcc, o/c; cf. Lat. ulciscor, revenge, ulcus, 

wound, Eng. ulcer ■ Gr. eAkos, wound. Bez. suggests 0. H. G. 

ilJd, hunger. Lit. alkti, Ch. SI. allcati, hunger. 
ollabhar, a great army (M'F.), Ir. ollarbhar : oll + arhJuir. For 

oil, see next word ; E. Ir. arbar, a host, is from ber (see beir). 
oUamh, a learned man, a doctor, so Ir., 0. Ir. ollam, g. ollaman ; 

from Ir. oil, great (root pol, pel, pie, full, fill). 
omar, amber, Ir. omra, W. amfer ; from the Eng. 
omhail, attention, heed, Ir. limhail ; cf. G. umlial, obedient. 
omhan, othan, froth of milk or whey, Ir. vun, E. Ir. lian, froth, 

foam, W. ewyn, Br. eon : * oveno-, *poveno- ; Lit. putd, foam, 

Lettic putas. 
onag^aid, confusion, row (Dial.) ; cf. aonagail. 
onfhadh, a blast, storm, raging of the sea, Ir. anfadh, E. Ir. 

anfud, for an-feth, " excess-wind," feth, aura ; root vS, ven, 

blow ; Skr. vdta, wind ; Gr. ciij/it, blow, arjp, Lat. aer, Eng. 

air ; Lit. vejas, wind ; further Lat. ventus and Eng. wind. 
onnchon, a standard (M'F., O'B.), so Ir., also Ir. oncM, leopard, 

E. Ir. onchu, banner, leopard ; the idea of " leopard " is the 

primary one. From Fr. onceau, once, Eng. ounce, leopard. 
onoir, respect, honour, Ir. onoir, E. Ir. onoir, onoir ; from Lat. 

onrachd, solitude, Ir. aonarachd ; from aonar, aon. 
6r, gold, Ir., 0. Ir. dr, W. aur. Corn, our, Br. aour ; from Lat. 

or-, prefix air, oir, confused often with the prefix or-, gold ; e. g. 

orbheart, good (golden !) deed, which is for oirbheart (see 

drag, sheaf of corn (H.S.D.), orag (M'F., Arm.) : 
oragan, an organ, Ir., M. Ir. organ, E. Ir. organ, W. organ ; fron 

Lat. organum, Eng. organ. 
oraid, a speech, Ir. draid, prayer, oration, E. Ir. orait, prayer 

orate ; from Lat. orate, pray ye, oratio, speech 
6ran, a song ; this is for *auran, from the correct and still exist- 
ing form amhrau, Ir. amhrdn, M. Ir. ambrdn, Manx arrane ; 

from amb, i.e. mu, about, and rann ? 


orair, a porch (orrar, M'D.) : "front," from air- or ar- and air, a 
reduplication really of air, " on-before." 

orais, a tumultuous noise (H.S.D. fiom MSS.) : 

ord, a hammer, Ir., M. Ir. ord, 0. Ir. nrdd, W. gordd, 0. Cor. 
ord, Br. orz, horz, Gallo-Brit. Ordn-vicfs (?) : *ordo-s, *urdo-s, 
root verdh, urdh, raise, increase, whence or allied are Gr. 
opdos, Lat. arduus, G. ard, etc ; especially Skr. vardhate, 
raise, increase, grow. See ordag. Thur. thinks it perhaps 
possible that Romance urtare, hit, thrust, Fr. heurter, Eng. 
hurt, are hence, and Ascoli that Fr. ortail, big toe (orddu = 
m'tv), is from ord, the basis of ordag, q.v. 

ord, a mountain of rounded form (topographical only) ; from 

ordag, thumb, Ir. ord6g, 0. Ir. orddu, g. ordtn : *ordds, *urd6'> ; 
same root as ord above. 

ordugh, order, Ir. ord, ordughadh, 0. Ir. ord, ordaad, ordination, 
W. urdd, urddawd, ordaining, Br. urz ; from Lat. ordo. 

OTgan, organ ; see oragan. 

orra, ortha, orr', or, a charm, incantation, Ir. orrtha (drrtJia, 
Con.), ortka, prayer, charm (in this last sense pronounced 
arrtha), E. Ir. ortha, ace. orthain, prayer (especially in verse) ; 
from Lat. drdtionem, Eng. oration. 

orrais, squeamishness, nausea : 

OS, above, Ir. os, 6s, was, 0. Ir. os, uas, W. v^h, Br. a, ua ; see uasal 
for root. 

OS, an elk, deer, Ir. os (O'B.), E. Ir. os, nss, W. uch, pi. tichen, bos. 
Corn, ohan, boves, IJr. oe'lien (do.), 0. Br. ohen, boum : *iihso-s 
(for G.), *uksen- (for Brittonic) ; Got. auhsa{n), Eng. ox, oxen ; 
Skr. ukshdn, bull. 

OS, quoth ; for ors\ from or, ar, say ; see arsa. 

OS, mouth of a river, harbour bar ; from Norse dss, river mouth ; 
Lat. ostium. 

osadh, desisting, Ir. osadh, truce, E. Ir. ossad (do.) : *ud^sta- 
" stand out ;" root sta, stand. 

osag, a blast, breeze ; see osnadh. 

osan, a hose, stocking, Ir. assan, caliga, W. hosan. Cor. hos ; from 
Ag. S. hosa, g. hosan, now hose, hosen, Norse hosa. 

oscach, eminent, superior (Sh., O'B.), Ir. osedch ; from os and each. 

oscarach, oscarra, bold, fierce, Ir. oscar, champion; from the 
heroic name Oscar, son of Oisian (Ir. Oisin, little deer or os, 
q.v.). Possibly Osear stands for *ud-scaro-, " out-cutter," 
root scar of sgar, q.v. Zimmer derives it from Norse 'Asgeirr, 
spear of the Anses or gods, and Oisian from the Saxon 
'Oswine, friend of the Anses ; which should give respectively 
'Asgar and 'Oisine, but the initial vowels are both o short in 
Oscar and Oisian. 


dsd, 6sda, tigh 6sda, an inn, Ir. Ugh dsda ; from M. Eng. ooste, 

h6st, hotel, house, hospitium, through Fr. from Lat. hospitium. 

Stokes takes it direct from 0. Fr. oste. 
osnadh, a sigh, so Ir., 0. Ir. osnad, W. -uchenaid, uch, Br. huanad. 

Zimmer has analysed this into os, up, and an (root of andil), 

breath: "up-breath;" of. Lat. suspirium, from sup-spirium, 

"up-breath." But consider *ok-s, from uk of och. 
ospag, osmag, a gasp, sob, sigh, pang, Ir. osp6 , uxpdg, osmdg ; cf . 

osnadh. Also uspag, q.v. 
ospaim, gasping quickly, sobbing, sighing; from os and spairn, 

q.v. Cf. uspairn. 
othail, confusion, hubbub, also (Dial., where pronounced ow-il) 

rejoicing ; spelt also foghail, foghail ; root gal, as in gal 1 
othar, ulcer, abscess, Ir. othar, sick : *putro- ; Lat. puter, Eng. 

putrid ; root pH, pu, Eng. foul, etc. 
6trach, dunghill, Ir., M. Ir. otrach, dunghill, 0. Ir. ochtrach 

( = othtrach ?), excrement : *pwttr-, root put, pu, Lat. p&teo, 

puter, as under othar. 

pab, shag, refuse of flax, woolly hair, and (M'A.) tassel ( = bab), 
M. Ir. papp, popp, sprig, tuft, E. Ir. popp, bunch, which 
Stokes refers to a Celtic *Jo66t^, *hhohh-K(h, from *bhobh, 
, *hhabh, Lat. faha, bean, Gr. tto/x^os, blister, Trifi^i^, bubble, 
Lettic hamba, ball, I. E. bhembho-, inflate. Eng. bob, cluster, 
bunch, appears in the 14th century, and Sc. has bob, bah 
correspondingly ; the Gadelic and Eng. are clearly connected, 
but which borrowed it is hard to say. The meaning of pab 
as "shag, flax refuse" appears in the Sc.pab,pob. Borrowing 
from Lat. papula, pimple, root pap, swell, has been suggested. 

pac, a pack, Ir. paca ; from Eng. pack. Hence pacarras, a mass 
of confusion. 

pacaid, a packet ; from the Eng. 

padhadh, thirst, Manx paa ; seemingly formed by regressive 
analogy from the adjective pd,iteach, thirsty, a side-form 
of poiteacli, drinking, bibulous, from p6it, Lat. pdtus, drunk. 

padhal, ewer, Ir. padhal, ewer, pail, W. padell, pan ; from Lat. 
patella, a pan, whence Eng. pail. 

p^ganach, heathen, Ir. pdganach, pdgdnta, M. Ir. pagdnta ; from 
Lat. pojganus, villager, pagan, whence Eng. pa^an. 

piidhneachas, a penalty, pledge ; from pdigh, with leaning on 

paidhir, a pair ; from English pair, M. Eng. peire, Fr. paire, from 
Lat. par. Cf., for phonetics, /airfAir (fair) and staidhir (stair). 


paidir, the Lord's prayer, so Ir., M. Ir. paiter, 0. Ir. pater, W. 

pater, ■ from Lat. pater in Pater noster, etc., which begins 

the prayer. 
paidreag, a patch, clout : 
paidrean, a cluster of grapes, posy, string of beads, Ir. paidirin, 

rosary, necklace; iiova. paidir. 
pdiigh, psiidh, pay, Ir. paidhe, payment ; from Eng. pay. 
pail-chlaoh, pavement, Ir. pdil-chlach, stone pavement, pdil, 

pabhail, pavement ; formed from the Eng. pave, pavement. 
pailleart, a box on the ear, a blow with the palm : * palmA>heart, 

" palm-action," from Lat. palma, palm ; of. W. palfad, stroke 

of the paw, Br. palfod, blow on the cheek, 
psiilliun, a tent, Ir. }>aiUiiin ; from M. Eng. pailyoun (Barbour), 

pavilon, Fr. pavilion, from Lat. papilionem, a butterfly — 

tents being called after the butterfly because spread out like 

its wings. Stokes takes it direct from the Fr. 
pailm, palm tree, Ir., M. Ir. pailm; from Lat. palma, whence 

Eng. palm 
pallt, plentiful, pailteas, plenty, Manx palchys, Cor. pals, 

plenteous, M. Br. paout, numerous, Br. paot, many, much ; 

the G. is in all likelihood a Pictish word — a root qalt, I. E. 

qel, company, collection, as in clann, q.v. 
paindeal, a panther; founded on the Eng. panther, M. Eng. 

painneal, a panel, Ir. paineul, W. panel ; from the Eng., M. Eng., 

Fr. panel. 
painnse, a paunch ; from the Sc. painch, pench, Eng. paunch. 
painntear, a snare, Ir. painteur, M. Ir. painnter ; from M. Eng. 

pantere, snare for birds, 0. Fr. pantiere. Hence Eng. painter, 

boat rope, 
paipeir, paper, Ir. pdipeur, W. papyr ; from Lat. papyrus, whence 

Eng. paper. 
paipin, poppy, Ir. paipin, W. pdbi ; from Lat. popaver, whence 

Eng. poppy. 
p^irc, a park, Ir. pdirc, W. pare, parwg ; from M. Eng. parh, 

parroJc, now parh. 
pairilis, palsy, Ir., M. Ir. pairilis, W. parlys ; from Lat. paralysis, 

whence Eng. palsy. 
pd>irt, a share, part, Ir. pdirt, E. Ir. pairt, W. parth ; from Lat. 

pars, partis, a part, whence Eng. part. 
p^iisd, a child, Ir. pdisde ; formed from M. Eng. pdge, boy, Sc. 

page, boy, now Eng. page, 
paisean, a fainting fit, Ir., M. Ir. pdis, E. Ir. paiss, passio, suffer- 
ing ; from Lat. passionem, patior, suffer. 
paisg, wrap; see pasgadk, 


pait, a hump, lump, Ir, pait, M. Ir. pait, mass ; also Ir. paiteog, 

small lump of butter ; from Eng. pat. Skeat thinks the 

Eng. is from the Gaelic, but the p is fatal to the word being 

native Gadelic. 
piiteag, a periwinkle (H.S.D., for Hebr.) : 
palmair, a rudder, Ir. pcdmaire ; see falmadair. 
pillas, a palace, Ir. pdlas, W. palai ; from Lat. palatium, whence 

Eng. palace. 
panna, a pan ; from M. Ei.g. panne, now pan. 
pannal, pannan, a band or company, also, bannal, q.v. ; from 

Eng. hand. 
pip, the pope, Ir. pdpa, 0. Ir. papa, W., Br. pab ; from Lat. papa, 

father, pope, Eng. pope. 
paracas, a rhapsody (M'A.) : 
paradh, pushing, brandishing ; cf. purr. 
pd,rant, a parent ; from Eng. parent. 
pardag, a pannier (Arm.) : 
pirlamaid, parliament, Ir. pairlimiid, M. Ir. pairlimint ; from 

Eng. parliament. 
parraist, a parish, Ir. parraisde ; from Eng, parish, M. Eng. 

pdrTias, paradise, Ir. parrthas, 0. Ir. pardus, W. paradwys, Br. 

baradoz ; from Lat. paradisux. 
partan, a crab, portan (Skye), Ir. partdn, portdn, M. Ir. partan ; 

Sc. partan. 
pasgadh, a wrapping, covering, pasgan, a bundle, pasg, a faggot ; 

cf. Ir. faisff, a pen, W. JFa-iff, bundle, which last is certainly 

from Lat. fasces. 
pasmunn, expiring pang (H.S.D.) ; from Eng. spasm ? H.S.D. 

gives also the meaning " cataclysm applied to the sores of a 

dying person." 
peabar, piobar, pepper, Ir. piobar, W. pubyr ; from Lat. piper, 

Eng. pepper, Norse piparr. 
peacadh, sin, so Ir., 0. Ir peccad, g. pectho, W. pechod, Br. pechet j 

from Lat. peccatum, pecco, Eng. peccant. 
p6a-chearc, pea-hen ; from the Eng. pea. See peucag. 
peall, skin, hide, E. Ir. pell ; from Lat. pellis, hide, allied to Eng. 

peallach, shaggy, matted in the hair, from peall, mat, hairy skin ; 

see peall above. 
peallaid, sheepskin ; from Scotch pellet, a wooUess sheepskin, 

Eng. pelt, from Lat. pellis through Fr. 
peanas, punishment, Ir. pioniis ; from Lat. poena, with possibly a 

leaning on the English punish. 
peann, a pen, so Ir., E. Ir. penn, W. pin ; from Lat. penna. 


pearluinn, fine linen, muslin ; from Sc. pearlin, lace of silk or 

thread, Eng. purl, edging of lace, from Fr. powfiler, Lat. 
filum, thread, 
pearsa, a person, Ir. pearsa, g. pearsan, 0. Ir. persa, g. perdne ; 

from Lat. persona, Eng. person. 
pearsail, parsley, Ir. pearsdil ; from M. Eng. persil, Eng. parsley. 
peasair, pease, Ir. pis, a pea, p], piseanna, W. pi/s, Br. TpLpiz; 

from Lat pisum, Eng. pease. 
peasan, impudent fellow, varlet ; from Eng. peasant. 
peasg, gash in skin, chapped gashes of hands, cranny, W. pisg, 

blisters ; G. is possibly of Pictish origin. The Sc. pishet, 

shrivelled, has been compared, 
peata, a pet, Ir. peata, E. Ir. petta ; Eng. pet. Both Eng. and 

Gadelic are formed on some cognate of Fr, petit, little, Eng. 

petty (Stokes). 
peic, a peck, Ir. peic, W. pec ; from Eng. pec. 
peighinn, a penny, Ii. pighin, E. Ir. pinginn; from Ag. ^.pending, 

Norse pennin^r, now Eng. penny. 
peilig, a porpoise ; from Sc. pellack. 
peileasach, frivolous ; cf. Sc. pell, a soft, lazy person. 
peileid, cod, husk, bag : 
peileid, a slap on the head, the skuU or crown of the head ; in the 

last sense, cf. Sc. pallet, crown of the head, M. Eng. palet, 

head-piece. In the sense of " slap," cf. Eng. pelt. 
peileir, a bullet, Ir. peilewr, L. M. Ir. peler ; from some French 

descendant of Lat. pila, ball, and allied to Eng. pellet, 0. Fr. 

peloie, ball, Sp. pelute, cannon ball, 
peilisteir, a quoit, flat stone ; formed from the above stem ? 
peillic, a covering of skins or coarse cloth, Ir. peillic, a booth 

whose roof is covered with skins, E. Ir. pellec, basket of 

untanned hide ; from Lat. pelliceus, made of skins, from 

peinneag, a chip of stone for filling crevices in wall ; from Sc. 

pinning, pinn (do.), allied to Eng. pin. 
peinnteal, a snare ; another form of painntear, q.v. 
peirceall, the jaw, lower part of the face, comer, Ir. peircioll, 

cheekblade, comer : *for-ciobhull, " on-jaw" ? See ciohhull. 
peirigill, danger, Ir. peiriacul ; from Lat. periculum. 
p^ire, the buttocks, Ir. peire (O'E.) ; cf. Cor. pedren, buttock, W. 

pedrain. The word peurs, lente perdere (M'A.), is doubtless 

p^iris, testiculi (H.S.D.) ; apparently from Fr pierre. 
peiteag, waistcoat, short jacket j from Sc. petycot, a sleeveless 

tunic worn by men, Eng. petticoat. Manx has pettie, flannel 

waistcoat, peddee, waistcoat. 


peithir, a forester (pethaire, M'D.), peithire, a message boy 

(M'A.) ; cf. Sc. peddir, a pedlar, Eng. pedlar. 
peithir, beithir, thunderbolt ; a mythic and metaphoric use of 

beithir, q.v. 
peitseag, a peach ; Ir. peitsedg ; from the Eng. 
peddar, pewter, Ir. peatar, W. fimtwr ; from Eng. pewter. Also 

feddar, q.v. 
peucag, pear-hen, Ir. p&achg, peacock (Fol.) ; from Eng. peacock. 
pear, a pear, Ir. piorra, piire (O'K.), W. peran ; from Eng. pear. 
peurda, flake of wool off the cards in the first carding : 
peurdag, piartag, a partridge, Ir. pitrug (Fol.) ; G. is from Sc. 

pertrik, a side form of Eng. partridge, Lat. perdic-em. 
pian, pain, Ir. pian, 0. Ir. pian, poena, W. poen, pain, Cor. peyn, 

Br. poan ; from Lat. poena, Eng. pain. 
pibhinn, lapwing ; from Sc. peeweip, Eng. peewit. The true G. is 

adharcan, "horned one" (from adharc, because of the appear- 
ance of its head), 
pic, pitch, Ir. pic, W. pyg ; from M. Eng. pik, now pitch. 
pic, a pike, Ir. pice, W. pig, from the Eng. 
piceal, pickle, Ir. pidll (Fol.) ; from the Eng. 
pigeadh, pigidh, earthen jar, Ir. pigin, W. picyn ; from Eng., Sc. 

piggin, pig, which is a metaphoric use of Eng. pig, sow. 
pighe, pigheann, a pie, Ir. pigke ; from the Eng. 
pigidh, robin redbreast (H.S.D.) ; a confused use of Eng. pigeon ? 
pilig, peel, peeling (Dial.); from the Eng. Seepiol. 
pill, a sheet, cloth, the cloth or skin on which corn is winnowed ; 

a particular use of the oblique form of peall, q.v. M. Ir. 

pill or pell means "rug." 
pill, turn, Ir. pillim, better fillim (O'B.) ; see till for discussion 

of the root, 
pilleau, pack-saddle, pillion, Ir. pillin, W. pilyn ; Eng. pillion is 

allied, if not borrowed, according to Skeat. All are formed 

on Lat. pellis (see peall). Sc. has pillions for " rags;" Br. 

pill (do.). 
pinne, a pin, peg, Ir. pionn (Lh.), W. pin ; from M. Eng. pinne, 

now pin. 
pinnt, a pint, Ir. piiint (Fol.) ; from the Eng. 
piob, a pipe, a musical instrument, Ir. piob, E. Ir. pip, pi. pipai 

(Lib. Leinster), (music) pipe ; from Med. Lat. pipa, whence 

Ag. S. pipe, Eng. pipe, Ger. p/eife, Norse pipa. W., Cor., 

and Br. have jnb, pipe, similarly borrowed, 
piobar, pepper ; see peabar. 
piobull, the bible (Dial.) : see hlobull. 
pioc, pick, Ir. piocaim ; from Eng. pick. Thur. thinks that W. 

pigo is ultimately from the Eomance picco (point), Fr. pique. 

Of THE GAELIC Language. 249 

or allied thereto. Skeat takes the Eng. from Celtic ; but see 

Bradley's Stratmann. 
piocaid, pickaxe, Ir. piocoid ; from pioc, Eng. picJc, a pickaxe, from 

Fr. pic (do.). Whether the termination is Gadelic or the Fr. 

word piquet, little pickaxe, Eng. picket, was borrowed at once^ 

it is hard to say. 
piochan, a wheezing, Manx piaghane, hoarseness, Ir. spiochan ; 

Sc. pech, pechin, panting, peught, asthmatic. Onomatopoetic. 

Cf. Lat. pipire, chirp, pipe. W. has peiM, pant, 
pioghald, pigheid, a magpie, Ir. pioghaid (Fol.), pighead (O'K.) ; 

from Sc. pyat, pyet, diminutive of pie, M. Eng. pye, now 

usually mag-pie. 
piol, nibble, pluck ; from Eng. peel, earlier pill, pyll, peel, pluck, 

ultimately from Lat. pellis. Also spiol, q.v. W. has pilio, 

peel, strip. 
pioUach, (1) neat, trim (M'F., H.S.D., Arm.), (2) hairy 

( = peallach, of which it is a side form, H.S.D., etc.), fretful, 

curious-looking (M'A.). The second sense belongs topeallach, 

the first to piol : " piUed." 
pioUaiste, trouble, vexation: "plucked" state, from ^ioZ? 
pioraid, hat, cap ; see hiorraid. 

piorbhuic, piorrabhuic, periwig, Ir. peireabhuic ; from the Eng. 
piorr, scrape or dig (H.S.D.), stab, make a lunge at one (M'A.) ; 

the first sense seems from Sc, Eng. pare; for the second, see 

piorradh, a squall, blast ; from L. M. Eng. pirry, whirlwind, 

blast, Sc. pirr, gentle breeze, Norse byrr, root Mr, pir, of 

onomatopoetic origin (Skeat, svh piro^lette, for Eng.). 
pios, a piece, Ir. piosa ; from Eng. piece, Fr. piece, Low Lat. 

pettium, from Gaulish *pettium, allied to G. cuit, Pictish pet 

(see pit). 
pios, a cup, Ir. piosa ; from Lat. pyxis, box (Stokes). 
piostal, a pistol, so Ir. ; from Eng. 
piseach, prosperity, luck, Manx hishagh, Ir. biseach, M. Ir. bisech. 

Cf. Ir. pise6g, witchcraft, M. Ir. pisoc, charm, Manx pishag, 

charm, Cor. pystry, witchcraft, M. Br. pistri, veneficium, 

which Bugge refers to Lat. pyxis, medicine box (see pws). 
piseag, a kitten, Ir. puisin ; from Eng. puss. 
pit, hollow or pit (Diet, only), kvo-Oos, M. G. pit (D. of L.), Manx 

pitt, Ir. pit ; from Ag. S. pyt, pit, weU, now pit, from Lat. 

puteiis, well. For force, cf. Br. fetan, fountain, fete, Kvcr6os. 

The non-existent Diet, meaning is due to the supposed force 

of topographic pit discussed in the next article. 
Pit-, prefix in farm and townland names in Pictland, meaning 

"farm, portion;" 0. G. pet, pett, g. pette (B. of Deer), a 


250 ^TifMOLOGlCAL blCTIOi^AEt 

Pictisli word allied to W. peth, part, Gaelic mid. See further 

under cuid and pios. 
plug, a plaintive note (H.S.D.); cf. W. puch, sigh. Onomato- 

poetic ? 
piuthar, sister, Ir. siur, E. Ir. siur, fiur, g. sethar, fethar, 0. Ir. 

siur, W. chwaer, Corn. AmV, Br. Aoar : *svesdr, g. g^wes^ro* 

(Stokes) ; Lat. soror ( = nosor) ; Eng. si'sfer ; Lit. »esu ; Skr. 

plab, soft noise as of a ' body falling into water ; from So. plope, 
Dial. Eng. plop : onomatopoetic like plump. Skeat compares 
Eng. hlab. See plub. 

placaid, a wooden dish; through Sc. (?) from Fr. plaquefte, 
plaque, a plate, whence Eng. placard, Sc. placad. M'A. 
gives also the meaning "flat, broad, good-natured female," 
which is a metaphoric use. 

plaibean, a lump of raw flesh, a plump boy ; founded on Sc. 
plope, as in plab above. Cf. Eng. plump. 

plaide, a blanket, Ir. ploid ; Eng. plaid, Sc. plaiden, coarse 
woollen cloth, like flannel, but twilled : all are founded on 
Lat. pellis, but whether invented by Gadelic or English is at 
present doubtful. Skeat says it is Celtic, a view which, as 
the case stands, has most to say for it ; cf. G. peallaid, 

pl^igh, a plague, Ir. pldigh, E. Ir. pldg, W. pla ; from Lat. pldga, 
disaster, M. Eng. pldge, Blng. plague. 

plais, a splash ; from Sc. plash, to strike water suddenly, Eng. 
plash, splash. 

plam, anything curdled : cf. Br. plommein, a clot, as of blood. 
See slaman. M'A. gives it the meaning of "fat blubber 

plang, a plack — a Scots coin ; from Sc. plack, a copper coin 
equal to four pennies Scots, which came with the Flemish, 
etc., and is allied to Fr. plaque, used of coin, though really a 
" metal dish, etc." See placaid. 

plangaid, a blanket ; Ir. plainceud (Fol.) ; from the Eng. 

plannta, a plant, Ir. planda ; from Eng. plant, Lat. planta. 

plaOBg, a husk, shell, Manx pleayse, Ir. plaosg, W. plisg (pi.), Br. 
pluskenn. This Emault considers borrowed from Romance — 
Fr. peluehe, shag, plush, Eng. plush, from Lat. * pilucius, 
hairy, pilus, hair : an unlikely derivation. Seemingly 
blaosg is another form (Manx bleayst, M. Ir. blaesc, W. blisg) : 
* bhloid-sko-, root bhloi, bhle, bhel, swell, etc. ; Gr. ^Aotos 
i*bhlovio-1), bark, shell, <^Xkhu>v, bladder. 

pl^sd, a plaster, Ir. plasdruighim, ; from the Eng. 


pl4t, a sort of cloth made of straw ; from Sc. plat, plait, Eng. 

jilait. M'A. has the meaning "thrust, clap on," from Sc. 

plai, a stroke to the ground, blow with the fist, M. Eng. 

platten, strike, throw down, Ag. S. plaettan. 
plath, pladh, a flash, glance, puff of wind ; from *svl-, root svel of 

soVus ? 
pleadhag, a dibble, paddle ; also bleaghan, spleadhan, q.v. 
pleadhart, a buffet, blow ; from pailleart ? 
pleasg, a noise, crack, Ir. pleasg {pleasg Lh.) — an Ir. word (M'A.): 

cf. Sc. pleesh, plesk, plash, pleesh-plash, dabbling in water or 

pleasg, a string of beads : 
pleat, a plait ; from Sc. plett, Eng. plait. 
pleid, solicitation ; see bleid. 
pleigh, quarrel, fight; fiom Sc. pley, quarrel, debate, M. Eng. 

pleie, pLege, Ag. S. plega, game, fight, Eng. play. 
pleoisg, plodhaisg, a booby, simpleton ; cf. W. Uoesg, a stam- 
merer (mlaisqo-), Skr. mlecchati, talk barbarously, mlnccha, 

foreigner, Lat. blaesus, Gr. /SAawros. 
pleddar, pewter ; from Eng. spelter, with leaning on peddar. 
pliad (H.S.D., Dial.), a plot of ground ; of Scandinavian origin — 

Swed. plaetti, a plot of ground, Eng. plot, plat (Dr Cameron). 
pliadh, a splay foot ; from Eng. splay. 
pliaram, babbling (H.S.D.); for *biiaram , see hlialum, from Sc. 

pliotair (pliodaire M'A.), a fawner, cajoler ; cf. Ir. pleadail, 

pleading ; from Eng. plead. 
pliut, a clumsy foot ; cf. Sc. ploots, the feet when bare (Shet.), 

plootsacks, feet. Hence pliutach, a seal. See spliut. 
ploc, a round mass, clod, block (rare), Ir. hloc, a block, W. ploc, 

block, plug, Br. hloiih, block, mass : Gadelic and W. are from 

Eng. hlock, from Fr. hloc, of German origin — Ger. Hock, clod, 

lump, from the root of Eng. halh. 
plod, a clod ; from Sc. plod, ploud, a green sod (Aberdeen). 
plod, a fleet, Manx flod ; from Norse floti, Eng. fleet, float, etc. 
plod, a pool of standing water, Manx, Ir. plod ; from M. Eng. 

plodde, a puddle, Eng. plod, originally " to wade through 

water," ploud, wade through water (Grose), Sc. plottt, plouter 

plodadh, parboiling ; from Sc. plot, to scald or bum with boiling 

water, plottie, a rich and pleasant hot drink made of cinnamon, 

cloves, etc. 
ploic, the mumps ; see pluic. 
plosg, palpitate, throb, Ir. plosg (O'E., Fol.), blosgadh, sounding, 

E. Ir. blosc (" ro clos blosc-beimnech a chride," the hitting 

sound of his heart). See blosg. 


plub, a plump, sudden fall into water; iromEng. plump.. Cf. 

plab. Hence plubraich, gurgling, plunging ; etc. 
plub, an unwieldy mass or lump ; from the Eng. plump. 
plubair, a booby, one speaking indistinctly, blubberer ; from Eng. 

pluc, a limip, pimple, Manx plucan, pimple ; seemingly a side 

form oiploc. M. Ir. has phice, club or mace. Cf. Sc. pluke, 

a pimple, 
pluc, pluck, Manx plvck ; from the Eng. 
pltic, beat, thump ; from M. Eng. pluck, a stroke. 
plucas, the flux ; founded on Lat. fluxus 2 

pliich, squeeze, compress, Ir. plucliaim, Manx ploogh, suffocation : 
pluic, cheek, blub cheek, Ir. pLuc : " puffed cheek ;" from ploc. 
pluideach, club-footed ; see pLiut. 
pluirean, a flower, Ir. plur ; from M. Eng. flour (now flower), 

0. Fr. flmtr (now fleur). 
plum, plunge into water ; see plumb. 
pltim, one who sits stock still, dead calm : 
pluma, plumba, a plummet, Ir. plumba ; from Eng. plwmb, Fr. 

plomb, from Lat. plumbum, lead. . 
plumb, noise of falling into water, plunge ; from Eng. plump. 
plumbas, plumbais, a plum, Ir. pluma ; from M. Eng. ploume, 

now plum. 
plundrainn, plunder, booty ; from Eng. plundering. 
plur, flour, Ir. fliir ; from M. Eng. flxiur ; same as Eug. flower, 

flaur being for "flower of wheat." 
plutadh, falhng down, as of rain ; from Sc. plout, Belg. jilotsen, 

Gei. plotzlich, sudden, from *plotz, "quickly falling blow." 
pobull, people, Ir. pobal, O. Ir. popul, W., Br. pobl, Cor. pobel ; 

from Lat. populus, whence Eng. people. 
poca, a bag ; from Sc. pock, Ag. S. poca, Norse poki, 0. Fr. poche. 
poca, p6caid, pocket, pouch, Ir. p6ca, pdcait (F. M.), bag, pouch ; 

from M. Eng. ^jrfie, Ag. S. poca, as above. Eng. pocket, 

M. Eng. poket, is a diminutive. K. Meyer takes the Ir. from 

the Norse poki. 
pog, p4g, a kiss, Manx paag. Ir. pdg, 0. Ir. p6c, pocnat, osculum, 

W. p6c, Br. pok ; from Lat. pdcem, " the kiss of peace," which 

was part of the ritual for the Mass ; hence in Church Lat. 

dare pacem, means "to give the kiss." The old Celtic liturgies 

generally carry the rubric "Hie pax datur" immediately 

before the Communion, 
poit, a pot, Ir. pota, W. pot, Br. pod ; from Eng. and Fr. pot, from 

Lat. potare ultimately. See next. 
pdit, drinking, tippling, Ir. pbit ; from Lat. potw, drunk (Eng. 

potatvm, poison, etc.). See bl. 


poitean, a small truss of hay or straw ; see boitean. 
poll, a pool, hole, mud, Ir., E. Ir. poll, W. pwll, Cor. pol, Br. 
poull; from Late Lat. padulus, pool, a metathesis of palus, 
paludis, marsh (Gaidoz), whence It. padula, Sp. paiil. Teutonic 

has Ag. S. pdl, Eng. pool, Du. poel, 0. H. G. pfuol, 

Ger. pfuhl. Skeat considers that poll is from Low Lat. 
padulis, and that the Ag. S. p6l was possibly borrowed from 

the British Latin or Latin remains seen in place-names having 
port, street, -Chester, etc. (Principles,^ 437). 
poll, pollair, nostril, Ir. polldlre, poll-srSna ; from poll. 
poUag, the fish pollock or lythe — gadus poUachius, of the cod and 

whiting genus, Ir. pulldg ; from poll ? Hence the Eng. 

name. The Irish Eng. pollan. So. powan, is a different fish 

— of the salmon genus. 
poUairean, the dunlin (Heb.), polidna alpina. Mr Swainson 

(Folklore of British Birds) translates its Gaelic name as 

" bird of the mud pits (poll)," an exact description, he says. 
ponach, boy, lad (Dial.) ; of. Manx vonniar, a boy, a small fish 

basket ! 
ponaidh, a pony ; from the So. pownie, from 0. Fr. poulenet (I lost 

as usual), little colt, now poulain, a colt, from Med. Lat. 

pullanus, from Lat. pullus, foal, Eng. foal, filly. 
p6nair, bean or beans, Ir. pbnaire, M. Ir. ponaire ; from Norse 

baun, 0. H. G. pona, Ger. bohne, Eng. bean, Du. boon (Stokes' 

Celt. Dec.). 
pdr, seed, spore, Ir. p6r, seed, clan, W. par, germ ; from Gr. 

OTTO/JOS, seed, Eng. spore. 
port, harbour, port, Ir. port, harbour, fort, 0. Ir. port, W., Com. 

porth, Br. pors, porz ; from Lat. partus, Eng. port. 
port, a tune, Ir. port, M. Ir. ceudport, rhyme, prelude : " carry = 

catch;" from Lat. porto, carry. Sc. port, catch, tune, is 

from Gaelic. Cf. Eng. sport, from Lat. dis-porto. 
p6s, marry, 0. G. pUsta, wedded (B. of Deer), M. Ir. p6saim ; from 

Lat. sponsus, sponsa, betrothed, from spondeo, I promise (Eng. 

spouse, respond, etc.). 
post, post, beam, pillar, Ir. posda, posta, W. post ; from the Eng. 

post, from Lat. postis. 
prab, discompose, ravel (prab, H.S.D.), prabach, dishevelled, 

ragged, blear-eyed, \r. prdbach (O'R.) : "suddenly arrayed," 

from prap ? 
pr^bar, pr^bal, a rabble ; from prab, prab, discompose. See 

above word, 
prac, vicarage dues, small tithes, which were paid in kind (N. H. 

and Isles) : 
pracas, hotch-potch ; cf. Sc, Eng. fricassee. 


prd,cais, idle talk ; from Eng. fracas ? 

prd,dhainn, press of business, flurry (M'A. for Islay), Ir. praidhin, 

0. Ir. brothad, a moment ; see priobadh. 
prainnseag, mince coUops, haggis ; from prann, pound (M'A), a 

side fornji of pronn, q.v. 
prais, brass, pot-metal (Arm.), pot (M'A.), prais, brass (H.S.D. 

M'L., M'E.), Manx prash, Ir. prdis, pros, W. pres ; from 

M. Eng. bras, Ag. S. brces. Hence praiseach, bold woman, 

concubine, meretrix. 
praiseach, broth, pottage, etc, Ir. praiseach, pottage, kale, M. Ir. 

braissech, W. bresych, cabbages ; from Lat. brassica, cabbage. 
prd.mli, a slumber, slight sleep : 
praonan, an earthnut ; see braonan. 

prap, quick, sudden, Ir. jyrab, M. Ir. prap ; see under priobadh. 
prasach, a manger, crib : 
prasgan, brasgan, a group, flock ; cf. Ir. prosndn, a troop, com- 

pany (O'R.) : 
preachan, a crow, kite, moor-bittern, Ir. preackan, crow, kite, 
,xisprey (according to the adj. applied), M. Ir. prechan, crow, 
^^ raven : 
preachan, a mean orator (M'A.), Ir. preachoine, crier, M. Ir. 

prechoineadka, prsBcones ; from the Lat. praeco{ri), crier, 

preas, a bush, brier, W. prys, brushwood, covert : *qrst-, root qer 

of crann ? The G., which is borrowed, is doubtless of Pictish 

preas, a press, cupboard, Manx prest ; from the Eng. press. 
preas, a wrinkle, fold ; from the Eng. press. 
preathal, confusion of mind, dizziness ; see breitheal. 
prighig, fry ; from the Eng. frying. 
prine, a pin ; from the Sc. preen, M. Eng. preon, Ag. S. prion, 

Norse prjdnn, Ger. pfriem. 
priobadh, winking, twinkling (of the eye), Ir. prap in le prap na 

siU, in the twinkling of the eyes (Keating), from prap, 

sudden, M. Ir. prapud, brief space (as twinkling of the eyes), 

la brafad siila, older friha brathad swte, where we get the series 

prapud, brafad, brathad (g. brutto), 0. Ir. brothad, moment. 

Stokes compares the similar Gothic phrase — in brahva augins. 

where brahv might = a British *brap, borrowed into Irish. 

The form brafad could easily develop into brap ; the difficulty 

is the passing of th of brothad (which gives g. brotto) into / of 

brafad (but see £ev. Celt.^" 57). The G. priobadh has its 

vowel influenced by preabadh, kicking, that is, breabadh, q.v. 
priobaid, a trifle, priobair, a worthless fellow ; from Sc. bribour, 

low beggarly fellow, M. Eng. bribour, rascal, thief; fronj 


0. Fr. hribeur, beggar, vagabond, briber, to beg, bribe, morsel 

of bread, Eng. bribe. Hence priobaid is from an early 

Northern form of Eng. bribe. See breaban further. 
priomh, prime, chief, Ir. priomh, a principal, primh, prime, 0. Ir. 

prim, W. prif ; from Lat. primus, first, Eng. prime. 
prionnsa, a prince, so Ir., M. Ir. prindsa ; from M. Eng. and Fr. 

prince. (Stokes takes it from Fr. direct), 
priosan, prison, Ir. priosiin, M. Ir. primn ; from M. Eng. prisoun, 

from 0. Fr. prison (Stokes takes it from 0. Fr. prisun). 
pris, price, W. pris ; from M. Eng. prls, from 0. Fr. pris, Lat. 

probhaid, profit ; from the Eng. 
proghan, dregs, lees : 
proinn, a dinner, 0. G. proinn (B. of Deer), Ir. proinn, 0. Ir. proind, 

praind ; from Lat. prandium. 
prois, pride, haughtiness ; from Sc. prossie, prowsie, nice and par- 
ticular, Dut. prootsch, preutsch, proud, Eng. provd. The 

Arran Dial, has protail for prdiseil. 
proitseach, a boy, stripling ; from Eng. protege ? 
pronn, food ; see proinn. 

pronn, bran, Manx pronn ; see next word. Hence Sc. pron. 
pronn, pound, bray, mash, Manx pronney, pounding ; see, for root 

and form, bronn, distribute, from the root bhrud, break, which 

thus in G. means (1) distribute, (2) break or crush. Hence 

pronnag, a crumb, Sc. pronacks. 
pionnasg, brimstone ; formed on Sc. brunstane, Norse brennisteinn, 

Eng. brimstone. Dial, of Badenoch has the form pronnasdail. 
pronndal, muttering, murmuring (Dial, brundlais) : 
prop, a prop, Ir. propa ; from Eng. prop. 
prosnaich, incite ; see brosnaich. 
protaig, a trick ; from Sc. prattick, trick, stratagem, Ag. S. prcett, 

craft, prcetig, tricky, Eng. pretty, Norse prettr, a trick. 
prothaisd, a provost ; from the Eng. 
pubull, a tent, Ir. pupal, g. puible, O. Ir. pupall, W. pabell, pebyll ; 

from \&\,.papn,lio, butterfly, tent, Eng. pavilion. Seepailliun. 
ptic, push, jostle ; from the Sc. powk, thrust, dig, M. Eng. pukken, 

pouken, pdken, to thrust, poke, Eng. poke, Ger. pochen, knock. 

Dial. ftic. 
pucaid, a pimple; see bucaid. 
pudhar, harm, injury, Ir. p4dhar (O'B.), M. Ir. pvdar, E. Ir.pddar, 

pudar ; from Lat. pudor, shame. Usually taken as borrowed 

from Lat. pHtor, rottenness, Eng. putrid. 
piiic, a bribe : 

puicean, a veil, covering, Ir. puicin : 
puidse, a pouch ; from the Eng. 


puinneag, sorrel : 

puinneanach, beat, thump ; from M. Eng. pounen, now pound, 

Ag. S. punian. 
puinse, punch, toddy ; from Eng. punch. 
puinsean, puision, poison ; from the Eng. Manx has pyshoon. 
pviirleag, a crest, tuft, Ir. puirMgach, crested, tufted (O'B., Sh.), 

pmirleog (O'K.) — an Irish word. See pkrlag. 
pulag, round stone, ball, pedestal, also bulag ; from M. Eng. 

h(mle, a ball or bowl, now iowl, Fr. boule. 
pulas, pot-hook (Dial.) ; see hulas. 
punc, a point, note, Ir. punc, 0. Ir. pone, W. pwnc ; from Lat. 

punetum, Eng. point. 
punnan, a sheaf, Manx hunney, Ir. punnann, E. Ir. punann ; from 

Norse bundin, a sheaf, bundle, Eng. bundle, bind. 
punnd, a poimd, Ir. punta, punt, M. Ir. punt ; from the Eng. 
punnd, a place for securing stray cattle, a pound ; from the Eng. 

punntainn, funntainn, benumbment by cold or damp : 
purgaid, a purge, Ir. purgSid ; from Lat. purgatio, Eng. purga- 
tion, purge. 
purgadoir, purgatory, Ir. purgaddir, E. Ir. purgaioir, Br. purgator ; 

from Lat. purgatorium, Eng. purgatory. 
ptirlag, a rag, tatter, fragment : 

purp, pnrpais, sense, ment,al faculty ; from Eng. purpose. 
purpaidh, purpur, purple, Ir. purpuir, M. Ir. pwrpuir, W. 

porphor ; from Lat. purpura, Eng. purple. The old Gadelic 

form, borrowed through British, is corcur. 
purr,^thrust, push : from Sc. porr, thrust, stab, Du. porren, poke, 

thrust. Low Ger. purr en, poke about ; further Eng. pore. 
pus, a cat, Ir. jms ; from the Eng. 
put, the cheek (Stew., H.S.D.) ; from Eng. pout. 
put, thrust, push ; from Sc. put, push, thrust, M. Eng. puten, push, 

now Eng. put. Also G. but, butadh. 
pdt, young of moorfowl ; from Sc. pout (do.), Eng. poult, chicken, 

from Fr. poulet, from Lat. pulla, a hen, pullus, young fowl. 
piit, a large buoy, usually of inflated sheepskin ; seemingly of 

Scand. origin — Swedish Dial, puta, be inflated ; cf. Eng. 

pudding, W. pwtyn, a short round body. Cor. pot, bag, 

putag, oarpin, also butag ; from Eng. hutt. 
putag, a pudding, Ir. put6g ; from the Eng. 
putag, a small rig of land (H.S.D.) : 
putau, a button, W. botvm ; from Eng. button. 
puth, , puffi sound of a shot, syllable ; onomatopoetic. Cf . Eng. 

puff, etc. _ 
puthaFj power'(M'A.) ; from the Eng. power. 


r^bach, litigious, Ir. rdbach, litigious, bullying : 
rabhadh, a ■warning, so Ir., E. Ir. robuth, forewarning : ro + huth, 

latter from *hvio-, root gu, cry, Gr. /Sotj, shout, Skr. gu, be 

heard. W. rhybvdd is from the root qu (Stokes, Rev. Celt.^^). 
rabhairt, reothairt, springtide, Manx royart, Ir. romhairt, 

rahharta, M. Ir. robarta, 0. Ir. roharti, malinas (sing. 

*robarte); ro + bertio-, "pro-fero," root bher of bfiir. 
rabhan, rhapsody, repetition, Ir. rabhdn, repetition ; from ro and 

*ba, say, root bhd, Lat. fdri, speak, Eng. fame, fate. 
rabbart, upbraiding, senseless talk ; from ro and ber of ahair, say, 

rabhd, idle talk : *ro-bant, root ba, speak, as in rabhan. 
rac, the ring keeping the yard to the mast, the "traveller ;" from 

Norse rahhi (do.). 
rac, a rake, Ir. rdea, W. rhaean ; from M. Eng. rake, Eng. rake. 
Tie, a drake ; from the Eng., earlier Eng. endrake. The loss of d 

is due to the article. 
racadh, tearing ; see sracadh. 
racadal, horse-radish (Sh., H.S.D., Arm.), r^cadal (M'E.), Ir. 

rdcadal ; see rotacal. 
racaid, noise ; cf. the Sc, Eng. racket. Skeat takes the Eng. from 

the Gaelic, referring the G. to rac, to make a noise like geese 

or ducks. See next word. 
rdiCail, noise of geese (H.S.D.) ; cf. Sc. rachle. See next word. 
racain, noise, riot, mischief, r^caireachd, croaking, Ir. raean; cf. 

Br. rakat, rakal, croak, raklat, cry as a hen ; Lat. raccare, cry 

as a tiger. Lit. rekti, cry, root rak. The words are greatly 

racan, a bandy or crooked stick ; cf. rac. 
racas, saU hoop ; see rac. 
racb, go, Ir. rachad, I will go, E. Ir. ragat, ibo, 0. Ir. doreg, 

veniam ; root reg, stretch. See dirich for the root connections. 
racbd, vexation, moan, Ir. rachd, a fit as of crying or tears : cf. 

rachdan, a tartan plaid worn mantle-wise : 
racuis, rack, roasting apparatus, Ir. raca ; from the Eng. rack, 

M. Eng. racke. 
radan, a rat ; from Sc. ration, M. Eng. raton, now rat. 
radh, saying, Ir. rdd/i, 0. Ir. rdd, rdidiu, I speak : I. E. r6dJirdJd ; 

Got. rddja, I speak ; Skr. rddhayati, brings about ; root redh, 

re-dh, re- of Lat. reor, think, ratio, reason, 
radharc, sight, Ir, radharc, E. Ir. radarc, rodare : ro + dare ; for 

dare see dearc, behold, 
rag, a wrinkle, Ir. rag (O'B., etc.) ; see roc. 



rag, stiff, benumbed, unwilling, Manx rag, stiff, Ir. rag (Fol.) ; 

boiTowing from the Norse hrah-, wretched, has been sug- 
gested. Hence rogaim (so Ir. in Lh., etc.), sneeze-wort (Cam.), 
rag, a rag ; from the Eng. 
ragair, extortioner, villain; from Eng. rack, as in rach^ent. 

Dial. G. has rdgair, for and from " rogue." 
ragha, raghadh, choice ; see roghainn. 
raghan, churchyard (Sutherland) ; cf. Ir. rdih, baiTOW, the same 

as G. rath. 
raghar, radhar, an arable but untilled field (H.S.D., Dial.) : 
rd.ichd, impertinence, idle prating (M'F., etc.) : 
r^ideil, inventive, sly, Ir. raideamhuil, cunning, sly : 
r^ldse, a prating fellow ; founded on radh ? 
r^inig, came, Ir. rdnaig, 0. Ir. rank, v§nit ; for r-dnic, ro-dnie ; 

see thdinig. 
raip, filth, foul mouth, raipeas, foul mouth, rapach, slovenly, 

foul-mouthed; M. Ir. rap, animals that draw food to them 

from earth, as the pig and its like (O'CL), E. Ir. rap (Corm., 

rop tor cows, etc.) : rab-tho-, root rah, srab, Lat. sorbeo? Stokes 

gives the stem as *rapno-, root rap of Lat. rapio, I seize. 

The Ger. raffen, seize, snatch, has also been suggested. 
raisean, goat's tail : 

raite, a saying, dictum ; for radhte, a participial formation. 
rMth, a quarter of a year, Ir. rdithe, M. Ir. raithe: * ratio-, from 

fir-, Skr. rtu, season of the year, appointed time for worship, 

Zend ratu (do.), 
raithneach, raineach, fern, Ir. raithneach, raith, W. rhedyn, Cor. 

reden, 0. B. raten, Br. raden, Gaul, ratis : *pratis ; Lit. 

papartis, Euss. paporoti ; Eng. fern. 
ramachdair, a coarse fellow : 
ramasg, sea tangle : 
ramh, an oar, Ir. rdmha, 0. Ir. rdme, W. rhaw, spade. Com. rSv, 

oar, Br. roenv : *rdmo- ; root ere, re, ro ; Lat. remus (*resmo-) ; 

Gr. epeT[ws ; Eng. rudder ; Skr. aritras. 
ramhlair, humorous, noisy fellow ; from Eng. rambler. Also, 

Badenoch Dial., ramalair, rambler. 
T&n, roar, cry ; Skr. rd, bark, ran, sound, rdyana, crying ; Ch. SI. 

raru, sonitus, Lettic rdt, scold ; and cf. Lat. rdna, frog, 
rangoir, a wrangler ; founded on the English. 
rann, a division, portion, Ir., 0. Ir. rann, W. rhan. Corn, ran, later 

radn, 0. Br. rannmi, partimonia : *{p)rannd, *pratsnd, root 

par, per ; Lat. pars, partis, portio ; Gr. wopdv, supply, 

TreTrptoTai (perf. pass, of Tropilv). 
rann, a quatrain, stave, Ir. rann, E. Ir. rann, rand ; from rann 

above (^ann, stave, is mas. iq E. Ir., the other rann is fem.). 

til* THE GAELIC liANGTjAGil. 269 

ranndair, a murmuring, complaining (H.S.D., Dial.) ; cf. ran. 
rannsaicli, search, scrutinize, Ir. rannsuighim ; from Norse rann- 

saka, search, a house, ransack, whence Eng. ransack. 
ranutair, a range, extent of territory : "division," from rann. 
raog, a rushing (H.S.D., Dial.) ; cf. ruaiq. 
raoichd, raoic, hoarse sound or cry ; cf. rhc. 
raoine, a young barren cow that had calf ; cf. Sc. rhind, as in 

rhind mart, Ger. rind, cattle, beeves. 
raoir, an raoir, last night, Ir. a raoir, a riir, 0. Ir. areir, from reir : 

*retri-, *pretri-, from pre, a side form like pro of per. See 

roimh further. The Skr. rdtri, night, has been compared, 

but the phonetics do not suit, and also Lat. retro. Cf. also 

earar, uiridh. 
raoit, indecent mirth ; from Sc. riot (do.), Eng. riot. 
raon, a field, plain, road, so Ir., E. Ir. roen, road, 0. Ir. roe, roi, 

plain : *roves-m,o-, *roves-jd? Lat. rus, ruris ; Eng. room. 

Norse rein, a strip of land, suggests the possibility of a 

Gadelic *roino-. 
rapach, dirty-mouthed ; see raip. 
rapach, noisy, rdipal, noise, Ir. rdpal, noise, bustle ; founded on 

Eng. rabble. 
ras, a shrub (M'F., not M'A. or M'E.), Ir. ras (O'B., etc.) : 
lasan,, grating noise, loquacity, rasanach, discordant, Ir. 

rdscach, clamorous, talkative ; cf. ran for ultimate root, 
rasdail, a rake, harrow, E. Ir. rastal ; from Lat. rastellus, rake, 

hoe, rastrum, from rddo, scrape, Eng. raze, rash. etc. 
rath, prosperity, so Ir., 0. Ir. rath, gratia, W. rliad, grace, favour: 

*rato-n, root rd, give ; Skr. rati, gift, ras, rayis, property, 

Zend rata, gift ; Lat. ris. 
rath, a raft, Ir. rathannaihh, (on) rafts (F. M.) ; Lat. ratis. The 

root is the same as that of rdmh ( = ret, rat here), 
r^th, rathan, surety, vadimonium, Ir. ratfi (O'B., O'CL), 0. Ir. 

rdth ; cf. 0. Br. rad, stipulationes, which Stokes equates with 

Ir. raih, and says that it is from Lat. ratum, (ratwm facere = 

"ratify"), a derivation to which Loth objects. Hibernian 

Lat. has rata for surety. The Lat. and G. are ultimately from 

the same root in any case (see rddh). 
t rith, a fortress, residence, Ir. rdth, E. Ir. rdth, rdith, g. rdtha, 

Gaul, ratin, Argento-ratum : *rdti-s, *rdto-n; cf. Lat. prdtum, 

a mead, 
rathad, a road ; cf. M. Ir. ramhad (O'Cl.), E. Ir. ramut (Corm.). 

The G. may be from the Eng., however. 
re, the moon, Ir., 0. Ir. re, luna : 
re, time, space, Ir. re, 0. Ir. re, g. ree, space : *revesi-, the e form 

of 0. Ir. ria, *rovesjd, discussed under raon, q.v. Hence the 

prep. r6,. during, which governs the genitive. 


reabh, wile, trick, reabhair, subtle fellow, reabhradh, disporting, 

as boys (Badenoch), Ir. reabh (O'CL), reabhach, mountebank, 

the devil, reabhradh, E. Ir. rebrad, boys playing, sporting ; 

root reb, play. Bez. compares M. H. G. reben, move, stir, 

Swiss rabeln, to brawl, be noisy, to which add Eng. rabble. 

01. Zim. Stud.'^ 83, 84. 
reachd, law, statute, so Ir., 0. Ir. -recht, W. rhaith, Br. reiz, just : 

*rektvr, from the root reg ; Lat. rectum, right, rego, rule ; Eng. 

reamhar, fat, Ir. reamhar, ramhar, E. Ir. remor {remro-), W. rhef, 

thick ] root rem, to be thick ; Norse ramr, strong, stark. 

Stokes gives the alternatives of M. H. G. frum, worn, sound, 

brave, 0. Sax. furm, or Gr. irpefjLvov, stem, thick end. 
reang, a wrinkle in the face : " a rib ;" see reang, boat-rib. 
reang, a rank, series ; from early Sc. renh, M. E. reng, now rank ; 

Ir. ran,c, W. rheng, Br. renh ; 0. Fr. renc. 
reang, a boafc-rib, rangan (Sutherland) ; from Norse rong, g. 

vangar, a ship-rib. See rong. 
reang, kill, starve (M'F.), E. Ir. ringim, I tear, reangadh, to hang, 

reng, piercing or tearing. See tarruing. 
reannach, spotted, striped : " starred ;" see reannag. 
reannag, a star, Ir. reanndn, 0. Ir. rind, constellation, signum, 

sidus : *rendi-, root red, rd, order; Lit. nnda, row, order, 

Ch. Slav. r§du, ordo ; Gr. ifyqpiSerai, fixed ; Lat. ordo (Fick, 

reasach, talkative, prattling (H.S.D., Dial.), Ir. reaseach, rdscach ; 

see rdsan. 
teasgach, stubborn, irascible, restive : 
reic, sell, Ir. reic, a sale, 0. Ir. recc, a sale, reccaim (vb.), also 

renim, I sell : root per, through, over (" sell over sea") ; Gr. 

irepdto, sell, pass through, irnrpda-Kbi, ■jrepvrjp.i, I sell ; Lit. 

pirkti, perku, buy. The Gadelic and Lit. show a secondary 

root perk, prek, Gadelic *{p)rek-kd, while 0. Ir. renim and 

Gr. Trepvr)[i,L give a stem pema-, prendr (Ir.). 
r6ic, roar, howl (H.S.D.) : 
r^idh, plain, smooth, Ir. rSidh, 0. Ir. re'id, W. rhwydd, 0. W. ruid, 

0. Br. roed, M. Br. roez, Br. rouez : *reidi- ; Eng. ready, Ger. 

bereit. Got. garaids, ordered. Also 0. Ir. riadaim, I drive, 

Gaul, rida, waggon, allied to Eng. ride, Ger. reiien, etc. 
r^ilig, a burying ground, Manx ruillick, Ir. reilig, roilig, E. Ir. 

relic(c), relec(c), 0. Ir. reilic, cemeterium ; from Lat. reliquice, 

reim, dominion, power, Ir. reim : 
reim, course, order, Ir, reim, 0. Ir. reimm, inf. to refhim, I run : 

^reid-s-meti^, root reid of reidh, 0. Ir. riadaim,, I drive. 


Strachan suggests as alternates root rengli, spring, leap (cf. 
W. rhamu, soar), Gr. pifK^a, quickly, Ger. ge-ring, light, Lit. 
rengtis, hurry ; or root ret, run (see ruith), *retmen, or, rather, 
* ret-s-men, which would only give remm. 

r6ir, a r6ir, according to, Ir. a reir, do reir ; dat. of riar, q.v. 

r6is, a race ; from the Eng. (H.S.D.). 

reis, a span, Ir. reise : *prendsid, from sprend. Lit. sprdsti, to 
measure a span, root sprend (Strachan). 

reisimeid, a regiment ; from the Eng. 

reit, r6ite, concord, conciliation, Jr. reidhteach ; from reidh, with 
terminal -tio-. 

reithe, reath, a ram, Ir. reithe, E. Ir. vethe : *retio- ; cf. Lat. aries 
(*eriet-), Umbrian erietu (from eri-), Gr. £pi<f>os, etc., as in 

reodh, reotha, frost, Ir. red, reodhadh, E. Ir. reo, read, 0. Ir. reud, 
W. rhew, Com. reu, gelu, Br. reo, rev. Stokes gives the stem 
as *regu-, even suggesting that the Gadelic forms are borrowed 
from the Cymric ; 0. Ir. rdiod he refers to *presatu-. I. E. 
preus, whence Lat. pruina, Eng. freeze, has been suggested, 
but the vowels do not immediately suit (preus would give 
ma-, r6- or ro-, in G.) ; yet *prevo-, a longer form (with or 
without s) of preu-s, can account for the Celtic forms. 

reub, riab, tear, wound, Ir. reuhavm,, reabaim, E. Ir. rebaim, rep- 
gaeth, rending wind : *reibbo-, root reib, Eng. reap, ripe, and 
rip (?). Stokes gives the stem as *reip-n6-, root reip of Gr. 
kpdirm, dash down, Lat. ripa, Eng. rive, rift, Norse rifna, 
rumpi, rifa, break. G. reubainn, rapine, leans for its form 
and force on Lat. rapina. W. rheihio, seize, is from Lat. 

reubal, a rebel ; from the Eng. 

reudan, a timber moth ; cf. 0. Ir. retan, recula, small thing, from 
ret, now rud, q.v. 

reul, pi. reultan, star, Ir. reult, g. reilte, E. Ir. retla, g. retland, 
retglu, g. retgland ("rdtgle, bright thing," Corm.) ; perhaps 
rk, thing, and *gland, shining, Ger. glam (see gleus). 

reumail, constant (Arms.) ; from rAm, course. 

reusan, reason, Ir. reusun, M. Ir. resiin, from M. Eng. reisun, now 

ri, to, against, Ir. re, 0. Ir. ri, fri, in composition friths, fris-, fre-, 
W. gwrth, wrth, versus, contra, re-. Cor. orth, Br. ouz ; *vrti, 
root vert, turn ; Lat. versus, against, to, verto, turn ; Eng. 
-wards ; etc. 

riabhach, brindled, greyish, so Ir., M. Ir. riab, a stripe : *reibdho- ; 
Lit. raibas, mottled grey, Lett, raibs, motley, 0. Pruss. 
roaban, striped. 


riabhag, a lark, Ir. riahh6g : 

riach, cut the surface, graze. Although there is I. E. reiko-, 

notch, break (Gr. epeUb), tear, Lit. raikyti, draw a furrow, 

etc., Ger. reihe, row, Eng. row), yet it seems most probable 

that riach is a variant of slyrioch, q.v. 
riachaid, a distributing : 
riadh, interest ; from an older riad, running, course (see reidh for 

root). Cf. for force M. Ir. rith, interest : " running." 
riadh, a driU (as of potatoes, Badenoch) : " course, running," as in 

the case of riadh above. See riamh. 
riadh, a snare : *reigo-, root rig in cuibkreach ? 
riaghailt, a rule, Ir. riaghail, 0. Ir. riagul, riagol ; from Lat. 

rigula, Eng. rule. Hence also riaghail, rule thou, 
riaghan, a swing, swinging ; cf. Ir. riagh, gallows, riaghadh, 

hanging, gibbeting, 0. Ir. riag, gibbet. Cf. riadh, snare. 
riamh, a drill (of potatoes, turnips, etc., M'A. for Skye) ; see 

riadh. H.S.D. gives the meaning of " series, number," Ir. 

riomh, 0. Ir. rim, number, W. rhif, as in d,ireamh, q.v. 
riamh, ever, before, Ir. riamh, 0. Ir. riam, antea : * rdmo-, 

preimo-, I. E. pri, prt, belonging as a case to jn-o, before, and 

per ; Lat. pri- (in pris-cits, primus, etc.), Lith. pri, Got. fri-. 

See roimh. 
rian, order, mode, sobriety, Ir. rian, way or path, E. Ir. rian, way, 

manner : *reino-, root rei; Lat. rtfus, Eng. rite (Strachan). 
riar, wiU, pleasure, Ir. riar, 0. Ir. riar, voluntas : *prtjard 

(Stokes), root pri, love, please ; Eng. friend, Got. frijon, to 

love ; Ch. SI. prijati, be favourable ; Skr. priyate, be gratified, 

priridti, enjoy. 
riasall, tear asunder, riasladh, mangling, tear asunder : *rei&-so-, 

root reik, notch, break ; Gr. epeUto, tear 1 Cf. riastradh, riach. 
riasg, dirk-grass, morass with sedge, land covered with sedge or 

dirk-grass, Manx recast, wilderness, Ir. riasg, moor or fen, 

E. Ir. riasc, morass : *reisko- ; cf. Lat. ruscum (*roiscum ?), 

butcher's broom, Eng. rtish. Sc. reesk, coarse grass, marshy 

land, is from G. 
riasglach, a mangled carcase (H.S.D., Dial.) ; from stem of 

riaspach, riasplach, confused, disordered ; see next word, 
riastradh, turbulence, confusion, wandering, E. Ir. riastrad, dis- 
tortion. For root, cf. riasail. 
riatach, wanton, illegitimate ; cf. Eng. riot. 
rib, hair, snare, Ir. ribe, ruibe, hair, whisker. See next words. 
ribeag, rag, tassel, fringe, ribean, riband, Ir. ribeog, rag, tassel, 

ribleach, a long line, anything tangled, ribin, riband ; from 

M. Eng. riban, 0. Fr. riban (Br. ruban). 


ribheid, a reed, bagpipe reed, musical note, Ir. rihheid ; from 

M. Eng. reod, now reed. 
ribhinn, rioghann, a nymph, young lady, quean, Ir. rioghan, 

queen, E. Ir. rigan, a derivative of rlgh, king. Gaelic leans, 

by popular etymology, on righ-hhean. 
rideal, a riddle ; from the Eng. 
ridhe, field, bottom of a valley (H.S.D.) ; better righe. See 

ridir, a knight, Ir. ridire, E. Ir. ritire, W. rlieidyr ; from Ag. S. 

ridere, horseman, ridda{n), knight, Ger. ritter, knight, Norse 

riddari, rider, knight ; from the verb ride (see reidh). 
righ, a king, Ir. rigk, 0. Ir. ri, g. rig, W. rhi, Gaul, -rix, pi. -riges : 

*reks, g. regos ; Lat. rex, rigis ; Got. reiks, ruler, Eng. rich, 

-ric ; Skr. rdj, king, our rajak 
righil, a reel, dance ; see ruithil. 
righinn, tough, pliant, tenacious, Ir. righin : *reg-eni-; root reg, 

stretch, Gn 6pey(o, stretch, Lat. porrigo, rego, etc. See dirich. 
rinn, a point, promontory, Ir. rind, 0. Ir. rinnd, rind, W. rhi/n, 

penrhyn, cape. It has been analysed as ro-ind, "fore-end," 

E. Ir. ind, end, Eng. end. Cf. reannag, however. 
rinn, did, Ir. rinn, 0. Ir. rigni, fecit ; from ro and gni of nl, will 

do, q.v. 
riochd, appearance, form, Ir. riochd, 0. Ir. richt, W. rhith : *rikiu-, 

*rktu- (?) ; for root, see that of dorch. 
rioluinn, a cloud (Smith) : 
riof, the reef of a sail ; from the Eng. 
riomhach, fine, costly, handsome, Ir. rimheighe, finery, delicate- 

ness : *rimo-, " measured ;" root rim of aireamh ? 
rionnach, reannach, a mackerel : " streaked, spotted," from reann, 

star, constellation. See reannag. 
riopail, mangle, tear (H.S.D.) ; founded on Eng. rip. 
rireadh, a rireadh, really, in earnest, Ir. rireadh, da rireadh or 

riribh, revera ; from *ro-fKvr, very true ? 
risteal, a surface plough used in the Hebrides, drawn by one 

horse and having a sickle-like coulter, Sc. ristle ; from the 

Norse ristill, ploughshare, from rista, cut. 
rithisd, rithis, ris, a rittisd, etc., again, Ir. aris, 0. Ir. arithissi, 

afrithissi, rursus. Ascoli suggests *frith-eisse, from dis, 

vestigium (see deis). Others have derived it from *ar-fithis, 

0. Ir. fithissi, absidas, fithis, a circle, orbit. The a at the 

beginning is for ar- : * ar-frithissi, that is, air, by, on, q.v. 

The root may well be sta, stand, reduplicated to *sistio- : 

thus *frith-{s/i)issi; "resistere, backness." 
ro, very, Ir. r6, 0. Ir. ro-, W. rhy-, Br. re, 0. Br. ro-, rit-, Gaul, ro- 

(Bo-smerta, Bo-danos, etc.) : *ro-, *pro-, which is both a 


verbal and an intensive particle ; Lat. "pro ; Gr. irpo, before ; 

Ehg. fore, for ; Skr. pra, before, 
rdb, coarse hair ; founded on Eng. rope. 

robair, a robber ; from the Eng. The Ir. has robail for " rob." 
robhas, notification, information about anything lost ; cf. robhadh 

for root, the old form of rabhadh, q.v. 
roc, a rock ; from the Eng. 
roc, a wrinkle, Ir. rocdn, ruff ; from the Norse hrukka, wrinkle, 

fold, Eng. ruck, fold (Thurneysen). See rug. 
roc, a hoarse voice ; founded on the Norse hriikr, rook, croaker, 

G. rbc(u, crow, Norse hr6kr, rook. W. has rhoch, grunt, 

groan, Br. roe ha, which Stokes refers to *rokka, Gr. peyKm, 

rocail, tear, corrugate ; in the latter sense, it is from roc, wrinkle, 

and, probably, the first meaning is of the same origin. See, 

however, racadh. 
r6cas, a crow ; from Norse hrbkr, rook, M. Eng. rook, Ag. S. hroc. 
rdchd, a cough, retching (Dial.) ; see roc. 
rod, a way, road, Ir. r6d, E. Ir. r6d ; from Ag. S. rdd, M. Eng. 

rode, now road. 
r6d, a quantity of sea-weed cast on the shore ; cf. Ir. r6d, a cast, 

shot (O'R.), E. Ir. rout. 
r6d, a rood (of land or mason-work) ; from the Eng. 
rodaidh, ruddy, darkish, M. Ir. rotaide : *rud-do-, root rud, rovd 

of ruadh, q.v. 
r6g, rogair, a rogue ; from the Eng. 
roghainn, a choice, Ir. rogha, g. roghan, E. Ir. rogain, n. pi., 0. Ir. 

rogu : *ro-gu, root gu, gus of taghhadh, q.v. Stokes gives the 

stem as *rog6n and the root as rog, which {Bez. Beit.^^) he 

correlates with Lat. rogo, ask. Bez. suggests Lit. rogduti, to 

roib, filth, squalid beard, filth about the mouth ; cf. rbpack for 

r6ic, a sumptuous but unrefined feast ; seemingly founded on the 

Sc. rouch as applied to a feast — " plentiful but rough and 
. ready." 
roic, tear (H.S.D. ; Sh. and Arm. have roic) ; see rocail. 
roid, bog myrtle, Ir. rideog (O'R.) : 
roid, a race before a leap, a bounce or spring : *raddi-, *raz-di-, 

root ras, as in Eng. race ? 
roilean, snout of a sow ; really the "rolled" up part of the snout, 

and so possibly from Eng. roll. 
roileasg', a confused joy, roille, a fawning or too cordial reception ; 

cf. Ir. rdthoil, exceeding pleasure, from toil, will. Also G, 



roimh, before, Ir. roimh, 0. Ir. rem- : *(p)rmo- (Stokes), root per, 
as in ro ( =pro) ; in form, nearest allied to Eng. from. Got. 
fruma. Lit. pirm, before. In the pronominal compounds, 
■where s begins the pronoun, the m and s develop an inter- 
mediate p coincident with the eclipse of the s ■.rompa = *rom- 
p-shu, where sm = sds (see sa). 

rdin, roineag^ (also rdinn, roinneag), Ir. rdine, rdinne, a hair, 
especially a horse hair, W. rhawn, coarse long hair, Br. reun, 
a hair, bristle : *rdm- : 

roinn, division, share, Ir. roinn, M. Ir. roinded, divided : *ranni-, 
an i stem from rann, q.v. 

rdiseal, surge of a wave, the impetus of a boat, an assault, boast- 
ing ; from the Sc. rov^t, strong tide or current, Norse riist, a 
stream or current in the sea. In the sense of " boast," it is 
■ from Sc. rouse, roose, Norse rausan, boasting. 

rdisead, rosin ; from the Sc. roset, Eng. rosin. 

roisgeul, a romance, rhodomontade ; from ro, very, and sgeul, a 
tale, q.v. 

rdist, roast, Ir. rdsdaim, W. rhostio ; from the Eng. roast, 0. Fr. 
rostir, from 0. H. G. rdst, craticula. 

roithlean, a wheel, pulley, Ir. roithledn ; from roth, q.v. 

rol, rola, a roll, volume, Ir. rolla ; from M. Eng. rolle, 0. Fr. rolle, 
Lat. rolula ; now Eng. roll. 

rdlaist, a romance, exaggeration ; of. Sc, Eng. rigmarole. 

romach, hairy, rough : 

romag, meal and whisky (Sutherland) : 

r6n, the seal, Ir. rmi, 0. Ir. rdn (before 900), W. moelron : *rdno- ; 
Lettic rohns, seal (W. Meyer, Zeit.^^ 119). Stokes holds rdn 
as an old borrow from Ag. S. hron or hrdn, hrdn, whale, while 
the Lit. riiinis, Lettic ronis, seal, must be from Teutonic. 
Zimmer suggests Norse lireinn, reindeer, Ag. S. hrdn. 

rong, a joining spar, rung, boat-rib, rongas, rungas (Dial.), Ir. 
runga ; from M. Eng. range, rung of a ladder, range, Ag. S. 
hrung ; now Eng. rung. The words reang and rang or 
rangan, " boat-rib," are from the Norse. 

rong, the vital spark, life : 

rongair, a lounger ; cf . next word. 

rongair, rong, a lean person ; from rang, rung : " like a ladder." 
The Sc. has rung in this sense : " an ugly, big-boned animal 
or person." 

Tonn, a slaver, spittle, E. Ir. ronna, running of the nose : *runno-; 
cf. Eng. run. 

r6p, a rope, Ir. rdpa ; from M. Eng. rope, roop, Ag. S. rdp ; now 
Eng. rope. 

' ' 34 


rdpach, slovenly, squalid, Ir. rUpach, a young slut : *roub-tho- ; cf. 
Eng. rub. 

roram, dealing extensively with a family in provisions, etc., 
liberality (M'A.) : 

ros, seed, ros lin, flax seed (Armstrong's only use for it), Ir. ros, 
flax seed, E. Ir. ross lin, flax seed (Corm.), ros, genealogy, to 
which Strachan compares Got. frasts, a child. A usual word 
for seed is fras, which also means a " shower," but both are 
ultimately from * verso, flow, whence Gr. epo-rj, ipcrq, dew, and 
apcrrjv, male. Dr Cameron compared Gr. ivpoxrov, leek {J'prso-), 
Eng. furze. 

ros, a promontory, Ir. ros, promontory (North Ireland), wood 
(South Ireland ; its usual Ir. meaning), E. Ir. ross, promon- 
tory, wood ; in the former sense from *pro-sto-s, " standing 
out before," root sta., stand, Lat. sto, Eng. stand, etc. ; 
especially Skr. prastha, plateau. In the sense of "wood," ros 
is generally regarded as the same word as ros, promontory, 
explained as " promontorium nemorosum," with which is com- 
pared W. rhos, a moor, waste,- coarse highland, Br. ros, a 

r6s, rose, Ir. r6sa, M. Ir. r6s, W. rhosyn ; from the M. Eng. rose, 
Ag. S. r6se, from Lat. r5sa. The word ros has also the meta- 
phoric meaning of " erysipelas." 

TOSad, mischance, evil spell : * pro-stanto-, " standing before, 
obstruction," root sta. Cf. faosaid. 

rosg, an eye, eyelid, Ir. rosg, 0. Ir. rose, oculus : *rog-slco-, root 
reg, rog, see, Ir. reil, clear l*regli-) ; Lit. regiu, I see (Bez. 
apud Stokes). See dorch. 

rosg, incitement (to battle), war ode, Ir. rosg, E. Ir. rose : *ro-sqo-, 
root seq, say, as in sgeul, cosg, q.v. 

rot, a belch, bursting as of waves (H.S.D., Dial.) ; from Fr. rot. 

rotacal, horse radish ; from Sc. rotcoll. 

rotach, a rush at starting, a running : 

rptach, a hand rattle to frighten cattle : 

rotach, a circle of filth on one's clothes (M'A. for Islay), rotair, a 
sloven : 

rotadh, cutting, dividing ; from Sc. rot, lines drawn on the ground 
to show the work to be done, to furrow, rut ; cf. Eng. rut. 

rotal, a ship's wake ; cf. Eng. rut, route, Lat. ruptd. 

rotH, a wheel, Ir., 0. Ir. roth, W. rhod (f.), Br. rod : *roto-, root 
ret, rdt ; Lat. rota, wheel ; Ger. rad ; Lit. rdtas, Lett, rats ; 
Skr. rdthas, waggon. Same root as ruith, q.v. Hence 
rotha, a roll (of tobacco), rothaioh, roll thou, swathe. 

rotha, a screw or vice : 


ruadh, red, ruddy, Ir. ruadh, E. Ir. riiad, W. rhvdd. Com. rud, Br. 

ruz •.*TOudo-; Lat. rAf-as, rtlber ; Gr. epvdpos; Got. rauj>s, 

Ag. S. reac?, Eng. red (Sc. reicZ, ^a'rf) ; Lit. ratida, red colour. 

ruag, pursue, ruaig, flight, Ir. maig (n,), E. Ir. rztaic : *rounlco-, 

rouk, root row, Lat. ruo, rush, fall. 
ruaim, a flush of anger on the face, Ir. ruaim, ruamnadh, redden- 
ing : * rovd-s-men, from *rovd of ruadh. 
ruaimhsheanta, hale and jolly though old (M'A. for Islay) : 
ruaimill, rumble (M'A.) ; from the Eng. 
ruaimle, a dirty pool, muddy water (Sh.), Ir. ruaimle. In G. the 

word means also the same as ruaim above, whence indeed 

ruaimle as " muddy pool " may also be. Cf. Sc. drumhlie. 
ruaimneach, strong, active, M. Ir. ruamach, E. Ir. rikmuim (?) : 

* rofiL&^men- \ Lat. ruo, rush, 
ruais, a rhapsody (M'A.) : 
ruamhair, dig, delve, Ir. rirnihairim, roghmhar, digging, E. Ir. 

ruamor ; root rou, reu, ru, dig ; Lat. rva, dig, ruta, minerals ; 

Lit. rduti, dig up. 
ruapais, rigmarole (M'A.) : 
ruathar, violent onset, skirmish, so Ir., E. Ir., riiathar, W. rhuthr, 

impetus, insultus : *rcmtro-, root rou, to rush on ; Lat. ruo, 

rub, rub ; from the Eng. 

rtibail, a tumult, rumbling (M'A.) ; formed on Eng. rumble. 
rue, rucan (H.S.D., M'A), rdc, rtcan (M'E., etc.), a rick of hay; 

from Sc. ruck, Eng. rick, ruck, Norse hraukr, heap, 
rucas, jostling kind of fondness : 
riichan, rucan, the throat, wheezing ; cf. Sc. roulk ( = rouk), 

hoarse, Fr. rauque, hoarse, from Lat. raiKus. 
ruchd, a grunt, belch, rumbling noise ; from Lat. ructo, belch, 

erUgere, spit out, Lit. riigiu, belch. Cf. Sc. ruck, belch. 
rud, a thing, Ir. rud (g. roda), raod, 0. Ir. ret, g. reto : *rentVrS ; 

Skr. rdtna, property, goods ; also root rd of rath, q.v. 
riidan, a knuckle, a tendon : *runto- : 
rudha, a promontory, Ir. rubha, E. Ir. rube : * pro-bio-, "being 

before ;" from root bu of the verb "to be ;" see 61. 
rudha, a blush, E. Ir. ruidiud ; from root rud, a short form of 

roud in ruadh, q.v. 
rudhag, a crab, partan : 
rudhagail, thrift (M'A) : 
rUdhan, a small stack of corn (H.S.D., M'E.) ; see rUthan, peat 

heap, with which and with rucan this form and meaning are 

made up. 
riidhrach, searching, groping, Ir. riJdhrach, a darkening : 
rug, wrinkle, Ir. rug; from Norse hrukka, a wrinkle, fold, Eng. 

ruck, a crease. 


rug, caught, Ir, rv^, E. Ir. rue, rucc, tulit, 0. Ir. rouic : *ro + wx-, 

where ucc — *ud-gos-a, root^^fts, carry, Lat. ffero, gestum. See 

ruga, rough cloth (M'A.) ; from Eng. rug, M. Eng. ruggi, hairy, 

Swed. ruggig. 
rugadh, a greedy grasping of anything ; from Sc. rook, deprive of, 

rookit, cleared out. 
rugaid, a long neck (H.S.D.) : 
rugair, a drunkard (H.S.D. says Dial, M'A. says N.) ; from the 

Eng. For phonetics, of. roc, drake, 
rugha, a blush ; see rather rudha. 

Tuicean, a pimple : *rucUci^, from rvd, roud, red, as in ruadh. 
ruidhil, a dance ; see ruithil. 

ruidhil, a yam reel ; from M. Eng. reel, hreol, kg. S. hreol. 
ruidhtear, a glutton, riotous liver ; from Eng. rioter. 
ruididh, merry, frisky, Ir. ruideiseach, from ruideis, a sporting 

mood. Cf. ruidhtear. 
ruig, half castrated ram ; from Eng. rig, ridgeling. 
ruig, reach, arrive at, 0. Ir. riccim, riccu ; from ro and iccim, for 

which see thig. Hence gu rnig, as far as, 0. G. goniee (B. of 

Deer), E. Ir. corrici. 
ruighe, an arm, forearm, Ir. righ, E. Ir. rig, forearm : * regit-, root 

reg, stretch, Lat. rego, etc. See ruiglieachd. 
ruighe, the outstretched part or base of a mountain, shealing 

ground, E. Ir. rige, rigid, a reach, reaches ; from the root reg, 

stretch, as in the case of the foregoing words, 
ruigheachd, ruighinn, reaching, arriving, Ir. righim, I reach, inf. 

riachdain, rochdain, E. Ir. rigim, porrigo : *regd ; Lat. rego, 

erigo, porrigo,'! stretch; Gr. opiym, stretch; further is Eng. 

right, etc. See eirich. 
ruighean, wool-roll ready to spin ; from the same root as ruighe. 
ruinn, a point ; see rinn. 

Tuinuse, a long stick or stake, an animal's tail, rump : 
ruinnse, a rinsing, rinser ; from Eng. rinse. 
ruis, a rash ; formed from the Eng. 
roiteach, ruddy, E. Ir. rutech : *rud-tiko-, from rud, roud of 

ruadh. Stokes {Rev. Celt.^ 366) explained it as *rudidech, 

but this would give G. ruideack. 
TUith, run, Ir. riothaim, 0. Ir. rethim, perf. rdith, inf. rith 

(d. riuth), W. rhedu, to run, rhed, race, Br. redek, Gaul. 

petor-ritum, four wheeler : *ret6 ; Lit., Lett, ritii, I roll ; 

Lat. rota, wheel, rotula, Eng. roll, Lat. rotundus, Eng. round, 

See roth. 
ruithil, a reel, dance, also righil, ruidhil : *retoli-, root ret, run, 

wheel, as in ruith ; Lat. rotula, little wheel, rotulare, revolve, 

Eng. roll. Hence Eng. reel (Skeat). The borrowing may be, 


however, the other way, and Eng. reel, dance, be the same as 
reel, a spindle or bobbin. 

riiin, a room, Ir. nim, M. Ir. riim, floor (O'Cl.) ; from the Eng. 

rumach, a marsh : 

Tumpull, the tail, rump ; from the Sc. rumple, Eng. rump. 

rtm, intention, love, secret, Ir., 0. Ir. nin, W. rhin: *rAties- ; Got., 
0. H. G., Norse runar, Eng. runes ; Gr. epewdw, seek out ; 
root revo, search. 

rtisal, search, turn over things, scrape ; for ultimate root, see 
above word. 

riisg, a fleece, skin, husk, bark, Ir. rasg, 0. Ir. ruse, cortex, W. 
rhisg, cortex, Cor. ruse, cortex, Br. rusgenn, rusk, bark : 
*rusko- \ whence Fr. ruche, beehive (of bark), 0. Fr. rusche, 
rusque, Pied, rusca, bark. Stokes thinks the Celtic is prob- 
ably an old borrow from the Teutonic — M. H. G. rusche, rush, 
Eng. rush, rushes ; but unlikely. The Cor. and Br. vowel u 
does not tally with Gadelic u ; this seems to imply borrowing 
among the Celts themselves. 

rtita, a ram, ridgling ; from Norse hnitr, ram. 

rtitachd, rutting : from the Eng. 

rtitan, the hom of a roebuck : 

rilthan (better rtighan), a peat heap ( = dais) ; from the Norse 
hrugi, heap. 

rutharach, quarrelsome, fighting (H.S.D. marks it obsolete; 
Arms.), Ir. rutharach (O'R.) ; from ruathar. 


-sa, -se, -san, emphatic pronominal particle attached to personal 
pronouns and to nouns preceded by the possessive pronouns : 
mi-se, I myself, thu-sa, sibh-se, i-se (she), e-san, iad-san ; 
mo cheann-sa, a cheann-san, his head. So also modem Ir., 
save that esan is esean : 0. Ir. -sa, -se (1st Pers.), -su, -so, pi. 
-si (2nd Pers.), -som, -sem (3rd Pers. m. and »., sing., and pi.), 
-si (3rd Pers./.). All are cases of the pronominal root so-, -se ; 
Gr. 6, the { = o-o) ; Ag. S. se, the (m.), Eng. she. See so, sin. 

sabaid, a briiwl, fight, also tabald ; Br. has tabut of like force : 

Sd,baid, Sabbath, Ir. Sab6id, M. Ir. sapoit ; from Lat. sabbatum, 
whence Eng. sabbath ; from Hebrew shabbdth. 

sabh, sorrel, Ir. samh ; better samh, q.v. 

sabh, ointment, salve ; from Sc. saw, Eng. salve. 

sibh, a saw, Ir. sabh ; from the Eng. 

Bd.bhail, save, Manx sauail, Ir. sabhailim (sdbhdlaim, O'B.) ; from 
Lat. salvare, to save. 

sabhal, a barn, so Ir., M. Ir. saball, Ir. Lat. zabulum ; through 
Brittonic from Lat. stabulum, a stall, Eng. stable. 


sabhd, a lie, fable (H.S.D., Dial.), straying, lounging ; of. saobh. 

sabhs, aauce, Ir. sabksa ; from the £ng. 

sabhsair, a sausage ; founded on the EngUsh word. 

sac, a sack, Ir. sac, E. Ir. sacc, W. sach ; from Ag. S. sacc, Eng. sack, 

Got. sakkus, Lat. saccus. 
sachasan, sand-eel : 
sad, dust shaken from anything by beating, a smart blow, sadadli, 

dusting, beating : 
sagart, a priest, Ir. sagart, 0. Ir, sacart, sacardd ; from Lat. 

sacerdos, whence Eng. sacerdotal. 
saidealta, soidealta, shy, bashful, Ir. soidialta, rude, ignorant ; 

from sodal, q.v. 
saidh, an upright beam, prow of a ship, a handle or the part of a 

blade in the handle : 
saidhe, hay ; formed from the Eng. hay by the influence of the 

article (an t-hay becoming a supposed de-eclipsed say). 
saidse, sound of a falling body, a crash, noise (Badenooh Dial. 

doidse, a dint) : 
saigean, a corpulent little man : 

saigh, a bitch, Ir. sagh, saighin, M. Ir. sogh, sodh, E. Ir. sod : 
saighdear, soldier, archer, Ir. sdighdiur (do.), M. Ir. saigdeoir, 

Sagittarius, W. sawdwr, soldier; from M. Eng. sovdiowr, 

sougeour, Sc. sodger, now soldier, confused in Gadelic with an 

early borrow from Lat. Sagittarius, archer, 
saighead, an arrow, so Ir., 0. Ir. saiget, W. saeth, Cor. seth, Br. 

saez ; from Lat. sagitta. For root see ionnsuidh. 
sail, a beam, Ir. sail : *spalin, allied to Ger. spalten, split, Eng. 

spill, split. 
sill, a heel, Ir., 0. Ir. sdl, W. sawdi, Br. seuzl: *sdtia. Ascoli 

has lately revived the old derivation from *std-tl6-, root sta, 

stand ; but st initial does not in native words become s in 

saill, fat or fatness, Ir, saill, fat, bacon, pickle: *saldi-; Eng. 

salt, etc. ; Lit. saldits, sweet. See salann further, 
saill, salt thou, Ir., 0. Ir. saillim: *salni-; see salann. 
sailm, a decoction, oak-bark decoction to staunch blood, a con- 
sumption pectoral ; founded on M. Eng. salfe, now salve ? 
siimhe, luxury, sensuality, Ir. sdimhe, peace, luxury, E. Ir. sdim, 

pleasant : *svadmi- ; Eng. sweet, Gr. ijSvs, etc. But cf. 

saimir, the trefoil clover (A. M'D.), Ir. seamar ; see seamrag. 
sainnseal, a handsel, New Year's gift ; from Sc. handsel, M. Eng. 

hansell, i.e. hand-sellan, deliver, 
saith, the Isack bone, joint of the neck or backbone, Ir. saith, 

joint of neck or backbone (Lh., O'B., etc.) : 


8^,1, also s4il, S^ile, sea, Ir. sdile, E. Jr. sdl, sdile : * svdlos, root sval, 
svel ; Lat. salum, sea ; Eng. swell (Stokes, who also refers 
Br. e'hoalen, salt). Shrader equates Gadelic with Gr. aA.s, 
salt, the sea, and Lat. salum, root sal. 

salach, dirty, Jr., so 0. Ir., salach, W. halawg, halog, Cor. halou, 
stercora, 0. Br. haloc, lugubri : *saldko-s (adj.), root sal, to 
dirty ; Eng. sallom, 0. H. G. salo, dusky, dirty. 

salann, salt, Ir., 0. Ir. salann, W. halen, Cor. haloin, Br. halenn 
(*salen-): * salanno-s, saltj Lat. sal; Gr. aAs, salt, sea; 
Eng. salt, Ger. salz ; Ch. SI. soli. 

salldair, a chalder ; from Sc. chalder, Eng. chalder, chaldron, from 
0. Fr. chaldron, a caldron. 

salm, a psalm, Ir., 0. Ir. salm, W. and Br. salm ; from Lat. 
psalmus, Eng. psalm. 

saltair, trample, Ir. saltairim ; from Lat. saltare, dance. 

samh, the smell of the air in a close room, ill odour : 

samh, sorrel, Ir. samh : 

samh, a clownish person ; cf. Sc. sow, one who makes a dirty 
appearance, " a pig." 

samhach, wooden haft, handle, Ir. samhthack, 0. Ir. samthach ; cf. 
0. Ir. samaigim, pono (which Ascoli refers to *stam, root sta, 
stand). Cf. sam, together, of samhuinn. 

samhach, quiet, Ir. sdmliack (Coneys has samhach), still, pleasant, 
from sdTTih {sanM), pleasant, still, E. Ir. sdm, sdme, rest, quiet, 
sdim, mild, quiet : *sdmo-. Possibly allied to Eng. soft, 
0. H. G. samfto, softly. Got. samjan, please ; and the root sam 
of samhradh. Stokes suggests connection with Zend hdma, 
like, Ch. SI. samu, ipse, Norse soTnr, samr, Eng. same ; or Gr. 
^juepos, tame. Cf. sdimhe. 

samhail, samhuil, likeness, like, Ir. samhail, like, samhuil, like- 
ness, simile, W. hafal, similis, 0. W. amal. Corn, haval, avel, 
Br. haual : * samali^ ; Gr. ojtioXds, like; Lat. similis; Eng. 

samhan, savin-bush, Ir. samhdn; from Eng. savin, M. Eng. saveine, 
Ag. S. savine, Lat. sahina. 

samhnan, samhnachan, a large river trout (H.S.D., Dial.) : 

samhradh, summer, Ir. samhradh, sdmhradh, E. Ir. samrad, 
sam, W., Corn, haf, M. Br. haff, Br. hanv : *samo- ; Skr. 
sdmd, year, Zend hama, summer, Arm. am, year ; further 
Eng. sumTner, Gr. ■qi'^epa, day. 

samhuinn. Hallow-tide, Ir. samhain, E. Ir. samuin, samain, sam- 
fhvAn : usually regarded as for *sam-fuin, " summer-end," 
from sam, summer, and fuin, end, sunset, fuinim, I end, * vo- 
nes6, root nes, as in cbmhnuidh, q.v. (Stokes). For fidn, Kluge 
suggests *wen, suffer (Got. winnan, suffer) ; Zimmer favours 


Skr. van, hurt (Eng. wound); and Ascoli analyses it into 

fo-in-. Dr Stokes, however, takes samain from the root som, 

same (Eng. same, Gr. o/^os, like, Lat. simul, whence Eng. 

assemble ; see samhuil), and makes *samani- mean "assembly" 

— the gathering at Tara on 1st November, while C^t-shamain, 

our Ceitein, was the " first feast," held on 1st May. 
Bamplair, a copy, pattern, Ir. sam^lair, sampla; from Eng. 

sampler, sample. 
-Ban, as in esan, ipse, iadsan ; see -sa. 
sanas, a whisper, secret, Manx sannish, whisper, Jr., E. Ir. sanas : 

*sanastu-, root sven; Lat. sonare, Eng. sound; Skr. svdnati, 

to sound, 
sannt, desire, inclination, Ir., 0. Ir. sant, W. chwant, Cor. lohans, 

Br. c'hoant : *svand9td, desire, root svand, svad, desire, please ; 

Gr. dvSavo), please, ijSus, sweet ; Skr. svad, relish ; further 

Eng. sweet, etc. 
saobh, erroneous, apt to err, dissimulation, Ir. saohh (adj.), 0. Ir. 

sdib, soib, later saeb, falsus, pseudo- : *svoibo-s, turning aside, 

wavering, W. chwijio, turn, whirl ; Eng. sweep, swoop. 
saobhaidh, den of a wild beast, fox's den : 
saod, journey, intention, condition, Ir. saod, seud, journey, 0. Ir. 

sit, way, journey, W. hpnt, Br. hent, 0. Br. hint : *sento-s ; 

Got. sin})S, journey, way, 0. H. G. sind, Eng. send. Hence 

saodaidh, drive cattle to pasture. 
saoghal, the world, an age, life, Ir. saoghal, 0. Ir. saigul, saegul ; 

from Lat. saeculum, race, age, from '*' sai-tlom, allied to W. 

koedl, life. 
saoi, saoidh, a good, generous man, a warrior, a scholar, Ir. 

saoi, a worthy man, a scholar, pi. saoithe, E. Ir. sdi, sui, a 

sage, g. suad : *svr^md-s, root vid oifios (Thurneysen). Stokes 

(Mart. Gorm.) prefers su-vet-, root vet, say (see faith). 
saoibh, foolish, perverse, Ir. saobh (do.) ; see saobh. 
saoibhir, rich, Ir. saidhbhir, E. Ir. saidber, opposed to daidber : 

*su-adber, from *ad-beri- (Lat. adfero), root bher of beir, 

bring, q.v. 
saoibhneas, peevishness, dulness ; from saoibh, saobh. Ir. has 

sadbhnos, bad manners ; but G. seems a pure derivative of 

saoil, a mark, seal ; see seul. 
saoil, think, deem, Ir. saoilim, E. Ir. sdilim, ; cf. Got. saiwala, Eng. 

smd, which Kluge suggests may be allied to Lat. saeculum, 

root sai. 
saor, free, Ir. saor, E. Ir. sder, 0. Ir. s6ir, sder : su-viro-s, " good- 
man," free ; from su { = so-) and viro-s, fear, q.v. 


Saor, a carpenter, Ir. saor, W. saer, Cor. sair : *sairos, . from 
*sapiro-s, root sap, skill, Lat. sapio, sapientia, wisdom, Ag. S. 
sefa, understanding, sense (Stokes, who thinks the Brittonio 
may be borrowed). 

saothair, labour, toil, Ir. saothar, E. Ir. sdethar, 0. Ir. sditkar, g. 
sdithir : *sai-tro-n; also E. Ir. sdeth, s6eth: *sai-tu-; root 
sai, trouble, pain ; Got. sair, Ag. S. sdr, Eng. sore, Ger. sehr, 
*sai-ra- ; Lat. saeviis, wild ; Lit. siws, sharp, rough. 

sapair, sapheir, sapphire, Ir. saphir ; from Lat. sapphirus, whence 
English also. 

sir, oppression, saraich, oppress, Ir. sdruighim, 0. Ir. sdraigim, 
violo, eontemno, sdr, outrage, contempt, W. sarhaed, con- 
tumelia : *sdro-n, *spdrn-n, root sper, kick, spurn ; Lat. 
sperno ; Eng. spurn ; Lit. spirti, kick ; Skr. sphur, jerk 
(Stokes). The W. has the a pretonic shoi-b ; is it borrowed 
from Ir. (Stokes) ? 

sir, excellent, Ir., E. Ir., 0. Ir. sdr-, W. Iioer, positive, stubborn, 
assertion, Ogmio If^etta-saffru, Sagarettos, Sagramni : *sagro-s, 
strong, root seg ; Gr. dxv/)ds, strong, fast, eyut, have ; Ger. 
sieg, victory ; Skr. sdhas, might. 

sirdail, a sprat ; from the Eng. sardel (Bailey), now sardine, 

sas, straits, restraint, hold, E. Ir. sds, a trap, fixing : from sdih, 
transfix, q.v. 

sisaich, satisfy, Ir. sdsaighim, 0. Ir. sdsaim ; from sdth, q.v. 

sath, plenty, satiety, Ir. sdth, sdith, E. Ir. sdith : *sdli- ; Got. sop, 
satiety, Ger. satt (adj.) ; Lit. s6tis ; Lat. sat, enough, satur, 
full, whence Eng. satisfy, etc. 

sith, thrust, transfix, Ir. sdthadh, a thrust, push, M. Ir. sdthud, 
driving, thrusting : 

Sathairn, Di-sathairn, Saturday ; see under di-. 

s6, s6a, sia, six, Ir. sS, 0. Ir. se, W. chwech, Cor. wheh, Br. c'hoiuec'h : 
*sveks; Lat. sex; Gr. 4'^; Got. saiks, Eng. six; Skr. shash. 

seabh, stray (M'A.) ; see seabhaid. 

seabhach, trim, neat (H.S.D., Dial.): 

seabhag, a hawk, Ir. seabhac, E. Ir. sebac, 0. Ir. sebocc, W. hebog, 
E. W. hebauc; from Ag. S. heafoc, now hawk, Ger. kabicht, 
Norse, haukr, root haf, I. E. gap, Lat capus, hawk, allied 
to capio. 

seabhaid, an error, wandering, Ir. seahh&id, error, folly, wandering : 
*sibo-, a short form of the root of saobh ? 

seac, wither, Ir. seacaim, E. Ir. seccaim, secc, siccus, W. sycliu, to 
dry, sych, dry. Com. seygh, Br. sec^h, dry ; from Lat. siccus. 
See further under seasg. 

seach, by, past, Ir. seach, 0. Ir. sech, ultra, praeter, W. heb, with- 
out. Corn, heb, Br. hep, without : *seqos ; Lat. secuf, otherwise, 



by, sequor, I follow (Eng. prosecute, etc.) ; Gr. eTro/xat, I follow. 

Skr. has sdcd, with, together, Zend haca, out, for. Hence G. 

and Ir. seachad, past, G. and Ir. seachain, avoid, 
seachd, seven, Ir. seachd, 0. Ir. secht n^, W. saith, Corn, seyth, Br. 

seiz : *septn; Lat. septem; Gr. Itttci; Got., 0. H. G. siban, 

Eng. seven ; Lit. septyni ; Skr. saptd. 
seachduin, a week, Ir. seachdmhain, 0. Ir. sechtman. Com. seithvm, 

Br. SMwre ; from Lat. septimana, from septem. 
seachlach, a heifer barren though of age to bear a calf ; cf. 0. Ir. 

sechmall, prseteritio ( = sechm, past, and ell, go, as in tadhal), 

Ir. seachluighim, lay aside. H.S.D. suggests seaeh-laogh, 

" past calf." 
ssachran, wandering, error, Ir. seaehrdn, E. Ir. sechrdn : *secli-reth- 

an, from seach and ruith, run ? 
seadh, yes, it is, Ir. 'seadh, for is eadh, it is ; see is and eadh, it. 
seadh, sense ; usual spelling of seagh, q.v. 
Seagal, rye, so Ir., M. Ir. secul ; from Lat. seeale, whence also Br. 

seagh, sense, esteem, Ir. seagh, regard, esteem, strength, seaghdlia, 

learned (O'Cl.), M. Tr. seg, strength, Gaul, sego- : *sego-, 

strength, pith ; Norse sigr, victory, Ger. sieg ; Skr. sd/ias, 

might ; further Gr. e'xa), have ; I. E. segh, hold, 
seal, a while, space, Ir. seal, 0. Ir. sel, W. chwyl, versio, turning, 

Br. hoel, "du moins," root svel, tiirn. Bez. (apud Stokes) 

compares Lettic swalstit, move hither and thither ; to which 

cf. Gr. o-aAevo), I toss. 
sealbh, possession, cattle, luck, Ir. sealbh, E. Ir. selb, 0. Ir. selbad, 

W.-Mw, possession, ownership: * selvd, possession, root sel, 

take, E. Ir. selaim, I take ; Gr. kkdv, take ; Got. suljan, offer, 

Eng. sell. Windisch has compared Got. silba, Eng. self 

(pronominal root sve). 
sealbhag, sorrel, Ir. sealbhdg ; usually regarded as for searbhag, 

"bitter herb" (cf. Eng. sorrel from sour). The change of r to 

lis a, difficulty, but it may be due to the analogy of mealhhag. 
sealg, a hunt, Ir. sealg, 0. Ir. selg, W. hela, hel, to hunt, 0. W. 

helghati, venare. Cor. helhia, British Selgovae, now Holway : 

*selgd, a hunt, root sel, capture (see sealbh). 
sealg, milt, spleen, Ir. sealg, M. Ir. selg, Br. felc'A.: *selgd, *spelgd ; 

Gr. cnrXdyxva, the higher viscera, o-ttA^v, spleen (*splg/ien) ; 

Lat. lien ; Skr. plikdn, spleen ; Ch. SI. slezena, Lit. bluznis ; 

also Eng. lung. 
seall, look, E. Ir. sellaim, sell, eye, W. sylla, to gaze, view, Br. 

sellet; cf. solus. Stokes gives the Celtic as *stilna6, I see, 

comparing Gr. o-rtAn-vds, shining. 
S6am, seum, forbid, enjoin : 

Of the dABLic Language. 275 

seaman (seaman, H.S.D.), a nail, small riveted nail, a small stout 
person, Ir. seaman, small riveted nail, E. Ir. semmen : *seg-s- 
men, root seff, segh, hold, as in seagh. 
seamh, mild, peaceful (seamh. Arms.), Ir. seamh ; see seimh. M'A. 
gives its meaning as an "enchantment to make one's friends 
prosper." See seamhas. 
seamhas, good luck, also seanns, good chance, seamhsail, 

seannsail, lucky ; from Eng. chance. 
seamlach, a cow that gives milk without her calf, an impudent or 
silly person ; Sc. sliamloch, a cow that has not calved for two 
years (West Lothian) : 
seamrag, shamrock, seamair (M'A.), Ir. seamrdg, M. Ir. semrach 

seamsan, hesitation, quibbling, delay, sham ; from the Eng. sham, 

Northern Eng. sham, a shame, trick ? 
sean, old, Ir. sean, 0. Ir. sen, W., Corn., and 0. Br. hen, Gaul. Seno- : 

*seno-s, old ; Lat. senex, g. senis, old man ; Gr. eVos, old ; Got. 

sinista, oldest, Eng. seneschal ; Lit. senas , Skr. sdnas. 
seanachas, conversation, story, Jr. seanachas, seanchus, tale, 

history, genealogy, 0. Ir. senchas, vetus historia, lex, 0. W. 

hencass, monimenta. Stokes refers this to * seno-kastu-, "old 

story," from *kastu-, root kans, speak (see cainnt and Stokes' 

derivation of it). Regarded by others as a pure derivative of 

*seno- or its longer stem *seneko- (Lat. senex, Got. sineigo, old, 

Skr. sanakd^, old), that is, * senekastu-. Hence seanachaidh, 

a reciter of ancient lore, a historian, Ir. seanchuidh, a form 

which favours the second derivation. 
seanadh, a senate, synod, Ir. seanadh, seanaidh, E. Ir. senod, W. 

senedd, Corn, sened, Br. senez ; from the Lat. synodus, now 

Eng. synod. 
seanair, a grandfather, Ir. seanathair, M. Ir. senathair, literally 

"old father." 
seaug, slender, lean, Ir. seang, E. Ir. seng : *svengo-s ; Norse 

svangr, slender, thin, Sc. swank, swack, supple, Ger. schwank, 

supple, allied to Eng. swing. 
seangan, an ant (S. Inverness and Perthshire snioghan), Manx 

sniengan, Ir. seangdn, M. Ir. sengdn, E. Ir. segon (Corm.) ; cf. 

Gr. cTKvixp (t long), gen. (tkvkjm's or a-KviTroi, Kvlxp, root skene, 

kene, scratch (see cnamh). Lit. skanits, savoury (kittling). 

Stokes {Bez.'^^ 65) refers it to * stingagno-, Eng. sting, Gr. 

(TTi^o), prick ; K. Meyer derives it from seang, slender. 
seanns, luck ; see seamhas. 
seap, slink, sneak off, flinch, Ir. seapaim : " turn tail ;" see next 

seap, a tail, an animal's tail hanging down (as a dog's when cowed) : 

i74 iSTtltOLOGI<!AL biCTlONABf 

searadoir, a towel {Sh. searhhadair) ; from Sc. serviter, servet, 

. napkin, from Fr. seruietta, from servir, serve, Lat. servio. 
searbh, Tiitter, Ir. searhh, 0. Ir. serb, W. chwerw, Corn, wherow, Br. 

dhouero : *svervo-s ; 0. H. G. sweran, dolere, Ger. sauer, Eng. 

sour ; Lit. swariis, salty, 
searbhant, a servant maid ; from the Eug. servant. 
searg, -wither, Ir. seargaim, 0. Ir. sercim, serg, illness : *sergo- ; 

Lit. sergii, I am ill ; 0. H. G. swercan, 0. Sax. swercan, become 

searmon, a sermon, Ir. searmdin, M. Ir. sermon ; from Lat. sermo, 

sermonis, Eng. sermon. 
searr, a sickle, saw, E. Ir. serr, 0. W. serr ; from Lat. serra. 
searrach, a foal, colt, so Ir., E. Ir. serrach: *serso-; Gr. epa-at, 

young lambs ? 
searrag, a bottle ; founded on the Eng. jar ? 
sears, charge or load (as a gun) ; from Eng. charge. 
searsanach, a sheriif officer, estate overseer, seirseanach, auxiliary 

(Arm., Sh., O'B.) ; Gaelic is from the So. sergean, sergeand, an 

inferior officer in a court of justice, Eng. Serjeant, from Fr. 

serjant, Lat. serviens, etc. M. Ir. has sersenack, foot soldier, 
seas, stand, Ir. seasaim, E. Ir. sessim, 0. Ir. tair(sh)issim, E. Ir. 

inf. sessom, G. seasamh : *sistami, I stand, *sistamo- (n.), 

root sta ; Lat. sisto, stop, sto ; Gr. 'ta-Trjfjii, set ; Eng. stand ; 

Skr. sthd. The W. sefyU, stare. Cor., Br. sevell, Br. saff, come 

from *sta7ii (Stokes), 
seasg, barren, dry, Ir. seasg, E. Ir. sesc, VV. hysp, Br. Jiesk, hesp : 

*sisqo-s, from sit-s-qo-, root sit, dry ; Lat. siccus ( = sit-cus), 

dry, si'tis, thirst ; Zend hisku, dry. 
seasgair, one in comfortable circumstances, comfortable, Ir. 
'' seasgair, cosy, dry and warm, quiet ; from seasg. 
seasgan, a shock or truss of com, gleaned land : 
seasgann, a fenny country, marsh, Ir. seisgeann, E. Ir. sescenn ; 

from *sesc, sedge, Ir. seisg. sedge, W. hesg (pi.), Cor. Jvescen, 

Br. heslc, whence Romance sescha, reed ; cf. Eng. sedge, I. E. 

root seq, cut. Zimmer refers seasgann to seasg, dry, though 

it denotes wet or marsh land, 
seat, satiety of food (Dial.) : see seid. 
seic, a skin or hide, peritoneum, brain pellicle ; see seich. 
seic, a rack, manger ; from Sc. hech, also hcu:k. 
seiceal, a heckle (for flax) ; from Sc. and Eng. hecMe. The W. is 

heislan, from Eng. hatchel. 
seich, seiche, a hide, skin, Ir. seithe, E. Ir. seche, g. seched : *sehet-; 

Norse sigg, callus, hard skin. The root is 1, E. seq, cut, Lat. 

seco, etc. ; cf. for force Gr. dep/xa, skin, from Supia, flay, Eng. 

tear, Lat. scar turn and corium from sker, Eng. shear, etc. 


seid, a belly-full, flatulent swelling, seideach, swollen by tympany, 
corpulent : 

said, a truss of hay, a bed spread on the floor (especially seideag 
in the latter sense) : *seddi- : 

s6id, blow, Ir. seidim, E. Ir. setim, W. chwyih, a blast, M. Br. 
hv£z, Br. c'houeza, blow, Cor. whythe, to blow: *sveiddo-, 
*sviddo-, from *sveizdho-, * svizd/w-, ; Ch. Slav, svistati, 
sibilare ; Lat. stbilits, whistling ( = sidhilus), Eng. sibilant. 

seidhir, a chair ; from Eng. chair. 

seilcheag, a snail, Ir. seilide, seilchide, seilmide, slimide ; of. Gr. 
0-eo-iA.os (i long), o-OTTjAos, cre.a-fXir-q's, a snail. Stokes gives 
the root as sel, allied to Lit. sale'ti, creep, slekas, earthworm, 
0. Pruss. slaifx (do.). 

seileach, wiUow, Ir. saikog, E. Ir. sail, g. sailech, W. helyg, willows. 
Com. heligen, salix, Br. halek (pi.) : *saliks ; Lat. salix ; Gr. 
eXiK-q (Arcadian) ; Eng. sallow. 

seilear, a cellar, Ir. seileir, M. W. seler ; from Eng. cellar. 

seilisdeir, yellow iris or yellow water-flag, Ir. soileastar, feleastar 
(O'B.), elestrom (O'B.), M. Ir. soilestar, W. elesir, fleur de lys, 
iris, 0. Br. elestr. Cf. L. Lat. alestrare, humectare (Ernault, 
Stokes in 5.C.* 329). 

seillean, a bee : 

seim, a squint : 

sSimh, mild, placid, Ir. s^imh (O'E., FoL), seimh (Con.) : 

seinn, sing, Ir. seinnim, M. Ir. sendim, 0. Ir. sennim, play an 
instrument, psallo, perf. sephainn (*sesvanva, Stokes) ; root 
sven, sound, as in Lat. sonare, sonus, Eng. sound, Skr. svdnati, 

seipeal, a chapel, so Ir., M. Ir. s^pdl ; from M. Eng. and 0. Fr. 
chapele, now Eng. chapel. 

seipein, a quart, choppiu ; from the Eng. choppin, from Fr. 
chopine, chope, a beer glass, from Ger. schoppen. 

seirbMs, service, Ir. seirbhis ; from the Eng. 

seirc, love, Ir. searc, seirc, 0. Ir. sere, W. serch, Br. serc'h, concu- 
bine, M. Br. serch : * serkd, *serko-; Got. sailrga, care, Ger. 
sorge, sorrow, Eng. sorrow ; Skr. si&rkshali, respect, reverence, 
take thought about something. The favourite derivation is 
to ally it to Gr. crre/j-yti), I love, which would give a G. teirg. 

seirm, sound, musical noise, ring as a bell, 0. Ir. sibrase, modu- 
labor ; Celtic root sver, sing, I. E. sver, sound ; Skr. svara, 
sound, music ; Eng. swear, answer, Got. svaran, swear ; Lat. 
sermo, speech, Eng. sermon. The W. chwymu, hum, snort, is 
also allied. 

seirsealach, robust (s^irsealach, H.S.D.), Ir. seirsean, a strong 
person (O'R.) ; cf. searsanach for origin. 

iiS tiTifMOiiOGiCAL tliCTioiJAKT 

seis, one's match, a friend, sufficiency ; cf. Norse sessi, bench-mate, 

oar-mate, from sessa, a ship's seat (I. E. root sed, sit), 
seis, anything grateful to the senses, Ir. seis, pleasure, delight : 

* svedL-ti-, root sveda, svdd, sweet ; Gr. eSavog, sweet, ijSiJs (do.) ; 

Lat. suavis, sweet ; Eng. sweet. 
seisd, a siege ; formed from the Eng. siege. 
seiseau, session, assize, Ir. seisiiin ; from Lat. sessio, sessidnis, a 

sitting, session. 
seisreach, a plough, six-horse plough, the six horses of a plough, 

Ir. seisreach, a plough of six horses, E. Ir. sesrech, plough 

team ; from seiseir, six persons, a derivative of sia, six. 
s6ist, the melody of a song, a ditty, M. Ir. seis, a musical strain : 

*sven-s-ti-, root sven of seinn. 
se6c, seocan, a helmet plume, a helmet ; cf . Eng. shock. 
seochlan, a feeble person ; from the Sc. shochlin, waddling, infirm, 

shciMin, verb shackle, shuffle in walking, allied to Eng. 

shackle, shake. 
seod, siad, a hero, a jewel, Ir. se6d, a jewel ; see seud, jewel, 
sedg, swing to and fro, dandle ; from Sc. shog, M. Eng. shoggin, 

M. Du. schocken. 
se61, method, way, Ir. seol, a method of doing a thing, sedlaim, I 

direct, steer ; E. Ir. sedl, course ; W. hwt/t, course, condition. 

From sedl, sail. 
se61, a sail, Ir. sedl, 0. Ir. sM, sedl,, seol, g. si4il, W. hwj/l, 0. W. 

huil : usually referred to * seghlo- (root of seagh) or to 

Teutonic seglo-. sail (also from * seghlo-), borrowed into Celtic. 

In either case we should expect Ir. *se'l, W. *hail, but we 

have neither. Strachan suggests that sedl is formed from 

gen. siHil on the analogy of cedl, etc. ; while TV. hwyl may 

have been effected by a borrow from Lat. velum (Cor. guil, Br. 

sebmar, a chamber, Ir. seomra, M. Ir. seomra ; from M. Eng. and 

Fr. chamhre, Lat. camera. 
seorsa, a sort, kind, Ir. sdrt ; from the Eng. 
seot, a short tail or stump, the worst beast, a sprout ; from. Sc. 

shot, rejected sheep ("shot" from shoot), shoot, stern of a 

boat, from the root of Eng. shoot. Cf. Norse skott, fox's tail, 

skotta, dangle, 
seth in gu seth, severally, neither (after negative) ; cf. Lat. 

se-cum ; " by one-self." 
seuchd, a tunic or leine (Oss. Ballad of lonmhuin) : 
seud, a jewel, treasui-e, hero, Ir. seud, 0. Ir. sit, pi. seuti, pretiosa, 

Med. Ir. Lat. sentis ; irom. * sent^, real, "being," I.E. sents, 

being, participle from root es, be ; Lat. -sens, praese»s, etc. : 

Gr. £?s. 


seul, seula, saoil, a seal, Ir. seula, M. Ir. sila, W. sel, 0. Br. siel ; 

from Lat. sigillum, M. Eng. and Fr. seel, Ag. S. sigle. 
seun, a charm, defend by charms, Ir. seun, good luck, E. Ir. sdn, 

blessing, sign, luck, 0. Ir. sen, benedic, W. swyn, a charm, 

magic preservative ; from Lat. signum, a sign, " sign of the 

seun, refuse, shun, Ir. seunaim, seanaim, M. Ir. senaim ; probably 

from the above, 
seunan, sianan in breac-sheunain, freckles : 
seusar, acme or perfection (M'A. for Islay) : 
Sgab, scab, sgabach, scabbed ; from the Eng. 
Egabag, cow killed for winter provision (M'F.) : 
Sgabaiste, anything pounded or bashed (H.S.D.), Ir. sgahaiste, 

robbery : 
sgaball, a hood, helmet, M. G. sgaball, a hood or cape (M'V.) ; Ir. 

scabal, a hood, shoulder guard, helmet, a scapular ; from Lat. 

scapulae, shoulder-blades, whence Eng. scapular. 
sgabard, scabbard ; from the Eng. 

sgabh, sawdust, Ir. sgabh (Lh.) ; Lat. scobis, sawdust, powder. 
Sgad, a loss, mischance ; from the Sc. shaith, Eng. scathe, scath 

(Shakespeare), Norse shaSi, scathe, Ger. schaden, hurt. 
Sgadan, a herring, Ir. sgaddn, E. Ir. scatan (Corm.), W. ysgadan 

(pi.) ; cf. Eng. shad, " king of herrings," Ag. S. sceadda, Prov. 

Ger. schade. 
sgadartach, a set of ragamuffins (H.S.D.), anything scattered 

(M'A.) ; from Eng. scatter. 
sgafair, a bold, hearty man (H.S.D., Arm., O'B.), a handsome man 

(H.S.D.), a scolding man (M'A.), Ir. sgafaire, a bold, hearty 

man, sprace fellow, a gaffer ; from Eng. gaffer ? 
Sgag, split, crack, winnow, iilter, Ir. sgagaim, filter, purge ; of., for 

root, gag. 
Sgaipean, a ninny, dwarf : 
Sg^il, a shade, shadow, Ir. sgdile, scdil, M. Ir. scdil, 0. Br. 

esceilenn, cortina, curtain : * skdli-, root sJcd of sgath, q.v. 
Sgailc, a smart blow, a slap, skelp, Ir. sgailledg ; root skal, make a 

noise by hitting ; Norse skella, slap, clatter (skjalla), Ger. 

schallen, resound ; Lit. slcaliu, give tongue (as a hunting dog). 

Cf . Sc. and M. Eng. skelp. Also sgailieag. 
Sgailc, a bald pate, baldness, sgall, baldness, Ir. sgallta, bald, 

bare, scallach, bald ; from Norse skalli, a bald head, Swed. 

skallig, bald, skala, peel, skal, husk, Eng. scale. The G. 

sgailc is possibly from M. Eng. scale, scalp ; but Sgall is clearly 

Sgibin, burst, rend, Ir. sgdinim : *skad-no-, root skhad, shed, skha, 

split, rend, cut ; Gr. o-KeSavi/D/ii, scatter ; Skr. skhddate, split, 


sgainneal, a scandal, Ir. scannail, M. Ir. scandal ; from the Lat. 

Sgainnir, scatter, sganradh (n.), Ir. scanruighim, scatter, scare ; 

of. Eng. squander, allied to scatter. 
sgAinnteaoh, a corroding pain, pain of fatigue ; from 
Sgiird, flux, diarrhoea, Ir. sgdrdaim, I squirt, pour out : *skardo- ; 

I. E. sJcerdo- ; Lat. sucerda, swine-dung, muscerda, mouse-dung 

= mus-scerda; Skr. chard, vomit; Ch. SI. skar§du, nauseating; 

Eng. sharn. Another form is *skart, W. ysqarth, excrement, 

Br. skoarz, skarz, void, cleanse, Gr. (tkZp, g. o-Kards, Skr. (&krt, 

Sgaireach, prodigal (Sh., etc.) ; from the root skar of sgar. 
Sgiireag, one year old gull, young scart ; from Norse skdri, a 

young sea-mew. 
sg^irn, howling of dogs, loud murmur ; see sgairt. 
Sgairneach, a continuous heap of loose stones on a hill side, the 

sound of such stones falling (sgairm, M'A.) ; cf. So. scarmch, 

crowd, tumult, noise (Ayr). See sgairn. Badenoch Dial. 

sgairt, a loud cry, Ir. sgairt : *s-gar-ti-, root gar ? 
Sgairt, activity, Ir. sgdirfeamhuil, active : root skar, skip, spring ; 

Gr. a-Kacpb), skip, crKapos, a leap, run ; Zend phar, spring. 
Sgairt, midriff", intestine caul, Ir. scairt : " separater," from skar 

of sgar ? 
Sgait, a skate ; from the Eng. skate, Norse skata. 
Sgaiteach, sharp, edged, cutting, sgait, a prickle, a little chip of 

wood in one's flesh (Dial.) ; from sgath, lop. 
sgal, howl, shriek, yell, Ir. sgal, M. Ir. seal, root skal, sound, 

cry ; Norse skjalla, clash, clatter, skvala, squall, squeal, Ger. 

schallen ; Lit. skaliu, give tongue (as a dog) ; Gr. <TKv\a^, 

whelp : I. E. root sqel, make a sound, allied to sqel, split, hit 1 

Cf. W. chwalu, prate, babble, spread, root sqvel, sqval. 
Sgalag, a servant, Ir. sgoldg (fem.), husbandman, rustic, M. Ir. 

scoldc {=gille), E. Ir. scoloca ; from Norse skdlkr, servant, 

slave, Got. shalks, servant, Ger. sckalk, knave, Eng. maxshal, 

aeneschal. It could hardly be from Lat. scholasticus, as Skene 

{Celt. Scot.^ 448) thinks. 
Sgdilain, scales for weighing, Ir. scdla, a balance ; from the early 

Eng. scale, Ag. S. scdle, Norse skdl, a balance. 
Sgdilan, hut, scafibld, Ir., M. Ir. scdldn ; from the Norse skdli, a 

hut, shed. Stokes (Bez. Beit.^^ 65) refers it to a stem 

*scdnlo-, cognate with Gr. o-Krivq (Dor. a-Kdvd), a tent, roof, 

skhd, cover, shade. 
Sgald, bum, scald, Ir. sgall, scald, singe ; from the Eng. scald. 
Sgall, baldness, Ir. sgallta, bald, bare ; see under sgailc, 


sgalla, an old hat (M'A.) : 

Sg^Ua, a large wooden dish cut out of a tree (M'A.) : 

Sgallais, insult, contempt ; from the Norse skoll, mockery, loud 
laughter, skjal, empty talk, shjall, flattering (H.S.D. gives 
" flattery" as a meaning) : allied to sgal, q.v. 

sgamal, a scale, squama, Ir. sgamal ; from Lat. squdmula, squdvia. 
In G. and Ir. Bibles, Acts^ 18, "Scales fell from his eyes" — 

Sgamal, effluvia, phlegm, Ir. sgamal : same as above. 

sgamh, dross, dust ,• see sgabh. 

sgamhan, the lungs, liver, Ir. sgamhdn, lungs, M. Ir. seaman, W. 
ysgyfaint, lights, Cor. shefans, Br. skevent ; from Ir. seaman, 
levis, W. ysgafn, light. Cor. seaf, Br. skanv, light (of. for 
force Eng. lights, Euss. legkoe, lungs, from legkii, light) : 
*skamno-; cf. Norse skammr, short, 0. H. G. scam, short. 

Sgann, a multitude, drove : 

sgaun, a membrane, Ir. sgann ; cf. Norse skdn, a thin membrane, 
film, skaeni, film, membrane. 

sganradh, dispersing, terror ; see sgainnir. 

Sgaog, a foolish, giddy girl ; cf. Sc. skeich, skeigh, skittish, Eng. 

Sgaoil, spread, scatter, let go, Ir. sgaoilim, M. Ir., E. Ir. scdilim ; 
cf. W. chwalu, disperse, strew, root sqval, sqvdl, allied to root 
sqel, split (as in sgoilt, q.v.). 

Sgaoim, a fright, a start from fear, skittishness : for sgeum ? If 
so, for sceng-men, E. Ir. scingim, I start ; Gr. a-icd^u), I limp, 
o-Ktju,|Safa), limp; Ger. hinken (do.); Skr. khanj (do.). 'Aeesgeun. 

Sgaoth, a swarm (as of bees), Ir. scaoth, seaoith : *skoiti-, from 
sk/ieit, separate ; Ger. seheiden, Eng. shed ; further Lat. sciiuh 
(from root skJteid, split), split. 

Sgap, scatter, Ir. scapaim : *skad-bo- (from skhad, divide, Gr. 
a-KeSdvvvfiL, scatter), developing into skahb, which, as skabh-th, 
becomes sgap ? But consider Eng. scape, escape. 

Sgar, sever, separate, Ir. sgaraim, 0. Ir. scaraim, W. ysgar, separ- 
ate, O. Br. scarat, dijudicari : *skara6, root sker, separate, 
sunder ; Lit. skiriu, separate ; 0. H. G. sceran, Ger. scheren, 
shear, cut, Eng. shear ; further Gr. Kupu), cut, etc. 

Sgarbh, cormorant ; from the Norse skarfr, N. Sc. sea;/ (Shet., etc.) 

Sgarlaid, scarlet, Ir. sgdrl6id, M. Ir. scarloit; from M. Eng. 
scarlat, scarlet, Med. Lat. scarlatum. Stokes and K. Meyer 
take it direct from Lat. 

sgat, a skate (Dial.) ; see sgait. 

Sgath, lop off^, Ir. sgat/iaim, E. Ir. scothaim; I. E. root skath, cut; 
Gr. acTKrfOfis, unscathed, trxafw, cut ; Eng. scathe, Ger. schaden, 


'282 tfiiitoLotiitiAL biciiotiAElf 

hurt ; Skr. chd, lop. The root appears variously as sMe, ska, 
skhii, skhe (Gr. o-KeBavvvft). It is possible to refer it to the 
root seq, cut, Lat. seco, Eng. section. See sgian. 

Sgith, a shade, shadow, Ir. sgdth, scdth, 0. Ir. scdth, W. ysgod. 
Cor. seod, umbra, Br. skeud : *skdto-s ; Gr. o-kotos, darkness ; 
Eng. shade, Got. skadus, shade, shadow, Ger. schatten; Skr. 
chdya, shadow. 

Sgath (Sh., Arm., sg^th, H.S.D.), a wattled door : 

Sgeach, sgitheag, hawthorn berry, Ir. sgeach, sweet-briar, haw, 
E. Ir. se^, g. sciach, also g. pi. sciad, W. ysbyddad, hawthorn, 
Cor. spedhes, Br. spezad, fruit, currant : *skvijat- : 

Sgeadaich, dress, adorn, Ir. sgeaduighim, adorn, mark with a white 
spot, sgead, speck, white spot, sgeadach, speckled, sky- 
coloured ; also gead, spot : 

Sgealb, a splinter, Ir. sgealpSg, splinter, fragment, sgealpaim, 
smash, split, make splinters of ; see sgolb. Cf. Sc. skelb, 
skelf, a splinter, skelve (vb.). 

Sgeallag, wild mustard, Ir. sgeallagach, M. Ir. scell, a grain, 
kernel : root sqel, separate, Eng. shell, etc. Stokes equates 
Ir. scelldn, kernel, with Lat. seilla, squill, sea-onion, Gr. 

Sgealp, a slap ; from Sc. skelp, M. Eng. skelp. 

sgeamh, yelp, Ir. sceamh, E. Ir. seem, scemdacht ; cf. next word. 

Also G. sgiamh, sgiamhail, to which Emault compares 

M. Br. htieioal, cry like a fox. 
Sgeamh, severe or cutting language, Ir. sgeamhaim, I scold, 

reproach : *skemo-; Norse skamma, to shame, to scold, Eng. 

shame, sham 1 The word sgeamh also means " a disgust" in 

Gaelic; also, according to M'A., "a speck on the eye," 

" membrane." Also Ir. (and G. ?) sgeamh, polypody. 
Sgean, cleanliness, polish ; cf. for origin Norse skina, Eng. shine. 
Sgean, sudden fright or start, a wild look of the face ; see sgeun. 
Sgeann, a stare, gazing upon a thing : 
Sgeap, a beehive ; from the Sc. skep, M. Eng. skeppe, a skep, 

carrying basket, Norse skeppa, a measure. 
Sgeig, mockery, Ir. sgige, M. Ir. sdge : *skeggio- : 
Sgeigeach, having a prominent chin or a beard of strong, straight 

hair (Sutherland) ; from Norse skegg, a beard, from skaga, 

jut out, Eng. shaggy. 
Sgeilcearra, supple, active ; cf. sgiolcarra. 
Sgfiile, misery, pity, Ir. sceile (O'Cl., Lh. as obsolete, O'B.), scdile 

Sgeileid, a skillet, Ir. sgilead ; from the Eng. 

Sjeileas, a beak, thin face, talkativeness (H.S.D.) ; see sgeilm. 


Sgeilm, boasting, prattling (H.S.D., Arms.), a thiu-lipped mouth, 
a prater's mouth (M 'A.) ; also sgiolam, sgeinm. Hoat'skel, 
as in sgal. 
Sgeilm, sgeinm, neatness, decency ; cf. sgean. 
sgeilmse, a surprise, sudden attack : 
sgeilp, a shelf ; from Sc. skelf, Ag. S. scylfe, now shelf. 
Sg6imh, beauty, Ir. sgeimh ; see sgiamh. 
Sgeimhle, a skirmish, bickering, Ir. sgeimhle : 
Sgeinnidh, twine, flax or hemp thread ; cf. Ir. sgainne, a skein or 

clue of thread. The Sc. sMny, pack thread (pronounced 

skeenyie) is apparently from G. ; Eng. skein is from M. Eng. 

skeine, 0. Fr. escaigne. Skeat derives the Eng. from Gaelic. 

The G. alone might be referred to * skein, from sgkein, 

sghoin, rope, string. Lit. geinis, string, Lat. funis, Or. crxowos. 
Sgeir, a rock in the sea, skerry ; from Norse sh'r, a rock in the 

sea, whence Eng. skerry, scaur : " cut off," from root of Eng. 

shear, 6. sgar. 
Sgeith, vomit, Ir. sceithim, E. Ir. scdim, sceithim, W. chwydu, Br. 

<^houeda : '^sqveti- ; cf. Gr. cnraTLjri, thin excrement as in 

diarrhoea (Bez.). 
Sgedc, a long neck ; cf. gebc. 
Sgedp, a torrent of foolish words, also SgBOg : 
sgeul, sgial, a tale, Ir. sgeul, 0. Ir., seel, W. chwedl, Cor. wlielhl, 

Br. quehezl {que-hezl, qiie = ko-): *sqetlo-n (*sqedlo-n, Rhys), 

root seq, say : Lat. inseque, die, inquam ( = in-squam ?), say I ; 

Gr. evveTTb), I tell, evir<nre, dixit ; Ger. sagen, Eng. say ; Lit. 

sakyti, say. 
Sgeun, dread, disgust, look of fear, Ir. sgean, fright, wild look, 

M. Ir. sc4n, affright : *slceng-no-, from sheng, start, spring, 

E. Ir. scingim, start, spring (for root, see sgaoim). Strachan 

refers it to *skakno-, root skak, spring. Lit. sz6kti, spring, Ch. 

SI. skakati, Norse skaga, jut out. 
Sgiah, a snatch, sudden movement, Ir. sgiob ; see sgiobag. 
sgiamh, beauty, Ir. sgiamh, 0. Ir. scvam : *skeimd ; cf. Got. 

skeima, a light, Ag. S. scima, Norse sHmi, a gleam of light, 

further Eng. shine, shimmer. 
sgiamh, a squeal, yell, mew ; see sgeamh. 
Sgian, a knife, Ir. sgian, E. Ir. scian, W. ysgien, slicer, scimitar, 

ysgi, cutting off, Br. skeja, cut : *sMend, vb. sked, cut ; Skr. 

chd, cut off ; Gr. a-xd^u), cut, trxaw ; I. E. root skhe, skha, 

split, cut. Lindsay refers Gadelic to *scSnd, allied to Lat. 

scina, a priest's knife, whose side-form is sacena, from seco, 

cut, Eng. section, saw. Others have compared Lat. scio, know, 

Gr, Keiia, cut, 


Sffiath, a shield, Ir. sgiath, 0. Ir. sdath, W. ysgwyd, 0. W. stmit, . 

0. Br. scoit, Br. skoued: *skeito-; Ch. SI. stitu, shield; 

0. Pruss. scaytan,' Norse ski?!, firewood, billet of wood, tablet 

(Schrader) ; to which Bez. queries if Lat. scutwm, {*s/ioito-?) 

be allied. 
Sgiath, a wing, Ir. sgiatMn, sgiath, E. Ir. sciath {sdath n-ete, 

shouldei: of the wing), 0. Ir. sciath, ala, pinna, W. ysgwydd, 

shoulder. Cor. sfiuid, scapula, Br. skoae : *skeito-, *sheidd, 

shoulder-blade ; I. E. root sqid, Lat. sdndo ; Gr. o-xtC<o, split ; 

Skr. chid, cut; further Gar. scheiden, divide (I. E. shheit), 

which agrees with the Gadehc form. 
Sgibeach, sgibidh, neat ; see sgiohalta. 
sgid, a little excrement (M'A.) ; from the Eng. 
Sgideil, a plash of water ; see sgiodar. 
Sgil, skill ; from the Eng. 
Sgil, unhusk, shell, Ir. sgiollaim, sgilc, sheilings of corn, sgilice, the 

operation of the mill in shelling corn : *skeli^, I. E., sqel, 

separate ; Norse skilja, separate, Eng. skill, shell, etc. See 

scoilt. Cf. Sc. shillin, shelled or unhusked grain. 
Sgillinn, a penny, Ir. sgillin, shilling, M. Ir. sdlling, sdllic ; from 

Ag. S. sdlling, Norse skillingr, Ger. schilling. 
Sgilm, a mouth expressive of scolding aptitude (M'A ) • see 

Sgimilear, a vagrant parasite, intruder : 
Sjinn, squeeze out, gush out, Ir. sdnn, gush, start, E. Ir. scendim, 

spring ; Skr. shand, leap ; Lat. scando ; Gr. o-Kai/SaAov, Eng. 

scandal. Arm. has sginichd, squeezing ; Badenoch Dial, has 

Sging, a squeeze, hardship. There is an E. Ir. scingim, I 

spring, from skeng, discussed under sgaoim. 
s'gioba, ship's crew ; from the Norse skip, a ship. 
Sgiobag, a slap given in play, a hasty touch or snatch, sgiob, 

Sgiab, snatch, Ir. sgiobaim, I snatch, W. ysgip, ysgipiol ; cf . 

Manx skihhag, skip, hop, from Eng. skip. 
Sgiobair, a skipper ; from Sc. skippare, Eng. skipper, Norse 

skiparl, a mariner. 
Sg^iobal, a bam, Ir. sgiobdl : 
sgioball, loose folds or skirts of a garment : 
Sg^obalta, clever, neat, Manx skibhylt, active, a skipping, Ir. 

sgiobalta, active, spruce ; also G. sgioblaich, adjust the 

dress, etc., tidy up. Cf. Norse skipulag, order, arrangement, 

skipa, put in order, Eng. ship shape. The Gadelic is bon-owed. 
Sgiodar, a plashing through bog and mire, diarrhosa; from Sc. 

scutter, skitter. 
Sgiogair, a jackanapes, Ir. sgigire, a buffoon, mocker ; see sgeig. 
Sgiolam, forward talk, also sgeilm ; also giolam. See sgeilm. 


Sgiolc, slip in or out unperceived ; cf. Eng. skulk. 

Sgiomalair, an instrument to take the suet oiF a pot (M'A.) ; from 

Eng. sldtn ? 
sg^onnadh, starting, eyes starting with fear ; see sginn. 
Sgionn-shuil, a squint eye; from Eng. squint, with a leaning on 

G. sgionn, sginn, start, protrude. 
Sgiord, squirt, purge, Ir. sglordadh (n.), sgiurdaim (O'E.) ; either 

cognate with or borrowed from Eng. squirt (Stokes' Lis.). 
Sgiorr, slip, stumble, Ir. sciorraim : 
Sgiort, a skirt, edge of a garment, Ir. sgiorta ; from Eng shirt. 

O'Cl. has Ir. sguird for tunic or shirt. 
Sglot, scatter ; from Norse skjdta, shoot, skyti, shooter. M'A. 

says the word belongs to the North Highlands ; Arm. does 

not have it. Ir. has sgiot, a dart, arrow : " something shot." 
Sgire, a parish ; from Ag. S. sdnr, county, now shire, 0. H. G. sdra, 

sgirtean, a disease in cattle — black spauld or quarter-ill (H.S.D.) : 

" stumbling disease," from sgiorradh 1 
Sglth, tired, Ir. sgitli, O. Ir. sdth. Corn, sqwyth, sTdth, Br. slcoutz, 

skuiz : *sMto-, *skitto- (Brittonic ^skvitto-, according to 

Stokes) ; root skhei beside kksei, decay, destroy, Gr. ^dito, 

decay, ^6«rts, phthisis, Skr. kshi, destroy, kshitds, exhausted 

(Strachan, Bez. Beit-.^'' 300). 
Sg^thiol, a shealing hut (Carmichael) ; from Norse sk0i, a shed, 

skj6l, a shelter, Dan. and Swed. skjul, shed, Eng. sheal. 
Sgiiican, sgiuchan, the cackling or plaint of a moorhen : 
sgiugan, a whimper ; cf. the above word. 

Sgifinach, a charm for getting all the fish about a boat or head- 
land into one's own boat amidst the amazement of the 

neighbours (M'A.) : 
Sgitinach, a bold, shameless woman (H.S.D.) : 
Sgiurdan, a squirt ; from the Eng. 
SgiflTS, scourge, Ir. sgiiirsaim, W. ysgors ; from M. Eng. scourge, 

Lat. excoriare. 
SgiMhadh, a lash, stroke with a whip (IT.S.D. says Dial. ; M'A. 

says North) : 
Sglabhart, a blow on the side of the head ; from Sc. sclaffert (do.), 

sclaff, a bio*, Prov. Fr. esclaffa, to beat (Ducange), Med. Lat. 

Sglaim, questionably acquired wealth, sglaimire, usurper (M'A.) ; 

see glam. 
sglamhadh, a seizing greedily upon anything, Ir. sclamhaim, I 

seize greedily, scold ; also G. sglamadh (M'E.) ; see glam. 
Sglamhruinn, a scolding, abusive words; cf. Sc. sclourie, vilify, 

abuse, bedaub, Ir. sglamhadh means also "scold," and G, 


sglamhadh, scold of a sudden (M'A.). So. has sJclave, to 

Sglamhradh, clawing one's skin for itch (M'A.) ; see damhradh. 

sgleamhas,' meanness, sordidness, sgleambraidh, a stupid or mean 
fellow : 

sgleamaic, plaster (vb.), daub filthily (M'A.), sgleamaid, snotters 
(M'A.) : 

Sgl^ap, ostentation, Ir. sgUip ; M'A. gives the force of " to flatter, 
stare open-mouthed at one." 

Sgleo, dimness of the eyes, vapour : 

Sgled, boasting, romancing, Ir. scleo, boasting, high language : 

Sgled, misery, Ir. scleo (O'Cl.) : 

Sgleobach, sluttish : 

Sgleog, a snot, phlegm, a knock : 

Sgleogair, a troublesome prattler, liar : 

Sgledid, a silly person, slattern, Ir. scledid ; also gleoid : 

sgliamach, slippery-faced (M'L.) : 

sgliat, slate, Ir. scldta ; from M. Eng. sclat, now slate. 

Sglimeach, troublesome, as an unwelcome guest : 

Sglidrach (sgliurach, H.S.D.), a slut, gossip, Ir. sgliurach. The 
G. also means "young of the sea-gull till one year old," when 
they become sg^ireag. 

Sglongaid, a snot, spit ; see glong. 

Sgob, snatch, bite, sting, Ir. sgoballach, a morsel, piece ; also G. 
sgobag, a small wound, a small dram. Seemingly formed 
from gob, a bill, mouth (cf. 0. Fr. gobet, morsel, gober, 
devour, Eng. gobble). 

Sgoch, gash, make an incision ; for scoth ; see sgath. 

Sgcd, the corner of a sheet, the sheet of a sail, a sheet-rope, M. Ir. 
sc6ti, sheets ; from Norse skaut, the sheet or comer of square 
cloth, the sheet rope, a hood. Got. skauts, hem, Eng. sheet. 

SgOg, a fool, idler, sgogach, foolish, Ir. sgogaire (O'R.), W. ysgogyn, 
fop, flatterer: 

Sgoid, pride, conceit, Ir. sg6id; G. sgoideas, pageantry, ostenta- 
tion : 

Sgoil, school, Ir. sgoil, E. Ir. scol, W. ysgol, Br. skol; from Lat. 
sehola, whence Eng. school. 

sgoileam, loquacity ; see syiolam. 

Sgoilt, split, sgoltadh, splitting, Ir., M. Ir. scoiltim, inf. scoltad, 
0. Ir. diiiscoilt, scinde (St. Gall. Inaant.), Cor. felja, Br. 
faouto, split : *sqolt6, split, root sqvel ; Lit. sMlto, split, 
skiliu, split; Norse skifjan, separate, Ger. schale, shell, Eng. 
shale, skill], Gr. o-KakXta, hoe, o-kvAXco, tear, 
Sgoim, wandering about ; cf. sgaoim. 
Sgoinn, care, efficagy, neatness : 

OF tHb flABLId LANGtJAGti. 28? 

Sgoirm, throat, lower parts of a hill (M'P. Ossian); for latter 

force, see under sgaimeach. 
Sgoitich, a quack, mountebank : 
sgol, rinse, wash ; from Norse skola, wash, Swed. sMlja, rinse, 

wash, Dan. shylh. 
Sgolb, a splinter, Ir. sgolh, M Jr. scolh, a wattle, W. ysgolp, 

splinter, Br. skolp : *skolb-, root skel, sJcol, split (see sgoilt), 

fuller root skel-g ; Gr. koA,o/8os, stunted, o-koAo^ (o-KoAorros), 

stake ; Swed. skalks, a piece, also Got. halks, halt, Eng. shelf, 

spelk (Perrson Zeit.^^ 290 for Gr. and Teut.). 
Sgonn, a block of wood, blockhead : *skotsno-, "section ;" from the 

root of sgath. 
Sgor, a mark, notch, Ir. sgdr ; from Eng. score, Norse skor, mark, 

notch, tally (G. is possibly direct from Norse.) 
Sgor, Sg6rr, a sharp rock ; from Sc. scaur, Eng. scar, cliff, of 

Scandinavian origin, Norse sker, skeiTy ; 0. H. G. scorra, 

rock ; further Eng. shore, Ag. S. score. See sgeir further. 
Sgdrnan, a throat, Ir. scomdn : 
sgot, a spot, blemish, small farm ; cf. Sc. shot, a spot or plot of 

Sgoth, a boat, skiff, a Norway skiff; from Scandinavian — Dan. 

shude, Norse shdta, a cutter, small craft, 
t Sgoth, a flower, Ir. sgoth ; Lat. scateo, gush (St. Zeit.^^). 
Sg^abach, rough, ragged, Ir. sgrdbach, sgrahach (Lh.) ; from Eng. 

scrap, scrappy, Norse skrap, scraps. 
sgrabaire, the Greenland dove ; hence Sc. scraher. 
sgragall, gold-foil, spangle (Sh., Lh., etc. ; not M'A. or M'E.), Ir. 

sgragall : 
Sg^aideag, small morsel, diminutive woman, Ir. sgraideog. M'A. 

gives sgr^id, a hag, old cow or mare, and H.S.D. sgraidht 

(do.). Cf. Sc. scradyn, a puny, sickly child, scrat, a puny" 

person, Norse skratti, wizard, goblin. 
sgraig, hit one a blow : 
SgrS,ill (sgraill, H.S.D.), rail at, abuse : 
Sg^aing, a scowling look, niggardliness ; I. E. sqrengo-, shrink ; 

Eng. shrink ; Gr. K/oa/iy8os, blight. 
Sgrd,ist, a sluggard, Ir. scraiste (Lh., etc.) : 
Sg^ait, a shred, rag : 
Sgrath, outer skin or rind, turf (for roofing, etc.), Ir. sgraith, 

green sward, sod, sgraithim,, I pare off the surface, W. ysgraf, 

what pares off, ysgrawen, hard crust ; cf . Norse skrd, dry skin, 

scroll (*skrava), Sc. sera, a divot (Dumfries). 
Sgrathail, destructive, Ir. sgraiteamhuil (O'R.) : 
Sgreab, a scab, blotch, crust, Ir. sgreabbg, a crust; from Eng. 

scrape ? 


Sgread, a screech, cry, Ir. sgread, M. Ir. seret : *skriddo-, "W. ysgri, 

root skri, skrei ; 0. H. G. scrian, cry, Ger. sckrei, Eng. scream, 

screech ; Lat. scred ( = screjd), a hawk. 
Sgreag, dry, parch ; from the Scandinavian — Norwegian skrehka, 

shrink, parch, Swed. skraka, a great dry tree, Eng. shrink, 

scraggy (from. Scandinavian). 
Sgreamh, abhorrence, disgust, Ir. screamh : *skrimo-, root skri, 

slcrei ; Norse skrcema, scare away, Swed. skrdma, Dan. 

Sgreamh, thin scum or rind, ugly skin (M'A.) ; root skr of sgar. 
Sgreang, a wrinkle : *skrengo-, I. E. sqreng, shrink; Eng. shrink 

(Dr Cameron). See sgraing. 
Sgreataidh, disgusting, horrible : *skritto-, root skri of sgreamh, 

Sgreubh, dry up, crack by drought, Sgreath (M'A., who has 

Sgreoth, parch as cloth) ; cf. Eng. shrivel, from a Scandinavian 

source — base skriv-, 0. Northumbrian screpa, pine, Norwegian 

skrypa, waste ; or Sc. scrae, dry, withered person, old withered 

shoe, Norwegian skroje. 
Sgreuch, sgriach, a scream, screech, Ir. sgrdach, E. Ir. screch : 

*skreikd, root skrei, as in sgread, q.v. Eng. screech, shriek are 

from the same root (not stem). W. ysqr&eh seems borrowed 

from the Eng. 
Sgreunach, shivering (Arran) : *sqreng-no- ; see sgraing. 
sgribhinn, rocky side of a hill or shore (Arm., M'A.) ; for sgridhinn, 

from the Norse skri&a, pi. skriSna, a landslip on a hill-side. 

See sgrkodan. 
Sgrid, breath, last breath of life : *skriddi-, root skri of sgread. 
Sgriob, a scratch, furrow, line, Ir. scrioh, E. Ir. scrih, mark, scripad, 

scratching; from Lat. scribo, write, draw lines, whence also 

Norse skrifa, scratch, write, W. ysgrif, a notch. 
Sgriobh, write, Ir. sgriobhaim, 0-. Ir. scribaim, W. ysgrifo, Br. 

skriva, skrifa ; from Lat. scribo, write. 
Sgrlodan, a stony ravine on a mountain side, track of a mountain 

torrent, a continuous run of stones on a mountain side ; from 

Norse skri&a, pi. skricSna, a landslip on a hill-side, skrltfa, to 

glide, Ger. schreiten, stride ; Prov. English screes, sliding 

stones, Sc. scriddan (from the Gaelic). 
Sgrios, destroy, Ir. scriosaim, M. Ir. scrisaim : *skrissi- for 

*skr-sti-, root skar of sgar, q.v. 
Sgriotachan, a squalling infant ; from scread. 
Bgrioth, gravel (Islay), sgriothail, a lot of small items (Badenoch) : 

*skritii,-, root sker ; cf. Eng. short, I. E. shrdh, little, short. 
Sgrdb, scratch, Ir. scrobaim : *skrobbo-, from skrob, scratch ; Lat. 

^scrobis, a ditch, scrofa, a pig (" scratcher up") ; Eng. scrape ; 

Lettic skrdbt, scrape, Ch. SI. skreb, scrape. 


sgrobha, a screw, so Ir. ; from the Eng. 

Sgrog, the head or side of the head (in ridicule), a hat or bonnet ; 

vb. Sgrog, put on the bonnet firmly, scrog ; from the Sc. 

scrog, scrug, Eng. shrug. In the sense of " head," compare 

Sgrog, Sgrogag, anything shriveUed, a shrivelled old woman, old 

cow or ewe, Sgrog, shrivel ; from the Sc. scrog, a stunted 

bush, scraggy, stunted, Eng. scraggy, Dan. shrog, Swed. shrohk, 

anything shrunken, Norse shrokhr. 
Sgroill, a peeling or paring, anything torn off; from Scandinavian 

— Dan. skrcbel, peelings or parings of apples, potatoes, Norse 

shrill, a mob. 
sg^ub, hesitate, sgrubail, a hesitating, Ir. scrub, hesitate, sgruh- 

alach, scrupulous ; from Eng. scruple. 
sgrdd, examine, search, Ir. scnidaim, 0. Ir. scriitaim ; from Lat. 

scrdtor, Eng. scrutiny. 
sgruigean, neck of a bottle, the neck (in ridicule), Ir. sgruigin, 

neck of a bottle, short-necked person ; cf. sgrog. 
Sgruit, an old shrivelled person, a thin person, Ir. sgruta, an old 

man, sgrutach, lean, sgrut, a contemptible person ; cf. Norse 

skrudda, a shrivelled skin, old scroll. 
SgrMhan (sgrii'an), a shock of corn (A^synt) ; from Norse sknif, 

Sguab, a broom or besom, Ir. sguab, E. Ir. scuap, 0. Ir. scopiha, 

scopata, W. ysguh, Br. shuba ; from Lat. scopa. 
Sguaigeis, coquetry ; cf. giiag. 
sguch, sprain, strain a joint : " spring ;'' cf. E. Ir. scuchim, I 

depart, root skak, Lit. szdkti, jump, spring (see sgeun). 
Sgud, lop, snatch ; cf. W. ysgdth, scud, whisk, Eng. scud, Sc. scoot, 

squirt, etc. G. is borrowed. 
Sgfld, a cluster : 
sgiid, a scout ; from the Eng. 
Sgudal, fish-guts, offal ; cf. cut. 

sgnga, coarse clumsyperson, sgugach, a soft boorish fellow; see guga. 
Sguidilear, a scullion ; from the So. scudler, scudle, cleanse. 
Sguids, thrash, dress flax, Ir. sguitsim ; from Eng. scutch. 
Sguir, cease, stop, Ir. sguirim, 0. Ir. scorim, desist, unyoke : 

*skori6, root sker, skor, separate ; see sgar. 
Sgiiird, Sgiiirt, the lap, a smock, apron, Ir. sguird; from Eng. 

skirt, Norse skhrta, a shirt. 
Sguit, the footboard in a boat : 
sguit, a wanderer (scuite, Shaw) : Macpherson's scuta, whence he 

derives Scotti — an invention of his own % 
Sgulan, a large wicker basket ; from Scandinavian — Norse skjdla, 

a bucket, Sc. skeil, tub, skull, shallow basket of oval form. 



lu Sutherland, s^ulag means " a basket for holding the 

Sgum, scum, foam ; from Norse skilm, foam, M. Eng. scum, now 

scum, Ger. schaum, foam. 
Sgiiman, a skirt, tawdry head-dress, corn sack : 
sgumrag, a fire-shovel, a Cinderella : 
Sgiir, scour, Ir. sg4raim ; from the English, 
si, she, Ir., 0. Ir. si ; see i. 
sia, six, Ir. s6 ; see se. 
slab, wipe, sweep along, puiF away : *sveibbo-, root sveib, sweep; 

Norse sveipr, sweep, Eng. sweep. Also siabh. Hence siaban, 

sand drift, 
siabh. a dish of stewed periwinkles (Heb.) : 
siabhas, idle ceremony : 
siabhrach, a fairy, Ir. sidbhra, E. Ir. siabrae, siabur, fairy, ghost, 

W. hwyfar in Gwenhwyfar, Guinevere (?) : *seihro- : 
siabunn, slopunn, soap, Ir. siabhainn (Fol.), W. sebon ; from Lat. 

sapo(n), from Teut. saipo, whence Eng. soap, Ger. seife, Norse 

siach, sprain, strain a joint : 
siachair, a pithless wretch ; from siach. 
siad, a stink : *seiddo-, blow ; see seid. 
siad, sloth, Ir. siadhail, sloth : 
sian, a scream, Ir. sian, voice, shout, sound, E. Ir. sian : *sveno-, 

which Stokes {Zeit."^^ 59) explains as *sesveno-, root sven, 

sound (see seinn). 
sian, a pile of grass, beard of barley, Ir., E. Ir. sion, foxglove, 

0. W. fionou, roses, Br. foeonnenn, privet. Stokes gives the 

Celtic as * s(p)edno-. Gadelic might be allied to Lat. spina, 

sian, a charm ; see seun, 
sian, storm, rain, Ir. sion, weather, season, storm, 0. Ir. sin, 

tempesta's, W. hin, weather, M. Br. hynon, fair weather : 

* send ; root si (sei) as in sin, star ; Norse seinn, slow, late, 

M. H. G. seine, slowly, Eng. sith, since. 
siar, westward, aside, Ir. siar, 0. Ir. siar ; from s-iar, see iar, 

west, and s- under suas. 
siatag, rheumatism ; from Lat. sciatica. 
sibh, you, ye, Ir. si67i, 0. Ir. sib, si, W. chwi, 0. W. hui. Cor. why, 

Br. choui: *sves, for s-ves (Brug. ; Stokes has *svSs); Gr. 

cr<j()0)6, you two, Got. izvis {iz-vis) ; the ves is allied to Lat. vos. 

The form si6/t is for *svi-svi. 
sic, the prominence of the belly (H.S.D.), peritoneum (M'A.) : 
sicir, wise, steady ; from Sc. sic/cer, M. Eng. siker, from Lat. 

securus, now Eng. sure. W. sicr is from M. Eng. 


sid, weather, peaceful weather after storm, tide : * sizdi-, 

" settling," root sed, sit ? Ir. has side in the sense of " blast," 

from s^id. 
sil, drop, distil, Ir. silhn, perf. sihlais, stillavit : *svilid. Stokes 

gives the root as stil, Lat. stillo, drop, Gr. a-riX-q (do.). 

Hence silt, a drop. 
sile, spittle, saliva, Ir. seile, 0. Ir. saile, W. haliw, Br. hal, halo : 

*salivd (Stokes) ; Lat. saliva. Stokes says that they appear 

to be borrowed from Lat., while Wharton thinks the Lat. is 

borrowed from Gaulish. 
siliche, a lean, pithless creature : " seedy," from siol ? 
simid, a mallet, beetle, Ir. siomaide : 
similear, a chimney, Ir. seimileur, simnear, simne ; from Eng., Sc. 

chimley, Eng. ckimney. 
simleag, a silly woman ; from tho iicit word. 
simplidh, simple, Ir. simplidhe, silly, simple ; from Lat. simplex, 

whence Eng. simple, W. syml. 
sin, that, Ir., 0. Ir. sin, 0. W. hinn, W. hyn, hwn, lion, Corn, ken, 

lion (fem.), Br. hen, Gaul, sosin ( = so-sin) ; from root so (sjo), 

as in -sa, so, q.v. 
sin, stretch, Ir., 0. Ir. sinim : *sSno-, root se, mittere, let go ; Lat. 

sino, sitiis ; Gr. i'lj/it, send. Of. svr (from "^sSro-, long). 

Allied is root sei, sei, si, mittere, Norse si&r, long, seinn, slow. 

Lit. seinyti, reach, 
sine, a teat, Ir., E. Ir. sine, triphne, three-teated : *svenio- for 

*spenio-, root spen of Lit. spenys, udder teat, 0. Pruss. 

spenis, teat, Norse speni, teat, Du. speen, udder, Sc. spain, wean, 
sinn, we, us, Ir. sinn, E. Ir. sinn, sinne, 0. Ir. ni, sni, snisni, sninni, 

W. ni, nyni. Cor. ny, nyni, Br. ni : *nes (Brug. ; Stokes gives 

nes), accusative form, allied to Lat. nos, Skr. nas, Gr. vw. The 

s of sni is due to analogy with the s of sibh, or else prothetic 

(cf. is-sd, he is), 
sinnsear, ancestors, Ir. sinnsear, ancestors, an elder person, E. Ir. 

sinser, elder, ancestor : *senistero-, a double comparative form 

(like Lat. minister, magister) from sean, old, q.v. 
sinte, plough traces ; from sin. 
sinteag, a skip, pace ; from sin. 
siob, drift as snow (M'A.) ; see siab. 
siobag, a blast of the mouth, puff, Ir. siobdg ; cf. siah. 
siobail, fish, angle (M'A.) : 
siobhag, a straw, candle wick : 

sioblach, a long streamer, long pifersou (M'A.) ; from siah i 
siobhalta, civil, peaceful, Ir, sibhealta, from Ir. siothamhuil, peace- 
able, E. Ir. sidaTnail. Borrowing from Eng. civil has beeij 

suggested (Celt. Mag.^^ 169). 


siochaint, peace, Ir. siochdin, peace, sioihchdnta, peaceful ; from 

Siochair, a dwarf, fairy, M. Ir. sidhcaire, fairy host, sithcuiraibh 

(dat. pi.), E. Ir; sithchaire ; from sith, fairy, and cuire, host 

(Ger. heer. army, Eng. herald). 
Bioda, silk, Ir. sioda, E. Ir. sita, W. sidan ; from L. Lat. s&ta, silk, 

from Lat. sita, a bristle, hair ; -whence Ag. S. side, silk, Eng. 

Biogach, pale, ill-coloured, Ir. sioffach, streaked, ill-coloured, sioff, a 

streak, a shock of com : 
siogach, greasy (M'A.), lazy (M'F.) : 
siogaid, a starveling, lean person ; from Lat. siccus ? 
Siol, seed, Ir. siol, 0. Ir. si/, semen, W. hil: *selo-n, root se, sow; 

Lat. semen ; Eng. seed, Ger. saat ; Lit. pa-selps, a sowing. 
siola, a gill ; from the Eng. 
siola, a wooden collar for a plough horse ; from Scandinavian — 

Swed. sela, a wooden collar, Norse seli, harness, sili, a strap, 

Sc. sele, a wooden collar to tie cattle to the stalls. 
siola, a syllable, Ir. siolla, E. Ir. siUdb ; from Lat. syllaha, whence 

Eng. syllable. 
Sioladh, straining, filtering, Ir. sioUhughadh, E. Ir. sithlad-, W. 

hidlo, hidl, a filter ; also 0. Ir. sithal = Lat. situla, a bucket ; 

from Lat. situla (Stokes Lismore). G. sioladh also means 

" subsiding," and leans for its meaning, if not its origin, upon 

^th, peace. 
Siolag, a sand-eel : 
siolc, snatch, pilfer : 
siolgach, lazy, dwarfish : 

sioU, a tarn, rotation (M'A.), W. chwyl ; see seal. 
siolta, a teal, small wild duck ; from Eng. teal ? 
SI Oman, a rope of straw or hay ; from the Norse sima, g. pi. simna, 

a rope, cord, Sc. simmonds, heather ropes (Orkney), Teut. 

* Simon-, Ag. S. sima, fetter ; Gr. Ifiovla (i long), well rope ; 

I. E. stmon^, a bond, band, seio-, bind, 
siomlach ; see seamlaeh. 
sion, something, anything; also "weather," for sian, whence 

possibly this meaning of " anything" comes. 
sionadh, lord (M'Pherson's Fingal i, 341) : if genuine, the root 

may be sen, old ; cf. Lat. senior, now Eng. sir. 
sionnach, a fox, so Ir., E. Ir. sinnach, sindach, 0. Ir. sinnchenae, 

vulpecula : ^ 

sionnsar, bagpipe chanter, Ir. siunsoir ; from the Eng. chanter. 
siopunn, soap ; see siabunn. 
Sior, long, continual, Ir. sior, 0. Ir. sir, comparative sia, W. hir, 

compar. hwy. Cor., Br. hir : *sero-s ; Lat. sirv^, late, Fr. soir, 

evening, Eng. soiree ; Skr. sdyd, evening. See sian, sin. 


siorra (M'A., M'E.), siorraimh, siorram (H.S.D.), a sheriff, 
siorrachd, siorramachd, county, Ir. sirriamh, M. Ir. sirriam ; 
from M. Eng. shirreve, now sheriff, " shire-reeve." The So. is 
shirr a usually. 

siorradh, a deviation, onset : *sith-rad, from sith ? 

SiOTTuidh, eternal, Ir. siorruidhe ; from * sir-rod, eternity, ^or. 

sios, down, Ir. sios, 0. Ir. sis : *s-is, from s- (see suas) and is, or 
\os, q.v. 

siosar, a scissors, Ir. siosur ; from the Eng. 

sir, search, Ir. sirim {sirim. Con.), E. Ir. sirim : *s(ji)eri-, root sper, 
foot it; Norse spyrja, ask, track, Sc. spere, ask after, Ger. 
spiiren, trace, track, also further Eng. spur ; Lat. sperno 
(Eng. spurn allied), etc. The vowel of sir is short (otherwise 
Stokes' Diet, Rhys Manx Pray? 71, who compares W. 

siris, sirist, a cherry, Ir. siris, W. ceirios ; from M. Eng. *ckeris, 
from 0. Fr. cerise, Lat. cerasus, Gr. Kepao-os. 

siteag, a dunghill ; from the Eng. 

sith, a stride, onset, a dart to, M. Ir. sith, onset ; cf. Ir. sith-, 
intensive prefix (O'Don., Gr. 277), E. Ir. sith, long, W. hyd, 
to, as far as, 0. W. hit, longitudo, usque ad, Br. hed, length, 
during : *seti, root se, as in sior, long (Stokes). 

Sith, peace, Ir. sith, sioth, E. Ir. sith, 0. Ir. sid : *sSdos (neut. s 
stem), root sed {sid) of suidhe, q.v. ; Lat. sSdo, settle ; Lit. 
seddti, sit. W. hedd, peace, is from sed. 

Sith, a fairy, sithich (do.), Ir. sidh, a fairy hill, sigh, a fairy, 
sighetg (do.), 0. Ir. side, dei terreni, whose dwelling is called 
sid ; in fact, side, the fairy powers, is the pi. (gen. s. ?) of sid, fairy 
dwelling or mound, while its gen. sing, appears in mnd side, 
fir side : *sedos, g. sedesos, as in the case of sith, peace, which 
is its homonym (Stokes) ; root sed, sed, Gr. eSos, a temple or 
statue, literally an "ahode" or "seat;" Lat. noven-sides, 
noven^siles, the new gods imported to Rome. Thurneysen has 
compared Lat. sidus, a constellation, "dwelling of the gods." 
Hence sithean, a green knoll, fairy knoll. 

sithionn, venison, Ir. sidh and sidheann (O'R.), M. Ir. sieng, W. 
hyddgig ( = " stag's flesh"), from hydd, stag, red deer : *sedi-, 
deer ; to which is to he referred M. Ir. segh ( = agh allaidh, 
O'Cl.), E. Ir. s^g ( = oss allaidh, Conn.). 

sitig, the rafter of a kiln laid across, on which the corn is dried : 

sitir, sitrich, neighing, Ir. sitreach; cf. sM, blow (^ svid-tri-). 

siubhal, walking, so Ir., M. Ir. siubal, for *siumal, W. chivy f, 
motus, chwyfu, move, stir, M. 'Er.fifvxd, now finval, stir; root 
svem, move ; 0. H. G., Ag. S. swimman, Eng. swim. 

giubhla ; see luighe-siuhhla. 


siuc, a word by which horses are called : 

siucar (siticar, H.S.D.), sugar, Ir. siucra, W. siigr ; from M. Eng. 

sugre, Fr. sucre. 
sitidadh, swinging ; from So. showd, swing, waddle, 0. Sax. 

shvddian, shake, 0. Du. schudden (do.), Eng. shudder. 
siug, call to drive away hens ; cf . Eng. shoo ! 
siunas, lovage plant ; see sunais. 
SI up, a tail, appendage ; cf. seap. 
siursach, a whore ; from the Eng , with the G. fem. termination 

-seach (see binnseach). 
siuthad, say away, begin, go on : *seo-tu, " here you,'' from so and 

tu ? Cf. trobhad, thiigad. 
slabhag, pith of a horn : 
slabhagan, a kind of reddish sea-weed, sloke, Ir. slahhacdn ; from 

Eng. sloke, Sc. slohe, slake. 
slabhraidh, a chain, Ir. slabhra, 0. Ir. sldbrad : *slab-rad, from 

slab, root lag of Gr. \afj,pdvb), I take, catch, Eng. latch. 
slachd, thrash, beat, Ir. slacairim ; root slag, sleg, or slg, E. Ir. 

sligim, beat, strike : *sleg6, beside I. E., slak, as in Got. slaka, 

strike, Ger. schlagen (do.), Eng. slay (Stokes for sligim) ; 

further Lat. lacerare, lacerate, Gr. AaKtfu), tear (Kluge). 

Hence slachdan, beetle, rod. 
slad, theft, Ir. slad,M.. Ir. slat : * sladdo-. Stokes gives the Celtic 

as *stlatto-, allied to Lat. stldta (stlatta), pirate ship, and 

Eng. steal. The modern forms point to Gadelic *sladdo-, 

for *stl-ddo-, allied to Eng. steal ? 
sladhag, a sheaf of corn ready to be thrashed (H.S.D.) : 
sliib, mire; see lahan. Skeat refers Eng. slab, slime, but it is 

likely native (cf. slop, etc.). 
slaid, a munificent gift : 
slaightear, slaoightear, a rogue, Ir. sloitire, rogue, sloitireachd, 

roguery, M. Ir. sleteoracht, theft (O'Cl.) ; from slad (Ir. sloit), 

slaim, great booty, a heap : from the Sc. slam, a share or posses- 
sion acquired not rightly, slammach, to seize anything not 

entirely by fair means, Swed. slama, heap together, 
slais, lash ; from the Eng. 
slam, a lock of hair or wool, Ir. slam, E. Ir. slamm : * slags-men, 

Gr. Xdxvos, wool, Aaxv'?, down (otherwise Prellwitz, who 

refers Gr. to *vlk-snd, root vel of olann, q.v.). 
slaman, curdled milk, Ir. slamanna, clots, flakes (O'CL), E. Ir. 

slaimred (na fola) : 
slin, healthy, whole, Ir., 0. Ir. sldn : *sl-no- (Brug.), *s9ldno-s 

(Stokes); Lat. salvus ( = sf-w-, Brug.), safe, solidus, firm, 

Eng. solid ; Gr. oAos, whole ( = (roA,Fos) ; Eng, silly, originally 

OP tSe gaSLic Language. 295 

meaning " blessed," Ger. selig, blessed ; Skr. sda-vas, whole, 

all. W., Br. holl is referred here by Stokes, etc., more 

immediately allied to Lat. sollus, whole, all. 
slaod, drag, trail, Ir. slaodaim, draw after, slide, slaod, a raft, 

float, E. Ir. sldet, a slide : *sloiddo-, Celtic root sleid, slid ; 

Eng. slid-e, Ag. S. slidan, Ger. schlitten, slide, sledge (n.) ; Lit. 

slidus, smooth. Stokes explains the d of slaod as for dd, 

from -dnd- : * slaidh-n6-. 
slaop, parboil, slaopach, parboiled, slovenly, Ir. slaopack, luke- 
warm (O'K.).; also slaopair, a sloven, for which see next. 
slapach, slapach, slovenly, Ir. slapach, slovenly, slapar, a trail or 

train ; from Scandinavian — Norse sldpr, a good-for-nothing, 

slaepa, vestis promissa et laxa (Jamieson), sloppr, Eng. slop, 

Sc. slavpie, slovenly, Dutch slap, slack, remiss, Ger. schlaff. 
slapraich, din, noise ; from Eng. slap. 
slat, a rod, twig, Ir. slat, M. Ir. slat, slatt, W. llath, yslath, Br. 

laz : *slattd ; Eng. lath is from W. M. Eng. latte, Ag. S. 

laetta, 0. H. G. latta, Ger. latfx are also Celtic borrows, Fr. 

latte (Thumeysen), but Kluge regards them as cognate, 
slaucar, a slouching fellow (Suth.), a taunter ; from Norse sldkr, 

slouching fellow, whence Eng. slotoch. 
sleagh, a spear, so Ir., E. Ir. sleg : *slgd; Skr. srj, hurl, sling, 
sleamlminn, slippery, smooth, Ir. sleamhuin, 0. Ir. slemon, W. 

llyfn, smooth, 0. Br. limn (in compounds) : *slib-no-s, root 

slib, sleih ; Norse sleipr, slippery, Eng. slip, slippery ; Gr. 

dA.t/3/)os, Xi.j3p6s, slippery. See sliabh also. 
sl6igeil, dilatory, sleugach, drawling, slow, sly; also leug, 

laziness ; from the Sc. shek ? 
sleuchd, kneel, Ir. sleachdain, 0. Ir. slechtaim, ; from Lat. fleclo. 
sliabh, a moor, mountain, Ir. sliabh, mountain, 0. Ir. slidb : 

*sleibos, root sleib, slib, glide, down, I. E. sleigo- ; Eng. slope, 

from slip, Norse sleipr, slippery ; see sleamhuinn. W. llwyf, 

platform, loft, seems allied to G. sliabh. 
sliachdair, spread any soft substance by trampling, daub : 

*sleikto-, sleig, Norse slikr, smooth, Eng. sleek, Ger. schlick, 

grease, the original idea being " greasy," like soft mud. Cf. 

E. Ir. sliachtad, smoothing, preening, 
sliasaid, sliasad (sliaisd. Dial.), thigh, Ir. sliasad, 0. Ir. sliassit, 

poples : a diphthongal form of the root of slis, q.v. 
slibist, a sloven ; cf. Ir. sliobair, drag along ; from Eng. slip. 

slige, a scale of a balance, a shell, Ir. slige, a grisset, shell, 0. Ir. 

slice, lanx, ostrea : *sleggio-, root sleg, for which cf. slachd. 
slighe, a way, Ir. slighe, E. L*. slige, g. sliged : *sleget-, root sleg of 

Ir. sligim, I strike {ro sligsetar, ro selgatar rotu, they hewed 

out ways). See slachd further. ' 


slinn, a weaver's sley or reed, Ir. slinn, a sley, M. Ir. slind, pecten, 
also slige, pecten, which suggests for slinn a stem : *sleg-s-ni-, 
sleg being the same root as that of slighe and slachd. Cf. 
Eng. sley allied to slay, smite. Stokes refers both 0. Ir. 
slind, tile and weaver's sley, to the root splid, splind, Eng. 
split, splint. See slinnean and sliseag further. 

slinnean, shoulder blade, shoulder, Ir. slinnedn, M. Ir. slind^n : cf. 
0. Ir. slind, imbrex, tile, Ir. slinn, slate, tile, also E. Ir. slind- 
ger, smooth-sharp, slate-polished (?), slind-glanait, whetstone- 
cleaned : *slindir; root slid, skid, smooth, glide, Eng. slide, 
Lit. slidiis, smooth. Stokes refers slind, imbrex, to the root 
splid, splind, split, Eng. split, splint ; see sliseag. 

sliob, stroke, rub, lick, Ir. sliobhaim, polish, M. Ir. slipthe, whet- 
tened, slibad, whetting, W. yslipan, burnish ; from Norse or 
Ag. S. — Norse slipa, whet, make sleek, Ag. S. slipan, shp, 
gUde, M. L. Ger. slipen, sharpen, M. Du. slijpen, pohsh, 

sliochd, posterity, tribe, Ir. sliochd, M. Ir. slicht, trace, track, 
0. Ir. slict, vestigium : *slektti-, root sleg of slighe and slachd. 
For similar origin, cf. Ger. geschlecht, race, lineage. 

sliOgacb, sly, Ir. sHogach, sleek, fawning, sligtfieach, sly ; from 
Eng., Sc. sleeh, Norse slikr, smooth ; I. E. sleig, glide (see 

sliom, sleek, slippery, slim, Ir. sliomaim, flatter, smooth, gloss 
over ; from Eng. slim, sly, crafty, slender, now " slim," Sc. 
slim, naughty, slim o'er, gloss over, 0. Du. slim, awry, crafty, 
Ger. schlimm, bad, cunning. Hence G. sliomaire, weakling, 

sliop, a lip, blubber lip ; from Eng. lip. 

slios, the side of a man or beast, flank, Ir. slios, 0. Ir. sliss, pi. 
slessa, W. ystlis : *stlisti-, root stel, extend, Lat. stldtus, Idttos, 
wide, Ch. SI. stelja, spread. 

slis, sliseag, a chip, Ir. slis, slise6g, E. Ir. sliss : *slissi-, from 
* splid-s-ti-, root splid, Eng. split, splice, splint, Ger. spleissen, 
etc. Eng. slice has been compared, Eng. slit, root slid, which 
could also produce the Gadelic forms. 

sloe, a pit, plough, Ir. sloe : *slukko-, for *slug-ko-, root slug, 
swallow, as in slug, q.v. Skeat derives hence Ag. S. sl6h, 
Eng. slouch. Ger. schlucht, hollow, ravine, is referred by 
Kluge to the root slup, lubricus. 

slod, a puddle, Ir. slod ; see lod. 

sldcan, sloke ; from the Sc. or Eng. sloTce. 

sloinn, surname, Ir. sloinnim, I name, 0. Ir. slondim, name, 
significo, slond, significatio, 0. W. istlinnit, profatur, M. W. 
cy-stlwn, family and clan name, W. ystlyned, kindred, ystlen, 
sex : *stlondo-, *stlondi6, I speak, name. 


sloisir, dash, beat against sea-like, daub ; from Sc. slaister, 
bedaub, a wet liquid mass, to move clumsily through a miry 
road, also slesUr (Badenoch Dial, sleastair, bedaub). 

sluagh, people, Ir. sluagh, 0. Ir. sltiag, d6g, W, lla, Corn, lu, 
Gaul, slbgi in Catu-siocji : *slouffo-s ; of. Slav, sliiga, a servant, 
Lit. slauginti. 

sluaisreadh, act of mixing (lime, etc.) with a shovel ; see next 

sluasaid, a shovel, Ir. sluasad, a paddle, a shovel : 

slug, swallow, slugadh (inf.), Ir. slugaim, E. Ir. slucim, slocim : 
*slugg6, root slug, lug, swallow ; Ger. schlucken, to swallow, 
M. H. G. slucken ; Gr. Xv^(o, Xvyyaivo), have the hiccup. W. 
llwnc, gullet, a gulp, llyncu, to swallow, O. Br. ro-luncas, 
guturicavit, M. Br. Uuncafi are allied to E. Ir. longad, now 
longadh, eating, which is a nasalised form of the root sliig^ 

smachd, authority, correction, Ir. smachd, 0. Ir. smacht, M. Ir. 
smachtaigim, I enjoin, smacht, fine for breaking the law : 
*smaktiii^, from s-mag, root mag, I. E. magh, be strong • Eng^ 
may. Got. magan, be able ; Gr. firjxos, means (see mac). 

smad, a particle, jot : "spot, stain" (see smod). From Sc. smad, 
smot, a stain, Eng. smut. Ir. has smaddn, soot, smut. Of. also 
M. Ir. smot, a scrap, Ir. smotdn, a block, W. ysmot, patch, 

smM, threaten, intimidate, boast : 

smag, smog, a paw ; see smdg. 

smal, dust, spot, blemish, Ir. smdl ; root smal, mal (smel, mel), 
Lit. smdlkas, dust, smelynan, sand field, smelalis, sand, Lettic 
smelis, ■water sand. Got. mdlma, sand, Norse me/r, sand hill. 

Cf. OTsit 

mil, snuff a candle, Ir. sTndl, embers, snuff of candle ; cf. the 
above wcia. 

smalag, the young saith or cuddie : 

smaoin, think ; see smvain. 

smarach, a lad, a growing youth (Badenoch) ; root sm/ir, from 
mar, mer ; Gr. [leipa^, boy, Skr. maryakds, a mannie, mdryas, 
young man. Lit. marti, bride ; also W. morwyn, girl, merch, 
daughter, Br. merc'h. 

smarag, an emerald, Ir. smaragaid ; from Lat. smaragdus, whence 
through Fr. comes Eng. emerald. 

smeachan, the chin, Ir. smeach, smeaclian, E. Ir. smech : *smelcd ; 
Lit. smahra, Lettic smakrs, chin, palate ; Skr. pma(ru, mous- 

smeadairneach, a slumber, light sleep ; 

smeallach, smealach, remains, offals, dainties : ... 



SmMd, beckon, nod, Ir. smdidim, beckon, nod, hiss : *S7neiddi-, 

root smeid, smile, Gr. /AttSao), smile, Pruss. smaida, a smile, 

Eng. smile. W. amneidio, beckon, nod, 0. W. enmeittiou, 

nutus, 0. Br. enmetiam, innuo, do not agree in vowel with 

smeileach, pale, ghastly, smeilean, a pale, puny person; cf. 

smedirn, the end of an arrow next the bowstring, Ir. smeirne, a 

spit, broach (Sh., O'R.) : 
smedrach, a thrush, Ir. smSlach, smol, M. Ir. smolach ; cf. W. 

mwyalch, blackbird : *smitgal-, *smugl-, from mug (see 

much) ? 
smeur, smiar, anoint, smear, Ir. smearaim, grease, smear; from 

the Eng. For root see smior. 
smeur, smiar, a bramble berry, Ir. smeur, E. Ir. sm4r, W. mwyaren, 

Br. mouar (pi.) : 
smid, a syllable, opening of the mouth, a word, Ir. smid : *smiddi-, 

root smid, smeid, smile, laugh, as in smeid ? 
smig, the chin, Ir. smig, M. Ir. STneice (O'C.) : *STneggi- for 

*smek-gi, root smek, as in smeachan? 
Smigeadh, a smile, smiling, Ir. smig, smigeadh : * smlggi, root 
I sm,i, smile, for which see smeid. Also miog, q.v. 
,smiodaii, spirit ; from Sc. sm^ddum. 
smiolamus, refuse of a feast (M'A.) ; see smyolamus. 
smior, smear, marrow, Ir. sm.ior. E. Ir. smir, g. smera, W. mer : 

*smeru- ; 0. H. G. smero, grease, Ag. S. smeoru, lard, Eng. 

smear, Norse smjdrr, butter. 
smiot, throw in the air with one hand and strike with the other ; 

formed on Eng. smite. 
smiotach, crop-eared : 

smitir, smear ; from the Sc. smear, Eng. smear. See smeur. 
smod, dirt, dust, also (according to M'A.) drizzling rain ; from Sc. 

smat, Eng. smut. See smad. 
smodal, sweepings, crumbs, fragments, smattering, M. Ir. smot, a 

scrap ; cf. above word, 
smdg, Sm^g, a paw; cf. Norse smjiiga, creep through a hole, 

Ag. S. smdgan, creep, Eng. smuggle. For sm&g, see also 

smolamas, trash, fragments of victuals : 
smuain, a thought, Ir. smvaineadh, M. Ir. smuained : *smoudn-, 

root smovd, maud ; Got. gamavdjan, remind, cause to 

remember ; Ch. SI. mysU-, thought (Strachan). 
smuairean, grief, dejection : *smoudro-, root smoud of above ? 
smuais, marrow, juice of the bones, Ir. smiiais, marrow, E. Ir, 

smwas ; 

of THfl GAfiLIC LA^fGtJAGB. 299 

smuais, smash, Ir. smuais, shivers, in pieces ; from Eng. smash. 

smtic, a snivel, a nasal sound (smuch, M'A.) ; for root, see smvg 
{* s-miic-c). 

smticaii, smoke, drizzle ; from Eng. smoke. 

smtidaii, a particle of dust ; see smod. 

smiidau, a small block of wood, Ir. smotan, stock, block, log : 

smtidan, smoke ; see smidd. 

smug, snot, spittle, smugaid, spittle, Ir. smug, smugaid : *smugjo-, 
root sm'ug, mug, mucus ; Lat. emungo, wipe the nose. The 
root mug is a by-form of muq, mucus, seen in Lat. mucus, etc.; 
for which see muc. 

smuid, smoke, Ir. sm'did, E. Ir. smiiit, smiitgur, smUtcheo : 
*sm,iiddi-, root smud. Cf. Eng. smut, Ger. schmutz, dirt ; 
which Zim. thinks the Gadelic borrowed from, though the 
meaning makes this unlikely. There are three allied roots 
on European ground denoting " smoke" — smugh (Gr. cr/naxu, 
smoulder), sTtviig or smaug (Eng. smoke) and smud (G. smuid). 

smuig, a snout, the face (in ridicule) ; from the Eng. mug, ugly 

smtrach, dross, peat dross, smuir, dust, a particle of dust, 
smuirnean, a mote ; cf. Sc. smwrach, peat dross, smore, smurr, 
a drizzhng rain, M. Eng. smore, dense smoke, Eng. smother 
( = smorther), 0. Du. smoor. O'B. has smur from Sh., and K. 
Meyer translates M. Ir. smur-chimilt as "grind to dust." 

smut, a bill, snout, Ir. smut, a large flat nose, snout : 

snag, a little audible knock, a wood pecker (snagan-daraich), Ir. 
snag, hiccup ; cf. Eng. snock, a knock, and the next word. Ir. 
snaghairdarn, a wood pecker, seems from snaidh. 

suagaireachd, cutting or hacking wood with a knife ; from Dial. 
Eng. snugger, a tool for snagging or cutting off snags, that is, 
branches, knots, etc., Sc. snagger-snee, a large knife, snicker- 
snee, sneg, snag, cut off branches. 

snagarra, active ; from the above roots ; cf . snasmhor. 

snaidh, hew, chip, shape, Ir. snoighim, snaidhim iO'D.) E. Ir 
snaidim, snaisi, peeled, W. naddu, hew, chip, cut, 0. Cor. 
rcedim, aBcia (W. neddyf, neddai, adze, Br. eze, neze), M. Br. 
ezeff: *snad6 ; Ger. schnat, border, schnate, a young twig, 
Swiss schndtzen, cut. Swab, schnatte, an incision in wood or 
flesh (Bez. apud Stokes). Strachan suggests the root sknad, 
Gr. KvaSdXXb), scratch, kvcoSw, tooth (see cnamh). Hence 
snas, regularity. 

snMg, creep ; from Sc. snaik, sneak in walking, etc., snaikin, 
sneaking, Eng. sneak, snake. Cf . Ir. snaighim, I creep. 

snaim, a knot, Ir. snaidhm, E. Ir. snaidm, d. snaidmaimm, naidm, 
bond, nexus : *nadesmen, root ned, bind, I. E. ned/i ; Skr, 


■riah, tie, naddJias, tied; Ger. nestel, lace, 0. H. G. nestila, & 
band ; Lat, nSdus, for noz-dos, a knot. See nas^. 

snimh, swim, Ir. sndmhain, E. Ir. mdm (inf.), ro s»6, swam, W. 
mawf, natatio, nofio (vb.), M. Br. neuff, Br. motjih : ^mdmvr 
(n.), ««(io, I swim ; Lat. no, ndre ; Gr. vaw, flow ; Skr. sndti, 
bathe, float. 

snaois, a slice, piece ; cf. E. Ir. snaisse, cut, caesus, from snaidh. 

snaoissan, snuff, Ir. maoisin, snisin ; from Eng. sneezing in sneesing 
ponder, the old name for snuff, Sc. sneeshin, sneezin. 

snaomanacli, a strong, robust fellow, Ir. snaomdnach, stout, jolly 
fellow, hearty : " knotty," from *snadm- of maim ? 

snaoidh, a bier, Ir. snaoi : 

snap, the trigger of a gun ; from Eng. snap. 

snas, regularity, elegance, Ir. snas : "good cut,'' from snad of 
snaidh ; E. Ir. snass, a cut. 

sn§,th, thread, Ir. sndth, 0. Ir. sndtlie, W. ysnoden, lace, fillet, 
noden, thread, Com. noden, snod, vitta, Br. nevdenn : *sndtio-, 
*sndto-n, root snd, sni, wind, spin ; Skr. sndyu, sinew, bow- 
string ; Gr. oVvTjTos, well-spun ; Ger. schnur, lace, tie. See 
the allied sniomh and the next word below. 

snithat, a needle, Ir. sndthad, O. Ir. sndthat, W. nodwydd, 0. Corn. 
notuid, Br. nadoz, nadoez : *snatantd, sndteijd, from sndt of 
snMh above ; cf. Eng, needle, Goth, nepla, 0. H. G. nddala, 
Ger. nadel. 

sneachd, snow, so Ir., 0. Ir. snechta, pi. snechti, nives, W. nyf : 
*sniqtaio-, *snibi- (Welsh), I. E. snigh, sneigh ; Got. snaiws, 
Eng. S710W, Ger. schnee ; Lat. nix, nivis ; Gr. vI<jm (ace), 
vei<f>ii, it snows ; Lit. sninga (vb.), sriegas, snow ; Zend gnizh. 

sneadh, a nit, Ir. sneagh, 0. Ir. sned, W. wec^rf, nits. Com. nedhan, 
Br. MezewJi : *sknidd ; Ag. S. hnitu, Eng. mi, Ger. rem ; Gr. 
Kovihei, nits. 

snigh, drop, fall in drops, ooze through in drops, Ir. snidhim, 
E. Ir. snigim, W. di-neu, effundere, Br. di-nou, melt, thaw, 
I. 'E. sneigho-, wet ; Skr. snik, snefiati, to be humid. Allied 
to sneachd. 

snlomh, spin, wind, twist, Ir. sniomhain, M. Ir. snimaire, a spindle, 
snim, spinning : *snimu-, root, snS, nS ; Gr. vfjfia, yarn. See 
sndth further. W. has nyddu, nere. Corn, nethe, Br. nezaff. 
In the sense of " sadness," there is E. Ir. snim, distress, Br. 
niff, chagrin. 

sndd, affix a fishing hook to the line, Manx snooid ; from Sc. snood, 
the hair line to which the hook is attached, a fillet, Ag. S. 
sndd, fillet, Eng. snood. 

snodan, rapid motion of a boat : 

•nod'ha, snodha g&ire, a smile ; see sntuidh. 


snodhach, sap of a tree ; root mw, flow, Ir. snuadh, a stream, Gr. 
vkim, swim, Eng. snot, Norse snua, turn, Got. miwan, go. 

snoigeas, testiness ; from So. snog, snag, snarl, flout. 

snot, smell, snufi' the wind, turn up the nose in smelling ; founded 
on Eng. snout. 

snuadh, hue, appearance, beauty, Ir. snuadh, M. Ir. sniiad ; root 
snu, flow, as in E. Ir. snuad, hair, head of hair, Ir. snuadh, 
stream (see snodhach). 

SO, here, this, Ir. so, E. Ir., 0. Ir. seo, so : *sjo- (beside *so, as in 
-sa, -se), Skr. syd, sd, the, this, Ger. sie, she, they, 0. H. G. 
siu, she ( = Skr. syd, G. si). 

so-, a prefix denoting good quality, Ir. sd-, 0. Ir. so- su-, W. hy, 
Br. he- ; Skr. sm-, good, Zend. hu-. 

sobhaidh, s6'aidh, turn, prevent, 0. Ir. s6im, inf. sood, root sov, 
discussed under iompaidh. 

sobhrach, s6bhrach (M'L.), primrose, Ir. sobhrdg (Fol.), somharcin 
(O'B.), s6bhrach (O'R.), E. Ir. sobrach, g. sobarche : 

see, forepart of anything, ploughshare, snout, Ir. soc, E. Ir, socc, 
W. swch (f.), Cor. soch, Br. soc'h, souc'h (m.) : * suceo-, snout, 
pig's snout, *sulcku-, a pig, W. hwch. Cor. hoch, Br. hou'ch 
(Ag. S. sugu, Eng. sow, Lat. sus, etc.). So Thurneysen {Bom., 
112), who clinches his argument by E. Ir. corr being both 
" crane" and " beak." Fr. soc, ploughshare, Eng. sock are 
from Celtic. Stokes suggests the possibility of Celtic being 
from Med. Lat. soccus, vomer, or allied to 0. H. G. seh, vomer, 
Lat. secare. 

socair, ease, easy, Ir. socair, easy, secure, M. Ir. soccair : 

sochair, a benefit, emolument, Ir. sochar, emolument, wealth, ease, 
M. Ir. sochor, good contract (Sench. M6r) ; from so- and cor, 

sochar, silliness, a yielding disposition, socharacli, simple, com- 
pliant, Ir. sockarach, obliging, easy, W. hi/gar, amiable, Br. 
hegar, benignus; from so- and car, dear. The Ir. is also 
from sochar, ease. 

SOChd, silence, Ir. sochd (O'R., Sh.), M. Ir. socht : *sop-tu-, root svop 
of svain (Dr Cameron). 

sod, noise of boiling water, steam of water in which meat is boiled, 
boiled meat, Ir. sod, boiled meat (O'B.) ; from Norse sod, 
broth or water in which meat has been boiled, Eng. sodden, 
seethe, sod, Sc. sotter, boil slowly, sottle, noise of boiling 
porridge, etc. 

sod, an awkward person, a stout person ; from Sc. sod, a heavy 
person, sodick, soudie, a clumsy heavy woman. 

sodag, a pillion, clout ; from Sc. sodds, a saddle made of cloth. 


sodal, pride, flattery, Ir. sodal, sotal, sutal, 0. Ir. sotla, pride, 

insolence, sotli, animositates ; this has been adduced as the 

source of Eng. sot, Fr. sot. 
sodan, caressing, joy, joyous reception : 

sodar, trotting, a trotting horse (Sh., Lh , etc.), Ir. sodar, trotting : 
SOg, SOgan, mirth, good humour, tipsiness ; from *sugg, a short 

form of the root of siigradh. 
SOgh, luxury, riot, Ir. s6gh, M. Ir. sodh, E. Ir. suaig, prosperous : 

* su-ag-, root ag of aghaidh, agh. 
soidealta, bashful, ignorant ; see saidealta. 
soidean, a jolly-looking or stout person ; see sod. 
soighne, soighaeas, pleasure, delight; from so and *gen, make 

(see gmomh). 
soileas, officiousness, flattery, Ir. soilios ; from Lat. sollicitusi 
soilgheas, wind, a fair wind : 
soilleir, clear, visible, Ir. soilUir : from so- and Uir. The II is 

due to the analogy of soillse. 
soillse, brightness, so Ir., 0. Ir. soillse, soilse : * svelnestio- ; see 

solus for connections, 
soimeach, prosperous, . easy, good-natured, M. Ir. soimm, rich 

{doimm, poor), 0. Ir. somme, dives : * sii-op-mio- (Strachan), 

from op, rich, Lat opes, wealth. 
Boin, esteem (n.), soineil, handsome ; cf. sbnraich for the root, 
soinnionii, soineann, fair weather, Ir. soinean, M. Ir. soinend, 

E. Ir. sonend ; the opposite of soinnionn is doirdonn, for sw-sCra- 

enn, du-sin-enn, from sin now sian, weather, rain (Stokes). 
soir, the east, Ir. soir, E. Ir. sair ; from s- (see suas) and air 

(^ = *are), on, q.v. 
soir, sack, vessel, bottle ; of. searrag, 
soirbh, easy, gentle, Ir. soirbh, 0. Ir. soirb, facilis, opposed to 

doirb, difficilis, root reb or rib, roanare (Ascoli). But compare 

Gaelic reahh. 
sols, snug, fond of ease (M'A.) ; from Sc. sosh, snug, social. 
soise, a ball of fire in the sky, a portent (M'A.) : 
soisgeul, gospel, Ir. soisgM, soisgeul, 0. Ir. sosce'le ; from so- and 

soisinn, taste, decency ; from Sc. sonsy ? 

SOitheach, a vessel, Ir. soitheach, M. Ir. soithech, saithech : *satiho-: 
soitheamll, tame, docile, gentle : *so-seimh, from se'imh? 
sol, ere, before, Ir. E. Ir. sul ; root svel of seal. 
s61ach, highly delighted (M'A. ; soUacli, jolly. Arms.) ; founded on 

sblas. Arm.'s word seems from Eng. jolltf. 
EOlar, a provision, purveying, preparing, Ir. soldthar ; from so- 

and Ictthair. 
s61as, joy, comfort, solace, Ir. solas ; from Lat. solatium, Eng. solace. 


SoUain, a welcome, rejoicing, Ir. sollamhuin, a solemnity, feast, 

rejoicing, E. Ir. sollamain ; from Lat. sollemne, Eng. solemnity. 
solus, light, Ir., M. Jr. solus, E. Ir., sohis, bright : *svlnestu-, root 

svel ; Ag. S. svelan, glow, Eng. sultry ; Gr. creA,as, light, 

o-eA-^vij, moon, kXavi), torch ; Skr. svar, sheen, sun. 
somalta, bulky, large; see tomult. 
son, sake, cause, air son, on account of, Ir. son, ar son, M. Ir. son, 

er son ; from E. Ir. son, word (root sven of seinn) i 
sona, happy, Ir., E. Ir. sona, opposite of dona : 
sonn, a stout man, hero ; from sonn, club, staff, M. Ir. suinn catha, 

captains, " staves of battle." See sonn. 
sonn, a staff, cudgel, beam, Ir., E. Ir. sonn, W. ffon, 0. W. fonn : 

*spondo-, Gr. a-^evhovrj, a sling, crc^eSavos, vehement ; Skr. 

spand, draw, move ; Lat. pendo, hang (Rhys). Stokes gives 

the stem *spundo, allied to Norse spjdt, a lance, 0. H. G. 

spioz, spit, spear. Cf. M. Lat. sponda, trabecula, repagulum. 
sonraich, appoint, ordain, Ir. sonraighim, sonrach, special, E. Ir. 

sunnraid, 0. Ir. sainrivd, especially, sainred, proprietas, sain, 

singularis, proprius, 0. W. han, alium : *sani-, especially ; 

Got. sundro, privately, Eng. sunder ; Lat. sine, without ; Skr. 

sanutdr, without. 
sop, a wisp, Ir. sop, E. Ir. sopp, W. sob, sopen ; from Eng. sop, 

Norse soppa. Zimmer takes the Ir. from Norse svoppr, 

sponge, ball ; Stokes derives it from Norse s6pr, besom. The 

W. soh, sopen favours an Eng. source. 
s6r, hesitate, grudge, shun : 
soraidh, a farewell, blessing, Ir. soraidh, happy, successful, M. Ir. 

soraid, E. Ir. soreid ; from so- and riidh. 
t sorcha, light bright, Ir.. E. Ir. sorcha ; opposite of dorch, q.v. 
sorchan, rest or support, foot-stool : 
sorn, a flue, vent, Ir. s6rn, E. Ir. somn, W. ffwrn, Corn, fom ; from 

Lat. furnus, oven, whence Eng. furnace. 
SOS, a coarse mess or mixture ; from Sc. soss. 
spad, kill, fell, Ir. spaidim, benumb, spaid, spad, a clod (cf. spairt), 

a shiggard, eunuch ; cf. W. ysbaddu, exhaust, geld, from Lat 

spado, eunuch. Hence spadanta, benumbed. 
spad-, flat, Ir. spad- ; from *spad of spaid, spade ? 
spadag, a quarter or limb of an animal cut off ; from L. Lat. 

spatula, a shoulder blade, spatula porcina, leg of pork, also 

spadula, a shoulder, spadlaris,a quarter of a beast. Cf. W. 

yspaud, shoulder. 
spadair, fop, braggart ; cf. Norse spjdtra, behave as a fop. See 

spadal, a paddle, plough-staff, so Ir. ; from M. Eng. spaddle, 

paddle, dim. oi spade, 


spadhadh, a strong and quick pull, the utmost extent of the out- 
stretched arms, the grass cut by one scythe-stroke ; from 

Lat. spatium. 
spig, a claw or paw, limb of an animal, club-foot, spigach, club- 
footed or awkward in the legs, Ir. spdg, claw, club-foot, 

clumsy leg, W. yshach, a claw : 
spagach, uttering words indistinctly, spagadh, obliquity of the 

mouth, spaig, a wry mouth : 
spagluinn, ostentation, conceit : 
spaid, a spade, Ir. spM ; from the Eng. 
spaideil, foppish, well-dressed : "strutting," from Lat. spatior, as 

in spaisdear below ? Ci, however, spadair. 
spailp, pride, conceit, spailpean, fop, Ir. spailp, spailpin, rascal, 

mean fellow, " spalpeen" : 
sp^in, a spoon, Manx spain ; from Norse spdnn, spdnn, spoon, chip, 

M. Eng. spon, Ag. S. sp6n, chip. Ir. spHnOg, spoon, is from 

the Eng. 
spairn, an effort, struggle, Ir. spdim, sbdim, wrestling, struggling ; 

from the Norse spoma, kick with the feet, struggle, spema, 

kick, spurn, Eng. spurn. Hennessey derived it from Eng. 

sparring {AthencBum, 15/8/71). 
spairiseach, foppish, spairis, having the hands in the trousers' 

pockets (M'A.) ; founded on Sc. spare, opening of the fore 

part of the breeches, 
spairt, a turf, clod, a splash, Ir. spairt ; verb spairt, daub, plaster, 

splash, brain, Ir. spairtim : 
spaisdear, spaidsear, a saunterer, spaisdeireachd, sauntering, Ir. 

spaisdeSireachd, promenading, walking ; Norse spdzera, walk, 

Dan. spadsere, Ger. spazieren, from Ital. (13th Cent.) spaziare : 

aU from Lat. spatior, walk, promenade. 
Sp41, a shuttle, Ir. sp6l ; from Norse sp6la, a weaver's shuttle, M 

Eng. spoU, now spool, Ger. spule, bobbin, spool. 
spang, thin plate of metal, spangle ; from Norse spong, g. spangar, 

a spangle, M. Eng. spang, now spangle, Ag. S. spange, a clasp, 

Ger. spange, buckle, 
spann, sever, divide, wean (a child) ; from Sc. spain, spane, wean, 

prevent, confused with M. Eng. spannen, stretch, span. 
spann, a hinge, hasp ; from the Eng. spang, a spangle, Ag. S. 

spang, a hasp ; or Ag. S. spannan, to clasp, Norse spenna, 

spennir, grasper, Sc. spenn, to button. 
spaoill, speill, wrap, swathe ; founded on Lat. pallium, cloak. 
spd^rdan, a roost, from spdrr. 
sp^rr, a joist, beam, roost, Ir. sparra, wedge, spear, E. Ir. sparr, 

a beam; joist ; from Norse sparri, a spar, Swed., Dan. sparre, 

p. H, G. sparro, bar, balk, Ger. sperren, a spar, Eng. spar. 


Hence G. sp^r, drive as a nail or wedge, thrust, Ir. sparraim ; 

G. sparrag, a bridle bit, "little bar." 
spathalt, a limb, a clumsy limb ,; cf. spoil. 
sparsan, tbe dew-lap of a beast, Ir. sparsan (Lh., O'B.) ; see 

speach, a wasp, eonnspeach, for conas-beach, " wrangling or dog 

bee," from beach, bee ? The Ir. for "wasp" is eircbheach. 
speach, a blow, thrust, stitch in the side : 
spead, a very small foot or leg (M'A.), speadach, sheepshanked 

(M'A.), kicking (Badenoch, where spead means a cow's or 

sheep's kick) : 
speal, a scythe, Ir. speal, scythe, reaping hook, M. Ir. spel : 
spealg, a splinter ; from So. spdk, a splint attached to a fracture, 

M. E. spelke, a splinter, Norse spjctlk, spelkur, splint, Du. 

spealt, a splinter; from Teutonic — M. Eng. spelde, now a spill, 

M. H. G. spelte, a splinter, Ger. spalten. 
spearrach, a cow-fetter, a fetter for wild goats ; see speireach. 
sp6ic, a spike, Ir. spiice; from Norse spik, a spike, Eng. 

Ger. speiche. W. has ysbig. 
spell, cattle, herd, Ir. speil, herd of cattiie or swine ; from Lat. 

spolium (cf. spreidh) 1 
sp^il, slide, skate ; from Sc. speil, play, bonspel, curling game, 

Ger. spielen, play, 
speir, hoof or ham of cattle, claw, talon, ankle and thereabouts of 

the human leg, Ir. speirr, hough, ham : *s-peri- ; compare W. 

ffer, ankle, ber, leg, shank. Cor. fer, crus, E. Ir. ieir, heel, 

di pherid : *speret-, Gr. (T<pvp6v, ankle, heel ; root sper, Eng. 

spur, spurn, Lat. spemo, etc. 
speireach, spearrach, cow-fetter, foot fetter; from speir and 

*rich, tie, for which last see buarach. 
sp6iread, strength, force, courage ; founded on Lat. spiritus. 
speireag, sparrow-hawk ; from M. Eng. sper-hauk, Ag. S. spear- 

hafoc, Norse sparrhaukr, from sparrovj and hawk. 
sp^is, esteem, liking, Ir. speis, M. Ir. sbeis ; seemingly from M. Ir. 

sbesailte, special, from Lat. species, look (cf. Eng. re-spect). 
speuc, spiac, diverge, divaricate, tear asunder, branch ; from Sc. 

spaik, a spoke (in a wheel), Eng. spoke, Ag. S. spdca. 
speuclair, spectacles, Ir. speucldir, a glass, spectacles ; from the 

speur, the heaven, firmament, Ir. speur, speir ; from the L. Lat. 

spera, a hemisphere, circle (of each planet), celestial region, 

Lat. sphaera, a sphere, (whence the Eng.), from Gr. o-tfiaipa, 

globe. Cf. Sc. spere, sphere, circle, " the speir of the moon." 


^Q6 IrSMoieaicAL DicTioNAiaf 

spid, spite, Ir. spid ; from the Eng. Hence spideig or spideag, a 

spid, speed, haste ; from Eng. speed. 
spideag, nightingale (spideag, M.F.), Ir. spideog, robin : 
spideag, a deUcate or slender creature (Arms, spideag) ; from Sc. 

spit, a little, hot-tempered person, spitten, a puny, mis- 
chievous person, Eng. spit. 
spideal, a spital, hospital, Ir. spideul, M. Ir. spiddl; from M. Eng. 

spitel, from 0. Fr. ospital, from Lat. Iwspitale. 
Spiligean, a seedling, dwarfish person : 
spioc, meanness, dastardliness, spiocach, mean : 
spiocaid, a spigot, Ir. spiocaid (O'E.) ; from Eng. sources — 

M. Eng. spigot, Eng. spike. 
splochan, wheezing, Ir. spiochan ; see piockan. 
spiol, nibble, peel, pluck, Ir. spiolaim, spialaim, snatch, pluck. 

See piol. 
spiolg, unhusk, shell ; from the Sc. spilh, pilk, shell pease, etc., 

spilkins, split pease. Cf. spealg. 
spion, pluck up, pull tear, Ir. spionaim, teaze, probe, pluck, 

examine ; cf. M. Ir. spin, a thorn, from Lat. spina, thorn, 
spionnadh, strength, Ir. spionnadh, spionnamliail, strong (Keat.) : 
spiontag, a currant, a particle in the throat, a maggot, a drop of 

rain or flake of snow, Ir. spiondn, a gooseberry ; from Lat. spina. 
spiorad, a spirit, so Ir., 0. Ir. spiv/rt, spirut ; from Lat. spiritvs, 

Eng. spirit. W. has ysbryd, Corn, speris, Br. speret. 
spiosiadh, spice, Ir. sjnosra ; from Eng. spicery, 0. Fr. espicerie, 

spices, from Lat. species. 
spiris, a hen-roost, hammock ; from Norse sperra, a spar, rafter, 

with a leaning on G. iris, roost, 
spitheag, a chip, spelk, small bit of wood, bite, Ir. spiothdg, a 

finger stone for throwing at an object (Con., Sh.), spithedg, a 

flake of snow ; a borrowed word belonging to the Eng. group 

spike, spigot, but likely taken from Norse spik, sprig, spike, 
splang, a sparkle, flash, Ir. splanc : 
splangaid, a snot, mucus, Ir. spleangaid (O'K.) ; a side-form of 

sglongaid i 
spleadh, a splay foot ; from Eng. splay, 
spleadh, ostentation, romance, false flattery, Ir. spleadh ; from 

M. Eng. spleien, display, from displeien, now display. 
spleadhan, a sort of wooden paddle to dig up sand eels ; see 

spleuchd, spliachd, stare, squint, spread out by trampling : 
spliiic, fluke of an anchor (M'A.) : founded on P^ng. fluke. 
spliiiclian, splitican, tobacco pouch, Ir. s^liuchdn, a pouch, bag, 

leather purse ; hence Sc. spleuchan. Cf. W. hlwch, a box. 


spliug, a snot, icicle, anything hanging down : *s-clmg? Cf. 

splitigach, splay-footed : 
splitiig, a discontented countenance : 
splint, a lame hand or foot, splay foot ; see pliut. 
sp6c, a spoke ; from the Eug. 
spoch, address one quickly and angrily, intimidate, affront, attack, 

Ir. spochaim, provoke, affront, rob ; cf. spoth. 
spdg, sp£g, a claw, paw, Manx spaag, Ir. spdq, W. ysbach : 
spoil, a quarter (as of a sheep, M'A.), sppld, a piece or joint of 

meat, Ir. spddAla, sp6Ua, a piece of meat ; cf. spadag, spathalt. 
spoUadach, sottish : 
sp61t, mangle, slaughter, hew down in battle, also (Dial. Badenoch) 

splutter ; from the English. Cf. M. Kug. splatien, cut open, 

Sc. sploit, squirt, spout. •• 

spong, sponge, tinder, Ir. sponc, E. Ir. sjjong', W. ysbwng, sponge. 

Corn, spong, Br. spone, sponenk ; from Lat. spongia, sponge, 

from Gr. (nroyyid, allied to Lat. fungus. 
spor, a spur, claw, talon, Ir. spor, M. Ir. sbor, a spur for a horse ; 

from Norse spori, a spur, spor, foot trace, Dan. spore, Swed. 

sporre, Eng. spur, Ag. S. spora ; root sper of speir, etc. 

Hence sporadh, inciting, scraping the earth (as a hen), Sc. 

spor, tinder, flint, gun-flint ; from Eng. spar. 
sporan, a purse, Ir. spardn, spordn, sbarrdn, M. Ir. shoran, W. 

ysbur : *s-bv,rr- from *burs, from L. Lat. bursa, a purse, 

whence Eng. purse, bursary ; originally from Gr. /Bvpa-rj, a 

a hide, 
spors, sport, Ir. spdrt (Fol.) ; from the Eng. 
spot, a spot ; from the Eng. 
spoth, geld, castrate, Ir. spothaim, M. Ir. spochad (n.), W. dysbaddu, 

Br. spam ; from Lat. spado, eunuch, whence Eng. spay. The 

M. Ir. spochad is thought by Stokes to be from Br. spac'hein 

spracadh, strength, sprightliness, Ir. spracadh ; from Eng. sprack, 

lively, Norse spraekr, lively, Swed. spraker ; from Norse also 

comes Eng. spark — Norse sparhr. 
spiaic, a severe reprimand ; see spreig. 
spraidh, a loud blast, report of a gun ; cf. Sc. spraich, a ciy, 

Norse spraki, a report. 
Spreadh, burst, sound loudly while bursting, kill, Ir. spr^idhim, 

spread, burst (spreighim, O'B.), E. Ir. spredaire, brush for 

sprinkling the holy water ; from M. Eng. spraeden, now spread. 
spreangan, a cloven stick for closing the wound of bled cattle ; from 

Eng. springe, twig, rod, snare with flexible rod. 


sprtidh, cattle, Ir. spri{idh), M. Ir. spri, spreid, W. praidd, flock, 
booty ; from Lat. praeda, booty. Hence Sc. spreith, booty. 

Bpreig, blame, reprove, incite, Ir. spreagaim ; founded on M. Eng. 
spraechen, now speak, Ger. sprechen. 

spreigh, scatter, burst ; see spreadh. 

spreill, blubber lip : *s-hreUl, from hreall 1 

Spre6chan, weakness, weak person ; for *s-brebchr, being the same 
in root as brebdaid ? 

spredd,. spreod (HS.D.), a projecting beam, crann spre6id, a bow- 
sprit ; from M. Eng. spreot, a sprit, now S2}rit ; Ag. S. spreot, 
M. Du. spriet. Hence spreod, incite. 

sprochd, dejection, sadness, Ir. sprochd : * s-broc, M. Ir. broc, 
sorrow, anxiety (also sbrog), Cf . mv/rcach for root ; or brbn 1 

sprogan, sprogaill, dewlap, bird's crop, Ir. sprogaille, sbrogaill, 
also sgroban, sgrogul, neck : *s-broggo-. See braghxtd. 

spronnan, a crumb ; from pronn. 

spruan, brushwood, firewood, Ir. sprudn : *s-bruan, from bruan. 
M'A. has sprudhan, fragments. 

spirtldan, fingers, sprouts ; from the Eng. sprout. 

spruileach, spruidhleach, crumbs, fragments, Ir. spruille(ach), 
crumb, fragment, sprudhaille (Lh.), M. Ir. sbmileach. Cf. 
spnmn. M. Ir. has also spuirech, fragment um, W. ysbim'ial, 
sweepings, ysborion, refuse of fodder. 

spruiseil, spruce, neat, Ir. sprdiseamhuil ; from the Eng. spruce. 

spuaic, crown of the head, a pinnacle, callosity, blister, Ir. spuaic, 
a welt, callus, pinnacle : 

spiiidsear, baling ladle (N.H.) : 

sptlill, spoil, plunder ; from So. spulye, lay waste, plunder, Eng. 
spoil, Fr. spoiler, Lat. spoliare. W. has ysbail, a spoil. 

sptlinil, spoil, plunder, Ir. spuinim ; another form of spiiill, bor- 
rowed directly from Lat. spoliare 1 

spuirse, spurge, milkweed, Ir. spuirse ; from the Eng. spurge, 
M. Eng. sporge. 

sptiU, nail of a cat, a clutch, spiillach, nailed, greedy (M'A.) : 

spursan, a gizzard, Ir. spursdn ; cf sparsan, dewlap. 

spiit, a spout ; from the Sc. spoot, Eng. spout. 

srd,bh, a straw ; from the Eng : 

srac, tear, rend, rob, Ir. sracaim ; G. has also racadh : *srakko-, 
for rap-ko-, root rap of Lat. rapio 1 

srad, a spark of fire, Ir. srad : *sraddd, from strad or sir-d, root 
ster, as in Eng. star, Gr. da-Trjp. M. Ir. has srab-tine, light- 
ning, from the same root. 

sr&id, a street, Ir. srdid, E. Ir. srdit ; from Lat. strdtd (via), 
whence Eng. street. K. Meyer derives it from Norse straeti, 
which itself comes from Lat; 


sraidean, the plant shepherd's purse, Ir. sraidin (srdidin, (O'B.) ; 

of. srad. 
sraigh, the cartilage of the nose, sneeze (M'A.) ; cf. root of srbn. 
sramh, a jet of milk from the cow's udder, Ir. sramk (srdmh, O'R.) ; 

root ster, str, strew. 
srann, a snore, buzz, Ir. srann, E. Ir. srand, 0. Ir. srennim, sterto : 

*stre-s-no-, root ster, pster of Lat. sterio, snore, sterrmo, sneeze 

(see sreothart further). Stokes makes the Gadelic to be 

*strenv6, like Lat. stemuo. 
sraon, stumble, make a false step, rush forward violently ; cf. Ir. 

sraoinim, defeat, overthrow, scatter, M. Ir. srdined, dragging 

down, defeat, E. Ir. sroenim, hurl, drag, defeat : *sroino-, root 

ster, strew, scatter (Eng. strew, etc.). 
sraonais, a huff, suuffiness ; M'A. has srdin, a huff : from srbn, 

srath, a valley, strath, Ir., M. Ir. srath, 0. Ir. israth, in gramine, 

W. ystrad, strath, E. W. strut, istrat, planities : *stratti-, root 

ster, spread, scatter ; Lat. stratus, from stemo, I strew ; Gr. 

(TT/acuTos, spread, a-ropevvvfii, scatter ; Eng. strew, strand (?). 
srathair, a pack-saddle, Ir., 0. Ir. sratJmr, W. ystrodyr ; from 

Med. Lat. stratura, from stratum, stemo, spread, 
sream, rheum (M'A.), a wrinkle, sreamach, blear-eyed, Ir. srdm, 

eye rheum, srdmach, blear-eyed, sremach (F. M.). Stokes 

derives this from Ag. S. stream, Eng. stream. 
sreang, a string, Ir. srang, sreang, E. Ir. sreng : '^srengo-, *strengo-, 

Gadelic root streg ; immediately allied either to Eng. string, 

Norse strengr, Ger. Strang (I. E. strcgh, Gr. urpk^ta, turn) or 

to Lat. stringo, . bind, draw, Ger. strick, string (I. E. streg). 

The I. E. roots streg and stregh are allied ultimately. 
sreath, a row, series, Ir. sreath, 0. Ir. sretk : * srito-, * sr-to-, root 

ser, order, join ; Lat. series, row, sors, lot. 
sreothart, a sneeze, Ir. sraoth, sraothfurtach, earlier sreod, W. 

trew, ystrev], a sneeze, ystrewi (vb.), Br. strefia, strevia (vb.), 

root streio, pstreu (Stokes), further ster, pster, Lat. sternuo, 

sneeze, Gr. irrapwiuii (do.). 
srian, a bridle, Ir. srian, E. Ir. srlan, W. ffrwyn ; from Lat. 

frenum (through W.). 
srideag, a drop, spark, srideach, white streaked with dark : 

*sriddi-, root srd of srad. 
sringlean, the strangler ; founded on the English, 
sruit, a torrent of quick words ; founded on sruth. 
srobadh, a push (Sh.), small quantity of liquor (A. M'D.) ; see 

sroghall, a whip, so Ir., E. Ir. sraigell, 0. Ir. srogill (gen)., W, 
ffrowyll ; from Lat. Hagellum. 


srol, a streamer, banner, silk, Ir. srdl, satin, byssus ; from Lat. 
stragulus, coverlet, paU, whence Cor. strail, tapestry, W. 
ystraiU, a mat. Stokes (Lismore) has suggested a form 
*/rol, *flor, Fr. velours, velvet, Br. flour, velveted. 

sron, a nose, Tr., 0. Ir. sr6n, W. ffroen, Br. froan : * srognd ; 
*sroknd (Stokes, 6r. peyx<^, snore, snort, pey/co)), *sprognd 
(Strachan), to which Lat. spargo has been compared. W. has 
also trwyn {^trugno- or trogni-). Cor. trein. 

sruab, drink up with noise of the lips, puU hastily out of the 
water : *sroubbo-, root sreub ? Cf. srub, and Lit. sriaubiu, 
sup, lap up, Ch. SI. srubati, swallow, Lat. sorbeo, Eag. 

sruan, shortbread cake having five corners (M'A. for Islay). 

srtib, a spout ; from the Sc. stroup, spout, M. Eng. strupe, throat, 
Norse strjupi, the spouting trunk when the head is cut ofij 
Swed. strupe, throat. Hence srtiban, a cockle. 

STiith, a stream, Ir., 0. Ir. sruth, g. srot/ia, W. ffrwd. Cor. frot, 
alveus, Br. frovd : *srutu-, root sreu, flow ; Gr. p-iarii, a 
flowing, pe.v[w., a stream, pku>, flow ; Eng. stream, Norse 
straumr ; Lit. sravju, flow. Some have refen-eJ the Celtic 
words to, the root spreut, spreu, to well, Ger. sprvdel, a well, 
spriihen, emit sparks, drizzle, further Eng. spurt, spout, 

srnthladh, rinsing, half-washing, Ir. sruthlaighim ; from sruth. 

sti, advantage, use ; from the Eng. — founded on stay ? 

std>bhach, wide, asunder, straddling, Ir. stabhaighim, straddle : 

stabhaic, a wry neck, a sullen attitude of the head (M'A.) : see 

stdibull, a stable, Ir. stahla ; from Lat. stabulum, through the 

stac, a precipice, steep hill, M. Ir. stacc, a stack (F.M.), stacc, a 
pile, piece ; from Norse stahkr, a stack (of hay), stakka, a 
stump, Swed. stack, a stack, Sc. (Shetland, etc.) stack, a 
columnar isolated rook, Eng. stack. 

stad, a stop, Ir. sf^ad, E. Ir. stad (Cormac) ; founded on Lat. status, 
position, Stat, stands (Hennessey, Stokes). Cf. Norse stalfa, a 
standing, a position. Ascoli compares O. Ir. astaim, sisto 
( = ad-sad-to-, root sed of suidhe). 

stadh (better stagh), a stay, a certain rope in ship's rigging ; from 
Norse stag (do.), Eng. stay, Dan., Ger. stag. 

stadhadh, a lurch, sudden bend : 

staid, state, condition, Ir. stdid, M. Ir. stait ; from Lat. statio (K. 
Meyer).. W. has ystdd, from Lat. statiis. Ir. stdid may be 
from the Eng. See next word. 

st&ideil, stately, Ir. stAideanhuil / from Eng. state, stately. 

i>9 *HE GAfiLIC LANGtfAGa. Ml 

staidhir, a stair, Ir. staighre; from the Eng., and Ag. S. stdeger. 

The G. is possibly from Eng. stair, just as paidhir and faidhir 

are from pair and fair (Dr Cameron), 
stall, a bandage, strap : 

stailc, stubbornness, stop, stump, Ir. stailc ; cf . taike. 
stMlinn, steel; from Norse stdl, steel, stdlin weapons (pi.), Ger. 

staJil, Eng. steel. 
staing, a peg, small pointed rock ; from Norse stiitig, g. stangar, a 

pole. So. and Eng. stang. 
staing, a well-built person or animal (M'A.), staingean, obstinate 

boorish person, Ir. stainc, incivUity ; from the above. 
staipeal, a stopple, Ir. stapal (O'R.) ; from the Sc. stappil, Eng. 

staipeal, stapuU, a staple, bar ; from Eng. staple. 
stair, a path over a bog, stepping stones in a river. Dr Cameron 

has suggested connection with Du. steiger, waterside stairs, 

Eng. stair. For s-tar, from *tar, cross (see thar) ? 
stairiricli, a rattling, a rumbling noise ; also dairireacb, q.v. 

For s-dairirich. 
st^irn, noise (as the tread of horses), a violent push : *s-taim; 

see tairneanach for root. Cf. Ir. stathruim, clatter, din. 
stdiirneil, conceited, ostentatious ; from stairn, noise : " creating 

a furore." 
stairsneach, stairseach, a threshold, Ir. tairseach, E. Ir. tairsech : 

" cross beam or stone ;" for root see tarsuinn, transverse. 
stairt, a considerable distance, trip (M'A.) ; from Eng. start ? 
st^it, a magistrate or great man, std^itean, great men ; see stctt. 
stalan, a stallion, Ir. stail ; from the English. 
stale, stiffen, stalcanta, firm, strong ; for s-talc ; see tailce. M'A. 

gives stale as meaning "dash one's foot against (Islay), 

thread a hook, thump, stare." In the meaning of " stalk," 

the word is from the Eng. 
stalla, an overhanging rock, craggy steep, precipice, stall, a peat 

bank ; from Norse stallr, any block or shelf on which another 

thing is placed, pedestal, step of a mast, stall, stalli, an altar, 

Eng. stall, Lit. stalas, table, 
stamag, a stomach ; from the Eng. 
stamli, sea tangle : 
st^p, stamp, trample, Ir. stampdil, a stamping, prancing ; from 

Eng. stamp. 
t std,li, tin, Ir. stdn, W. ystaen, Cor., Br. stean ; from Lat. stannum, 

tin (for *stagnu7n, : cf. Ital. stagno). See staoin. 
stan, a stan, below, down ; Sutherland form of a bh^u : 
stiang, a ditch, pool ; from Sc. stanh, 0. Fr. estang, now etang, 

from Lat. stagnum. 


stang, sting ; from Sc. stang, sting (as a bee), a sting, Norse 

stanga, prick, goad ; further Eng. sting. 
stanna, a vat, tub, Ir. sianna, vat, barrel ; from Eng. tun, ton, 

M. Eng. tonne. See tunna. 
stannart, a standard, yard, limit ; from the Enghsh. It also 

means " affected coyness." 
staoig;, a coUop, steak, Ir. staoig, M. Ir. stdic ; from Norse steik, 

Eng. steak (Stokes, K. Meyer). 
staoin, pewter, tin ; see stan. 
staoin, juniper, caoran staoin : 
staoin, laziness : 
staon, bent, awry, Ir. staon : 

staorum, bending of the body to a side ; for staon-um. 
stapag, a mixture of meal and cold water ; from Sc. stappack (do.), 

stap, mix, hash, Norse stappa, bray in a mortar. 
staplaich, loud noise, noise of the sea : 
stapuU, a bar, bolt, staple ; see staipeal. 
starachd, romping, blustering (M'A.) : 
starbhanach, a strong, robust feUow : 
starcaoh, firm ; from Norse starkr, strong, Eng., Ger. stark. 
starr, shove, dash, starradh, pushing violently, dashing against, 

a failing or freak, cnap-starradh, a stumbling-block, 

obstruction, a ball on the end of a spear ; cf. starr-{shuileach). 
starr-fhiacail, a tusk or gag-tooth, Ir. stairfhiacail ; from starr 

&nd Jiacail. 
starr-shuileach, having the eyes distorted, stard, a moon-eye 

(M'A.) ; cf. Norse starblindr, blind with a cataract, 0. H. G. 

starablind, Ger. starr, stifi", Eng. stare, " fixed" look, Sc. stare, 

stiff, starr, sedge, star, a speck on the eye. 
stit, pride, haughtiness, Ir. stdtamhuil, stately ; from the Eng. 

state, M. Eng. stdt, from Lat. status. Cf. stcbideil, stata. 
st^ta, the state or government ; from the Eng. 
steach, a steach, (to) within, into, Ir. steach, a steach, M. Ir. is 

tech, E. Ir. isa tech : * in-san-tech, "into the house;" from 

teach. Cf. stigh. 
steadhainn, firm, pointed or punctual in speech (M'A.) ; cf. Eng. 

steafag, a little staff or stick, Ir. steafdg ; from Eng. staff. 
steall, spout, cause to spout, pour out, Ir. steallaim, squirt, 

sprinkle, steallaire, a tap ; from Lat. stillo, I drop, Eng. distill. 
sted.rnal, a bittern, sea-bird, an innkeeper's sign : 
st^igh, foundation ; founded on Eng. stay. 
steill, a peg or pin for things hung ; cf. Sc. stell, a prop. 
st6illeach (steilleaeh, M'F.), lusty, stout, ruddy ; cf. st^igheil, 

steady, solid, from stiigh. 


steinle, the itch, mange, Ir. steinle (Lh., etc.) ; from teinej fire ? 
ste6c, any person or thing standing (or sticking) upward, an 

attendant (ste6cair also) ; from Sc. stoff, stug, stook, stubble, 

stumpy horns, stok, Eng. stick: 
stedrn, guide, direct, manage ; from Norse stjdrna (do.), stjdrn, 

steering, rule, Eng. stem, steer. See stiiiir. 
steud, a horse, steed, Ir. stead (O'R.), M. Ir. stid , from Ag. S. 

st^da, Ag S. steda, M. Eng. stede, now steed. 
stiall, a strip, stripe, streak, Ir. stiall, E. Ir. stiall, girdle, strap, 

board ; cf. W. astell, M. W. ystyll, shingle, plank, Corn, stil, 

rafter, 0. Fr. esteil, pole, Lat. astella, splinter, or from 0. II. G. 

stihhil, pole, post. 
stic, a fault, blemish, pain ; from Sc. stick, a bungle or botch, Eng. 

stick, stitch (older sticke). 
stic, adhere, stick ; from the Eng. 
stid, peep, Manx steetagh, to peep ; see d\d. 
stidean (stldean, H.S.D.), a cat, the word by which a cat is called 

to one (also stididh) : *s-did- ; onomatopoetic ? 
stig, a skulking or abject look or attitude ; from Norse styggr, 

stigh, a stigh, inside, Ir. 'stigh, astigh, E. Ir. istig, istaig, isintig ; 

for '* in-sarh-tig, "in the house," from tigh, house, 
stlnleag, the hinge of a box, hasp : 
stlobnll, a steeple ; from the Eng. 

stiocach, limping : "sticking?" From the Eng. anyway. 
stiog, a stripe in cloth (M'A.) ; from So. steik, Eng. stitch. 
stiom, stlm, a head-band, snood : 

stiorap, a stirrup, Ir. stiordip ; from M. Eng. stirop, Ag. S. stigrdp. 
stiorlag, a thin, worn-out rag, an emaciated woman, stiorlan, a 

thin person : 
stiornach, sturgeon (M'A.), stirean ; from Lat. sturio{n), whence, 

through Fr., Eng. sturgeon. 
stipean, a stipend ; from the Eng. 
stitLbhard, a steward, Ir. stiobhurd ; from the Eng. 
stiiiir, steer, guide, Ir. sdiuirim, M. Ir. stiurad or stiurad ; from 

Ag. S. stedran, steer, now steer, Norse styra. Got. stiurjan. 
stiup, a long tail or train, a foolish person. In the latter sense, 

the G. is from Sc. stupe, from Lat. stupidus. 
stitiireag, gruel ; from the So. stooram, stooradrink, stourreen, 

sturoch, a warm drink, meal and water mixed, from stoor, to 

stir, agitate. 
stob, thrust, stab, fix (as a stake), stob, a stake, stick, stob (Sc), 

Ir. stobain, stab, thrust ; from Sc. stob, a side-form of Eng. 

stab. Cf. Norse stobbi, a stump, Eng. stub, M. Eng. stob. 
stdbh, a stove ; from the Eng. 



stoc, a stock, pillar, stump, Jr. stoe ; from Eng. stock. 

stpc, a trumpet, so Ir., M. Ir. stocc, E. Ir. stoc ; cf. Sc. stoclc-home, 
stock-and-horn, a pipe formed of a sheep's thigh-bone inserted 
into the smaller end of a cut horn, with an oaten reed, from 
, ' Eng. s*oc£ Gadelic is borrowed. 

stocain, a stocking, Ir. stoca ; from the Eng. 

stoim, a particle, whit, faintest glimpse of anything: (Dial.) ; from 
Sc. styme. 

stoirm, a storm, Ir. stoirm; from Eng., M. Eng. storm, Norse 
stormr, Ger. Sturm. 

stpite, prominent ; cf. stat for origin. 

stol, a stool, settle, Ir. st6l, W. ystol ; from Ag. S. st6l, now stool, 
Norse stdll, Ger. stukl. Hence vb. stol, settle. 

stop, a wooden vessel for liquor, a stoup ; from Sc. stoup, M. Eng. 
stope, now stovp, Du. stonp, a gallon, Norse stcvup, a stoup. 

stop, stop, close up, Ir. stopaim ; from the Eng. 

Stor, a steep cliflf, broken teeth ; cf. sturr, starr. 

storas, store, wealth, Ir. stdr, storus ; from M. Eng. stbr. 

stoth, lop off, cut corn high : 

strabaid, a strumpet, Ir. strabtdd; from an early form of Eng. 
strumpet, that is, *st/ropet, from 0. Fr. strupe, concubinage, 
stvpre, from Lat. stvprum. 

strd.C, a stroke ; from Sc. strake, Eng. stroke ; from Sc. straik, 
strait-edge for measuring com, comes G. strac (do.). Simi- 
larly G. str^C, mower's whetstone, is from strake; all are 
from the root of Eng. stroke, strike. 

str^cair, troublesome fellow, gossip, wanderer ; from Norse strdkr, 
a vagabond, etc. 

straic, pride, swelling with anger, Ir. strdic : 

straighlieh, rattling, great noise, sparkles ; root sprag, sparg, 
crackle, Eng. spark, sparkle. Lit. sprageti, crackle. 

Str^ille, carpet ; from Lat. strdgulum, coverlet. 

strangair, a lazy, quarrelsome fellow, Ir. strangaire; cf. dreangan. 

streap, climb, strive against obstacles, Ir. dreapaim ; cf dreimire. 

streup, str6apaid, strife, quarrel ; from Lat. sPrepitvs. 

strianach, a badge : 

Stri, strife, contention ; from Norse stAS, Ag. S. st/ri&, Ger. streit. 

strioch, a streak, line, Ir strloc ; from Eng. streak. 

strlochd, yield, Ir. striocaim, fall, be humbled, submit : 

stiiopach, a prostitute, Ir. striopach ; from 0. Fr. strupe, concu- 
binage, from Lat. stuprum, dishonour, violation. 

Strddh, prodigality, Ir. str6, strbgh ; seemingly (because of pre- 
served St in all cases) borrowed from, rather than allied to, 
M. Eng. strawen, strew, Ag. S. streotuian, Got. straujan, I. E. 
strow, stru. Hence G. struidheas, prodigality, squandering. 

OP TflE GAELIC LAllGtTAGi!. ^15 

Stidic (stroic, Arm.), tear asunder, a long rag, Ir. stroicim, 
strdieim, sroic, a piece : *sraMi-, from srac, confused with 
strbdh ? 

stropach, wrinkled (H.S.D.) : 

struidheas, prodigality ; see strddh. 

struill, a baton, cudgel, Ir. sroghall, whip, rod, 0. Ir. sraigell ] 
see sroghall. 

strumpaid, a strumpet : from the Eng. 

strath, ostrich, Ir. struth ; from Lat. • struthio, whence, through 
0. Fr. ostruche ( = avis struthio), Eng. ostrich. 

stuadh, a wave, gable, pinnacle, scroll, Ir. stitadh, gable, pinnacle, 
scroll, stvaidh-nimhe, rainbow, M. Ir. stuag-nime (do.), stuaid- 
leim, leap of the waves, E. Ir. stilag, arch : *s-tuag, from 
0. Ir. twig, bow, belonging to the same root as tuagh, axe. 

stuaie (M'A., Arm.), stuaicM (H.S.D.), a little hill, round 
promontory, Ir. stuaie : *s-tiuig-c, from stuadh above. M'A. 
has the meaning " wry-neck and sullen countenance, extreme 
boorislmess," which is usually represented by siitic. Stokes 
gives the Celtic as *stouJcki-, Br. stuchyaff, to feather. Lit. 
stiigti, set on high, Eng. steep. 

stuaim, modesty, Ir. stuaim, device, mien, modesty : * s-ticamm-, 
*tous-men, root tus, teus of tosd, silence. 

stuc, stuchd, a little hill jutting out from a greater, a horn, Ir. 
stuicdn, a small conical hill, stucach, horned. Cf. Sc, Eng. 
stook, M. Eng. stouke, a shook of corn (12 sheaves), stooks, 
small horns. Low Ger. stuke (properly a projection), a bundle, 
bunch. But cf. stuaie. 

stiiic, stiiichd, a projecting crag, an angry or threatening aspect ; 
from sttic above. 

stuig, incite, spur on dogs ; from Eng. stiek. 

stiiird, vertigo, a disease in sheep caused by water in the head, 
drunkenness ; from Sc. stwrdy, from 0. F. estourdi, dizzy- 
headed, now Stourdi, giddy-headed ; from Lat. extorpidire. 
From Fr. comes Eng. sturdy. 

Stuirt, huffiness, pride, Ir. stuirteamhlachd (Con.) ; from M. Eng. 
sturte, impetuosity, sturten, impetuous, quarrelsome, Sc. 
sturt, vexation, anger, a side form of start. 

stir, dust ; from Sc. stov^, M. Eng. stour, tumult. 

sturr, the rugged point of a rock or hill, sturrach, rugged : 
*s-turr, from turr = tdrr, q.v. ? 

stuth, stuff, metal : founded on the Eng. stuff. 

stuthaig, dress with starch, starch (vb. and n.) : 

suacan, a pot (M'F.), ealrthen furnace (Arm.), a basket hung in 
the chimney containing wood to dry (Dial.), anything 


wrought together awkwardly, as clay (M'A,), Ir. suaJchgan 
(Lh.), an earthen pot : 

suaicean, a bundle of straw or hay twisted together, a deformed 
person ; see shgan. 

suaicheantas, ensign, escutcheon, Ir. suaitheantas, a streamer, 
standard, escutcheon, sv^aichintus, ensigns, colours (K. Meyer), 
0. Ir. suaichnid, clear, demonstratio, for sv^aithne, "easily 
known," from aithne, knowledge. 

suail, small, inconsiderable (M'F.), Ir. suaill, E. Ir. suail, a trifle : 

suaimlmeach, genial, secure, Ir. suaimhneach, peaceful, gentle, 
peaceable : * su-menmnach ? See meaw/na. 

suain, sleep, Ir. suan, E. Ir., 0. Ir. siian, W. hun, Br. hun : 
*supno-s, developing into *sofno-, *sovno-, *souno- ; I. E. root 
svop, svep, sleep ; Lat. sopor, sleep, somnus ; Gr. inrvos, sleep ; 
Ag. S. swefn, dream, swefan, sleep ; Skr. svdpnas. 

suaineadh, twisting, rope-twisting anything, a line for twisting 
round anything, E. Ir., 0. Ir. sdanem, g. suaneman, funis : 
* sognemon-, root, sug, soug, Br. sug, trace, W. syg, chain, 
trace ; Romance soga, rope, Ital. soga, rope, leather band, Sp. 
suga, a linear measure, Port, soga, rush rope, Churwalsch 
saga. Stokes finally refers sioanem to a stem-root *sogno- 
beside segno- (whence E. Ir. se», a net for catching birds, gin, 
root segh, hold, Eng. sail). Lit. segit, fasten, saga, sledge. 
This divorces sitaineadh from G. suaicean and sOgan, q.v. 

Euaip, a faint resemblance ; from Sc. swaup, swap, cast or linea- 
ments of the countenance, Norse svipr, likeness, look, a swoop, 
or flash. 

suaip, exchange, swop ; from the Sc. swap, Eng. swop. 

suairc, civil, meek, so Ir., E. Ir. s'uarc{c) ; opposed to duairc : 
*su-arci- : 

suanach, a hide, skin, fleece, coarse garment ; cf. Ir. sunack, a 
kind of plaid : 

suarach, insignificant, careless, Ir. suarach : *svogro-, root sveg, 
stcg, Gev. schwack, weak, siech, sick, Eng. sich 

suas, up, upwards, Ir. suas, 0. Ir. siias : *s-uas, from uas, as in 
uasal, and the prefix s-, allied to the final s of Lat. abs, ex, 
Gr. e|, jT^os, etc., and the initial s of Lat. sub, super ; possibly 
for *ens, Gr. cis, from en, and meaning " into," " to " (Rhys' 
M. Pray."^ 156). 

suath, rub, mix, knead, Ir. suathaim, knead, mix, M. Ir. sdathaim, 
(do.) E. Ir. suata, polished down, root sout, sut, mix ; cf. 
Eng. seethe, Norse sjdcfa, cook, seethe. Got. sauths, a burnt 

Biibailte, supple ; from the Eng. 


snbhach, merry, so Ir., E. Ir. suhach, 0. Ir. sube, joy ; opposite of 

dubhach : *so-bv-io-, " well-being," from root bu, be (see bu, 

siibliag, sftbh (suibheag or sui'eag, Dial.), a raspberry, Ir. suibh, 

a strawberry, sughog, raspberry (FoL), 0. Ir. subi, fragae, W. 

Sff/i, strawberry, Br. sivi : 
subhailc, virtue, Ir. subhailce {siibhailce, Con.), 0. Ir. sualig, 

virtus, sualchi (pi.) : *s'U^ich (Asc, Zim.\ 54), root al of 

altram (Dr Cameron). , 

suchd, sake, account (M'A.) : 
sud (Dial, sid), yon, Ir. sM, E. Ir. siit, siut, iUud, illic, W. hvmt, 

other, yonder, Br. hont ; from the root of so. Also ud. 
Siidh, a seam between the planks of a ship ; from Norse sitS", 

a suture (only used for the clinching of a ship's boards), from 

s'^ja, sow, Eng. sew, suture. 
stig, sugradh, mirth, Ir. s'dgadh, s-Agradh, E. Ir. sitcaoh : 
sug, suck, imbibe; from Sc. souk, soak, Eng. suck, Ag. S. sOean. 

See s^h. 
sugan, corra-sbugain, the reflection of rays of light from any 

moving luminous body from the roof or walls of a house : 
sugan, a rope of twisted straw, Ir. sugdn, suagan, straw or hay 

rope, suag, a rope (O'R.) : *souggo-, root soug of suaineadh, 

q.v. Hence suigean, a circle of straw ropes in which grain 

is kept in a barn. 
sugh, juice, sap, also (as vb.) drain, suck up, Ir. siigh, silghaim, 

E. Ir. s'dgim : '^s&g6, suck, *silgo-, juice; Lat. siigo, suck; 

Ag. S. sHcan, Eng. suck, soak. W. has sttgf, juice, sugno, suck, 
sugh, a wave (A. M'D.), motion of the waves (H.S.D.) ; root sup, 

swing, Lit. silpti, swing, Lat. dissipo, scatter ? 
suicean, a gag for a calf ; founded on siig, Sc. sook. 
suidh, sit, suidbe, a seat, sitting, Ir. suidkim, E. Ir. suidim, 

sudim, 0. Ir. suidigur, suide, a seat : *sodei6, *sodio-n, root 

sed, sod, W. seddu, sedd, Br. azeza, sit ; Lat. sedeo ; Gr. 

e^ofjuii, eSos, a seat ; Eng. sit, seat ; Lit. sedeti ; Skr. sddati, 

sddati, sit, set. 
silil, eye, Ir., 0. Ir. sdil : *suli-s, allied to *sdvali-s, sun, W. haul, 

heul, sun. Cor. heuvl, Br. heaul ; Lat. s6l, sun ; Gr. ■^A.ios 

( = sdvilios), sun ; Got. sauil, sun ; Lit. sdule (do), 
suilbhir, cheerful, so Ir., M. Ir. suilbir, 0. Ir. sulbir, eloquence, 

E. W. helabar, now hyLafar, eloquence ; from su- or so- and 

Idbhair, speak : " easy-spoken." 
suim, a sum, Ir. suim, W. sum, M. Eng. summe ; from Lat. swmma, 

sum, chief. 
suim, attention, respect, Ir. suim ; a metaphoric use of mim, sum 

(Dr Cameron). 
Snipeir, a supper, Ir. mipeir ; from the Eng. 

318 l!*1fM0ti06tICAL WdTiONARt 

suire, a maid, nymph, Ir. sAire (O'Cl.), a siren (mire, O'B., Lh., 

etc., mermaids) ; from Lat. svren, with leaning on suirghe, 

courtship? The word is doubtful Gaelic; H.S.D. finds only 

an Ossian Ballad to quote, 
suiridhe, a courting, suiridheach (better suirtheach or suireach, 

M'A.), a wooer, so Ir., also swrighim, I woo, M. Ir. suirge, 

wooing, suirgech, procus : * svnreg-, root reg, direct, etc. 1 
sfiist, a flail. It. suist{e), M. Ir, sust, suiste, W. ffust ; from Lat. 

fustis, oiub. 
suith, soot, Ir. silithche, M. Ir. suithe, 0. Ir. suidi, fuligine, W. 

hvddygl (cf. hvdd, dark), Br. huzel (Fr. suie) : *sodio-, root 

sed, sit, settle ; Eng. soot, Ag. S. s6t, Norse s6t. Doubtful, 
sulair, the gannet; from Norse siila, sUlan, the gannet, whence ■ 

Eng. solan-goose. 
sulchar, cheerful, affable ; side-form of suilbhir ? 
suit, fat, fatness, joy, Ir. suit, E. Ir. sv,lt : *sultitr, root svel ; Ag. S. 

swellan, Eng. swell ; Lat. solum, sea ; Gr. craAos, tossing. 
sumag, cloth below a pack-saddle ; ultimately from L. Lat. sauma, 

pack-saddle, whence Fr. sommier, mattress, Eng. sumpter. 
sumaich, give the due number (as of cattle for pasture) ; from Sc. 

■sumaid, a billow, Ir. sumaid (O'R. and M'L. siimaid); seemingly from 

Eng. sKMimit. The G. also means " external senses" (H.S.D). 
sumain, summon, a summons ; from the Eng. 
sumainn, a surge, billow ; see sumaid. 
sumair, the drone of a bagpipe : 
gtimhail, close-packed, tidy; opposite of dbmhail, q.v. 
sunais, lovage — a plant, Ir. sutcais ; also siunas : 
sunnd, sunnt, good humour, cheerfulness, Ir. sonntach, merry 

(O'Cl., O'B), sonnda, bold, siintaidh, active, E. Ir. suntich, 

spirited : '^sondeto-, Eng. sound? 
sunnag, an easy-chair of twisted straw : 
supail, supple (M'A.) ; from the Eng. 

■ stird, alacrity, cheerfulness ; cf . W. chwardd, laughter, Corn. 

wherzin, ridere ; root sver, sing, speak ; Eng. swear, Lat. 
susurrus, whisper, etc. M. Ir. sord, bright {*surdo-), is 
referred by Stokes to the same origin as Lat. serenus. 
surrag, vent of a kUn ; cf. sbm. 

■ surram-suain, a sound sleep : 

susbaint, substance, Ir. szibstaint ; from Lat. substantia. 
stisdal, a bustling, pother, affected shyness : 
cBUth, anything (Dial.), Ir., E. Ir. suth, weather ; root su, produce, 

E. Ir. suth, milk ; Gr. vei, it rains ; as in siigh, q.v. Further 
' ■ ■ allied is root su, beget, 0. Ir. suth, offspring, Eng. sun. 
suthainn, eternal, Ir. sut/iain, 0. Ir. swthain, siithin- ; from su , so- 

and tan, time, q.v. 


ta, tha, is, Ir. td, E. Ir. td, is, tdim, I am, O. Ir. tdu, t6, sum, td, 
tda, est, especially attda (at the beginning of a sentence), est 
{ = adAdt, Lat. adsto) and itd, itda, "in ■which is" : *tdj6, 
*tdjet, root std, stand ; Lat. std, stat, stand, Fr. ^t^, having 
been ; Ch. SI. sitj/^, I stand ; further Eng. stand, Gr. la-rqfii 
(for o-MTTa/it), set, Lat. sisto. See seas further. 

t^bar, a tabor, Ir. tabdr ; from the Eng. 

tabh, the sea, ocean ; from Norse haf, Swed. haf, Dan. hav, the 
open sea, Ag. S. haef. From Norse also comes the Sc. (Shet.) 
haaf, open sea. 

t^bh, a spoon-net ; from Norse hdfr, a pock-net. 

tabhach, a sudden eruption, a forcing, a pull, Ir. tabhach, sudden 
eruption, compulsion, tohhachaim, I compel, E. Ir. tohach, 
levying, distraint, from dohongaim : for root see btiain. 

tibhachd, substantiaUty, effectiveness, Ir. tdbhachd : 

tabhair, give, so Ir., E. Ir. tabraim, 0. Ir. tahur, do, post-particle 
form of dobiw, now G. bheir, q.v. : inf. tabhairt, so Ir. See 

tabhal, a sling, Ir. tabhall, E. Ir. taball, W. tafl, a cast, tafiu, 
jacere. Cor. tmda, Br. tool, a cast, blow : *tahallo-, root tab, 
to fire, sling ; cf. Eng. stab. 

t^bliairn, an inn, tavern, Ir. tabhaime ; from Lat. tabema, Eng. 
• tavern. 

tabhann, barking, Ir. tathfan : *to-sven- root sven, sound (see 

td,bhastal, tedious nonsense : 

tac, a lease, tack ; from Sc. tack. 

tacaid, a tack, tacket, Ir. taca ; from the Eng. 

tacan, a while, short time ; from tac. 

tacar (tEtcar, H.S.D.), provision, plenty, Ir. tacar : 

tachair, meet, happen, Manx taghyrt, to happen, an accident, Ir. 
tachair, he arrived at ; from to- and car, turn. 

ticharan, a ghost, yelling of a ghost, an orphan, Ir. taehardn : 

tachas, itching, scratching, Ir. tochas : 

tachd, choke, Ir. tachdaim, 0. Ir. tachtad, angens. Stokes gives 
the root as tak and refers to it also W. tagu (and ystagu), 
choke. Cor., Br. taga. Brugmann and Ascoli analyse tachd 
into to-acht, root angh, Lat. ango, choke, Gr. ctyx") Eng. 

tachras, winding yarn, Ir. tocharais, tochardadh, M. Ir. tochartagh : 
*to-cert-, root qert, wind, as in ceirtle. 

tacsa, tacas (Dial.), support, substance ; cf. taic. 

tidh, a ledge, layer ; 


tadhal, frequenting, visiting, Ir. tadhall, 0. Ir. tadal, dat. tadill, 
inf. of taidlim., doaidlibem, visitabimus, adall diverticulum : 
*to-ad-ell-, from *eln6 (Stokes), go, M. W. ehoyfi, iero, Com. 
yllyf, earn, root ela, Lat. ambulare, walk, Gr. eXavva, drive, 
proceed ; likely also Fr. aller, go. 

tagair, plead, Ir. tagair (imper.), tagraim, E. Ir. tacraim, 0. Ir. 
tacre, argumentum : *to-ad-gar-, root gar, as in gvir, agair. 

tagh, choose, Ir. toghaim, 0. Ir. togu, eligo, electio : *to-gus6,. root 
gus, choose, taste ; Lat. gusto, taste ; Gr. yeita, taste ; Eng. 

taghairm, noise, echo, a mode of divination by listening to the 
noise of water cascades, Ir. toghairm, summons, petition, 
0. Ir. togairm, invocatio ; from to- and gairm. 

taghan, the marten : 

taibhs, taibhse, an apparition, ghost, Ir. taibhse, vision, ghost, 
M. Ir. tadhhais, phantasma, 0. Ir. taidbse, demonstratio, 
tadbai, demonstrat, * tad-bat or *to-ad-bat, root bat, show, see, 
speak, I. E. bhd, bhan as in ban, q.v. Gr. <f)dvTaxrfj,a, Eng. 
phantasm and phantom are closely allied to the G. 

taibid, a taunt ; see teabaid. 

taibse, propriety of speech : " precision," E. Ir. tepe, cutting ; see 

taic, support, proximity, Ir. taca, prop, surety, fastening, toice, 
prop, wealth, tacamhuil, firm, ai-ce, support, food, near, M. ir. 
aicc, Ik bond, E. Ir. aicce, relationship : *akki-, *pakM-, root 
pak, bind ; Lat. paciscor, agree, pax, peace ; Eng. fang. Got. 
fahan, seize ; Zeud pof, bind. The root is a triplet — pak, 
pag, pagh (Gr. Trfiyvvfii, make fast, Lat. pango, Eng. page, 
etc). Zimmer refers E. Ir. aicce to the root of agus, aig. 

taidhe, attention, heed, Ir. uidh, 0. Ir. aid, 6id, core-6i, servat : 
*avdi-, root av, watch, Lat. aveo, desire, audeo, dare, Skr. av, 
favour (see atll further). The t of G. is due to the phrase 
" Thoir taidhe ( = thoir do aidhe)" — Take thy heed : a phrase 
to which the word is practically restricted, and which 
accounts for the short vowel of the G. and Ir., the sentence 
accent being on the verb. 

taidheam, meaning, import ; see oidheam. 

taifeid, a bow-string : 

taig, attachment, custom ; cf . aig, at. 

taigeis, haggis ; from Sc. haggis, 0. Fr. hachis, Eng. hash, from 

tail, substance, wages, taileas, wages, Ir. tdille, wages, M. Ir. 
taile, salarium, W. tdl, payment, Cor., Br. tal, solvit, . root 
tal, tel, take, hold ; Gr. raXavrov, a talent, Eng. talent, teAoSj 
toll ; Lat. tollo, lift, Eng. thole, etc, 

Ct' THE OAffl^IC LAKQtTAGfi. S2l 

tailce, strength, Ir. talcdnta, strong, E. Ir. talc'e, tailce : *t-alkid, 

root alM, strong, Gr. dA.Kij, strength, dXe^co, defend. 
tailceas, contempt; of. tarcuis. 
t^ileasg, baokgamnion, chess, Ir. tdibhleis, backgammon table, 

back-gammon, M. Ir. taiflis, draught-board, tables, W. tawl- 

fterdd, draught-board ; from M. Eng. tables, backgammon, 

from table, Norse tafl, game, chess. 
tailebart, halberd ; from the Eng. The Ir., M. Ir. is halabard, 

which Stokes regards as derived from the Fr. JiaUebard. 
taileas, wages ; see tail. 
tailgneachd, prophecy ; for tairgneachd, q.v. 
taillear, a tailor, Ir. tailiur, W. teiliwr ; from the Eng., M. Eng. 

tailor, taylor, from Fr. taillewr. 
tailm, a tool, sling, noose, Ir. tailmh, a sling, E. Ir. tailm (do.), 

W. telm, laqueus, Br. talm, sling : *talksmi- (Stokes) ; Ch. 

SI. tluk<i., strike, 
tailmrich, bustle, noise ; for *tairmrith, E. Ir. tairmrith, trans- 

cursus, from tairm-, cross, trans (see thar), and ruith, run. 
tailp, a bundle, bunch (Sh., O'E.) : 
tMmh, death, mortality, Ir. tdimh, E. Ir. tdm, plague : *tdmo-, 

death ; cf. Skr. tamyati, choke, Ch. SI. tomiti, vexare. Cf., 

however, immh, rest. 
tain, cattle, drove, Ir. tdin, cattle, spoil, E. Ir. tdin : *to-ag-ni, 

root ag, drive, Lat. ago, etc. 
taing, thanks ; from the Eng. thank. 
tainneamh, thaw (Arran), Manx tennue, Ir. tionadh, 0. Ir. tinaid, 

evanescit, root ten as in tana. See aiteamh. 
taip, a mass, Ir. taip ; see tap. 

tail, contempt, Ir. tdir, E. Ir. tdr ; for *to-shdr ; see sar. 
tair, get, obtain, come, Ir. tair, come thou, E. Ir. tair (do.), tair, 

venies ; from tairicim, I arrive at, come, catch, for *to-air-ic, 

root ic of tkig, q.v. 
tairbeart, an isthmus, peninsula : *tar^ertd, from tar (see thar, 

cross) and ber of beir : " cross-bringing, portage." 
tairbhe, profit, so Ir., 0. Ir. torbe : *to-for-be, where -be comes from 

*bv-id, root bu, be (see bu). 
tairbheartach, profitable, so Ir., E. Ir, tairbert, yielding, giving 

up : *to-air-ber-, from the verb beir, bring, 
tairg, offer, tairgse, an offer, Ir. tairgim, tairgsin, E. Ir. tairgim, 

tharcsin (dat.) : * to-air-ges-, root ges, carry (Lat. gero), as in 

agus ? Ascoli compares 0. Ir. taircim, affero, tairdud, 

oblatio, tribuere, from to-ad-ro-ic, root ic of thig. 
tairgneachd, tailgneachd, tairgire, prophecy, Ir. tairrgire, tair- 

gire, prophecy, promise, 0. Ir. tairngire, promissio : *to-air- 

ind-gar-id, root gar as in goir, 



tairiosg', a saw ; see tuireasg. 

tairis, the dairymaid's cry to calm a cow ; cf . O. Ir. tavrissim, sto, 
* to-air-8ess-, from sess as in seas, q.v. 

tairis, kind, loving, Ir. tairis, loyal, E. Ir. tairisse, true, loyal : 
" stable," from to-air-sess, from sess, stop, stand, as in seas, q.v. 

tairisgein, peat-spade ; see toirsgian. 

tairm, necromancy (Sh., O'E.) ; see taghairm. 

tairneanach, thunder, Ir. tdimeach, tdim ; see torrunn for root, etc. 

tMrng, tarrang, a nail, Ir., E. Ir. taimge ; from tarruing ? 

tais, soft, Ir. tais, E. Ir. taise, tasse, weakness : *taxi-, soft (Gaul. 
Tascirmaguhis f), root tak, weak, melting, Gr. TaKcpos (do.), 
T^/co), melt ; further Lat. taies, Eng. thaw. Bezzenberger 
suggests Gr. rdyrivov, a melting pot, saucepan. 

taisbean, reveal, Ir. taisbeanaim, E. Ir. taispenim, taissfenim, 
0. Ir. asfenimm, testificor, doairfenus, exploravi ; the old 
Gaelic root is fen, hen, which may be cognate to Gr. ^aiVo) 
(see taihhse). Zeuss regarded the s as put before the b by 
metathesis, the word being of the same origin as taibhse. 

taisdeal, a journey, Ir. taisdiol : 

taisg, deposit, store away, tasgaidh, depository, Ir. taisgim, E. Ir. 
taiscim, doroiseckt-sa, id deposui : * to-ad-sec-, root seq, follow, 
beside, as in seach, past ; the idea of the verb being " put 

taisgeal, finding of anything, taisgealach, a spy, Ir. taiscealladh, 
spying, betraying, M. Ir. taiscelad, 0. Ir. taiscelaid, explorator, 
pi. taisceltai, do-scMaim, experior ; from to-scM-, from sgeul, 
story (Windisch). Hence taisgealadh, news. 

taitheasg, a repartee, Ir. taitheasg, aitheasg (O'Br., etc.), 0. Ir. 
taithesc, answer, aithesc, admonitio, W. ateb, a reply : *ati- 
seq, root seq, say, as in sgeul. 

taitinn, pleasing, Ir. taithneamhach, M. Ir. taitnemach, bright, 
shining, E. Ir. taitnim, I shine, taitnemach, shining, 0. Ir. 
taitnem, lucina, light : * taith4ennim, to-aith-tenrir, root ten of 
teine, fire (Windisch). Stokes {Bez. Beit.^^, 112), divides 
taitnem into tait- and nem, Pictish namet, albus. 

til, adze, Ir., O. Ir. tdl : *to-aglo- (rather t-aglo-f). Got. ax/isi, axe, 
Eng. axe (Strachan). Stokes gives a pre-Gaelic *tdkslo, root 
tek, Ch. SI. tesla, axe, Lat. telum ( = tex-lum), weapon, Gr. 
reKTbiv, carpenter ; but tek does not appear to have a side 
form tdk, and tdkslo- would produce tdll. But cf. Lat. pdla, 
spade, for root, and for phonetics G. tore and Lat. parens. 

talach, complaining, Ir. talach, dispraise, reproach : 

tiladh, enticing, hushing, caressing; from Norse tdl, allurement, 
bait, trap, Ag. S. tdl, calumny, root ddl, del, Lat. dolus, 
guile, Si/Aeo/iiot, hurt (Dor. SaAEo/iat). 


talainte, a partition or dividing wall j from Sc. halland, hallm. 
DiaJ. G. has also tallaid. 

talamh, earth, so Ir., 0. Ir. talam, g. talman : *talmon-, for 
tl-mon, root Ul; Lat. tellus, earth (for tel-6s), *tel, flat ; Gr. 
T7jA.ta, a board ; Ag. S. thelu, board (root tet) ; Skr. talas, 
level ground ; Ch. SI. tilo, pavement (root tl). Stokes joins 
here Celtic talo-s, brow, Gavd. Bubtio-talos, Argio-talos (Pictish 
Talorgan), W. tdl, brow. Cor. tdl, Br. tal. 

taian, feats of arms, chivalry, Ir. talan (O'B., Sh., etc.); see 
talann for origin. 

tilann, a talent, Ir. tallann, 0. Ir. talland; from Lat. talentam, 
Eng. iaieMi. 

td.lfuiiin, a hoe ; from td,l and /o»». 

talla,-a hall, Ir. allu, M. Ir. all; from Norse AaZ/, holl, Eng. AaZZ, 
allied to G. ceall, q.v. 

t^mailt, an insult, offence, Ir. tdmailt, Br. tamall, reproach, root 
stemh, abuse, I. E. stengo, stamp, Gr. o-re/i/Ja), shake, misuse, 
abuse, a-To^ta}, scold, Eng. stamp (Stokes, Jubainville Eev. 
Celt}^, 365). 

tamh, rest, Ir. tdmh, E. Ir. tdm : *tdmo-, root stdm, std, sta, stand, 
Eng. stand, station, stamina ; see seas. Usually td/mh, rest, 
and td,imh, death, are referred to the same root. 

tamhasg, blockhead, brownie ; see am/Ms. For termination, cf. 
it/ruisg, tannasg. 

tamull, a while, space of time, Ir. tamall : * to-ad-melno-, from 
Tnelno-, linger, Gr. )u.eAA.o), linger (Stokes). See mall. 

tan, time, an tan, when, Ir. tan, an tan, 0. Ir. tan, intain, intan, 
quum, quando : *tand, time ; Skr. tan, duration, tand, con- 
tinually. Root tan, ten, extend, as in tana, q.v. 

tana, thin, Ir., 0. Ir. tana. Cor. tanow, Br. tanaw, but W. teneu ; 
*tanavo-, thin ; Lat. tenuis, thin, tendo, stretch ; Gr. ravads, 
raw-, long, stretched, reiVo), stretch ; Eng. thin, Ger. diinn ; 
Ch. SI. tmUkU ; Skr. tanti. 

td,naiste, next heir, tanist, anything second, Ir. tdnaiste, lieu- 
tenant, second in command, heir apparent, 0. Ir. tdnaise, 
secundus, imtJianu, alternation, innimthdna, talionem : 
*to-atn-, root at, go, Skr. at, also *at-s-men, of am, time, q.v. 
(Strachan). Rhys {Celt. Br.^, 308) suggests connection with 
W. tan, tiU, Lat. tenus, root ten (no root tdn ?). 

tancard, a tankard, Ir. tancdrd ; from Eng. 

tannas, tannasg', an apparition, ghost ; from the root of tanM ? 

taobh, a side, Ir. taohh, E. Ir. t6eb, tdib, 0. Ir. t6ih, W., Cor., Br. 
tu : *toibos, root steibh, sti, stiff, standing ; Lat. ttbia, shin- 
bone (pi.) ; Lit. staibis, post, shin-bone (pi.), staibus, strong ; 
Gr. o-TKpos, strong : further Eng. stif, Lat. stipes, log. 


taod, a hq,lter, cable, hair-rope, Ir. Uad, a rope ; see tevd. 

taodhair, an apostate, Ir. taodhaire (Lh., O'B.) : 

taodhal, frequenting ; see tadhal. 

taoghas, the grave : 

taoig, a fit of passion (Sh., O'R.) : 

taois, dough, iT.taos, E. Ir. toes, 0. Ir. tdis, massam, W. toes, Br. 

toas : ^taisto-, *stajesto-, root staj, conorescere ; Gr. o-rats 

(g. o-TttiTos), dough, a-Tsap (g. CTTeaTosfor *stdjatos, *stdjntos) ; 

Lat. stiria, a drop, 
taoitear, oversman, tutor (Sutherland, etc.) ; from Lat. tutor, 

Eng. tutor. 
taom, pour out, empty (vb.), a jet, torrent (n.), taoim, bilge-water, 

Ir. taomaim itaodhmaim), taodhm (n.), E. Ir. t6em, a jet, 

taeim, sentina : * to-ad-sm-men, root sem, let go, from root sS, 

cast, sow (see dol) ? Cf . 0. Ir. teissmim, T pour out ( = to-ess- 

sem-drn). Borrowing from Norse t6mr, empty, Eng. toom, is 

not to be thought of. 
taom, a fit of rage, Ir. taom (O'B., etc.) : 

taosg, a pour, rush, exact full of a liquid measure, Ir. taosgaim, I 
, drain, pour out, E. Ir. t6esca, spilling, taescaire, a baler, 

pumper : * to-ad-sem-sico-, root sem as in taom ? 
tap, tow or wool on the distafi^, forelock, Ir. tap, tapdn ; from 

M. Eng. top, tuft of hair or flax, top, Sc. tap. 
tapaidh, clever, active, so Ir., E. Ir. tapad, suddenness, alertness, 

top, sudden ; from the same root as obann (Stokes). 
taplach, a waUet, repository, Ir. taplaigh ; for tap-lach, from tap, 

tow, etc. 
taiachair, augur, so Ir. ; for tarathar. See tc/ra. 
taran, the ghost of an unbaptised infant (Sh., O'R.) ; for taclmran ? 
ta^bh, a bull, Ir. tarbh, E. Ir. tarbh, W. tarw. Corn, tarow, Br. 

taro, tarv, Gaul, tarvos : *tarvos ; Lat. taurus ; Gr. ravpos, 

( = Tajo/bs) ; Pruss. tauris, bufialo, Ch. SI. ticru, auroch. 

Prellwitz thinks the Celtic not allied to Gr. ra-Opos, etc., 

which he refers to the root tau, tu {stil gives Eng. steer). 
tarcuis, contempt, Ir., M. Ir. tarcuime, E. Ir. tarcusvl : 
targadh, ruling, governing, assembly (Lh., etc.), Ir. targadh : 
targaid, a target, Ir. targdid ; from Eng. 
targair, foretell, Ir. tairrghirim ; see tairgneachd. 
t&rladh, it happened ; see ihturladh. 
tarlaid, a slave, thrall ; from Eng. varlet .? 
tirmachadh, producing, originating, source, dwelling, Ir. tormach, 

an increasing, a growing ripe for bearing, magnifying, 0. Ir. 

t6rmach, an increase : *to-for-mach, root mag, power (Eng. 

may, might, etc.). 
t&rmachan, a ptarmigan, Ir. tarmMhan ; Eng. ptarmigan is hence 



tirmus, dislike of food : *to-air-7neas ; see meas. 

tirnach, thunder-clap ; see thirneanach. 

timadair, inn-keeper; from L. Lat. tahernator, tavern-keeper, 

Lat. taberna, Eng. tavern. 
tarp, a clod, lump (Sh., O'B., etc.), Ir. tarp, tarpdn ; from Norse 

torf, a turf, sod, Eng. twrf. 
\ktx, lower part of the belly, tail, breast, Ir. twrr, belly, lower part 

of the belly, E. Ir. tarr, W. tor, Br. tor, 0. Br. tar : *tarsd, 

*tarnisd; Sc. thairm, belly, gut, Eng. «Aarm, Ger. darm, bowels; 

Gr. rpdiMis, tail, entrail, hip joint. Stokes gives the Celtic 

*targsd, allied to Lat. tergus, back, 
tarrag, a nail ; see tairng. 
tarruing^, pull, draw, so Ir., E. Ir. tairmgim : * to-air-rengim, from 

E. Ir. ringim, hang, tear, from reng, a nasalised form of reg, 

stretch (see ruighe). 
tarr aid, sheriff officer, tipstaff (Dial.) ; see earraid. 
tarsuinn, transverse, across, Ir. tarsna, tarsa, trasna, M. Ir., E. Ir. 

tarsnu, across ; from tar, across (see thar) and sainn of 

wrsainn, q.v. 
tart, thirst, Ir., 0. Ir. tart : *tar(s)to- ; Eng. thurst, Ger. durst, 

Gr. repcronai, become dry ; Lat. torreo, burn, tostum (*torstum), 

Eng. toast ; Skr. tarsh, thirst, Zd. taresh ; I. E. ters, dry. 
tartan, tartan ; from Eng., Sc. tartan, from Fr. tiretaine, linsie- 

tartar, noise ; reduplication of root tar, tor in tbirneanach. 
tasan, tedious discourse or scolding, Ir. tasanach, tedious, slow 

(Lh. marks it obsolete and queries meaning) : 
tasdan, a shilling ; from Sc. testan, testoon, a silver coin of the 

16th century with Mary's head (teste) on it, the "inglis 

testane" being worth 8 shilling Scots, Eng. tester, worth 6d ; 

originally so called from the coins of Louis XII. (1500) with 

his head (teste, Fr. tite, head) on them. 
tasgaidh, depository, a treasure : " A thasgaidh" — Thou treasure ; 

see taisg. 
tataidh, attract, attach one to oneself, tadadh (inf.) : 
tath, cement, join (M'F., Lh.), Ir. tdthaim, tdth, solder or glue, 

W. todi, construct, join : *tdto-, *stdto-, constitute, root sta, 

stand 1 
tathaich, visit, frequent, Ir. tathuighim, M. Ir. aithigim ; formed 

from the prep, aith, back, rather than a compound of tiagaim 

as in iriiihich, our imich (that is, *ati-tig-, go back again), 
tathunn, barking ; see tabhunn. 
t6, a woman, female, she, Ir. an ti, she who, an t^, he who 

(O'Donovan says either means " he or she who" or " person 

who"), 0. Ir. inti, is(qui), indi ea(quae), ani id(quod) : the 


article and the enclitic particle 4, for which see rk, and cf. ^% 
he who. 

teabaid, a taunt, repartee (Dial.), teab, a flippant person's mouth 
(M'A.), teibidh, smart : "cutting," E. Ir. tepe, a cutting, 
0. Ir. tavpe, concisio, brevitas : * taidrbe ( = to-ad-be), reduced 
root be, cut, imdibe, circumcisio, etc., root bi, bin, as in bean, 
touch, q.v. 

teach, a house, Ir. teach, 0. Ir. tech, teg, g. tige, W. ty. Cor. ti, 
0. Br. teg, tig, ti, now ti, : * tegos, g. teges-os ; Gr. reyos, roof, 
crreyft), cover ; Lat. tego, cover, tectum,, house ; Eng. thatch 
Ger. dach ; Lit. st'egiu, cover; Sh. sthagati, cover. See tigh 
for usual nom. case. 

teachd, coming, arrival, Ir. teaehd, 0. Ir. techt, aditus, itio, W 
taith, iter, Br. tiz, diligence, haste : *tiktd, root stig, steig, as 
in tighinn, q.v. Some derive it from thig or tig, q.v. Hence 
teachdaire, messenger. 

teachd, legal, lawful, M. Ir. techta, t6chta, 0. Ir. tickle, fitting 
legalis, lex : *tenctio-, root tenq^, become, chance, produce 
Eng. thing. Lit. tenku, chance, befall, Lat. tempus. Dial 
form dele, cha dele, q.v. 

teadalach, slow, dilatory : 

teadhair, a tether ; from Sc, Eng. tether, tedder, Norse tjddr, tjor, 
Swed. tjuder. 

teagair, collect, provide, shelter, Ir. teagar, provision, shelter, 
feagarach, warm, snug, teagairim, store, provide ; cf. eagar. 

teagamh, doubt, suspense ; see theagamh. 

teagasg, teaching, so Ir., E. Ir. teeosc : * to-aith-cosc-, for which see 

teaghlach, family, household, so Ir., 0. Ir. teglach, W. teulu, 0. W. 
telu. Corn, teilu, familia : * tego-slmigo-, from the stems of tigh 
and sluagh. The termination -lax:h from *sloiigo-s makes 
abstract collective nouns, which are used for single objects or 
persons; as bglach, young man, really "youth," or "young- 
people," just as "youth" is also used in Eng. as a concrete 
noun — " a youth." 

teallach, hearth, forge, Ir. teallach, E. Ir. tenlach, tellaeh : *tene- 
lach, from teine, fire, and terminal -lach (see teaghlach). 

teallaid, a lusty or bunchy woman (M'F.) : 

teamhaidh, pleasant, Ir. teamhair, pleasant, Tara, E. Ir. temair, 
omnis locus conspicuus : *stem^i- ? 

teampuU, temple, church, Ir. teampoU, 0. Ir. tempul, W. teml. 
Corn, tempel ; from Lat. templum. 

teanchair, pincers, smith's tongs, Ir. teanchoir, tongs, pincers, 
0. Ir. tenchor, forceps : *tenrCor, "fire-putter," from the stem 
pf teine, fire, and cor, seen in cuir, put. 


teanga, teangadh, a tongue, Ir. teanga, 0. Ir. tenge, gen. tengad : 

*tengot-, from stengh, sting (Eng. sting, Ger. Stengel, stalk), 

■which is from zdngh, from dngh, whence Lat. dingua, Eng. 

tongue ? Stokes {Academy/, Oct. '91) has compared Lat. tango 

(so Windisch, Scot. Celt. Rev., 34). Rhys has considered the 

probabilities of alliance with W. tafod. Corn, tavot, Br. teod, 

older «eaM* (*«e&<i«o-) in Manx Pray?, 136-7. 
teann, tight, tense, near to, Ir. teann, O. Ir. tend, W. «y«, tight, 

stretched •.*tendo- ; Lat. tendo, I stretch, fereiws, stretched 

(Stokes, Bev. Gelt, i^, 124) ; in any case from root ten of tana. 
tearb, separate, Ir. tearhadh (O'CL), severance, M. Ir. terp4d, E. Ir. 

terhaim, terbvd : *ter-be-, Gadelic reduced root le, cut, for 

which see teabaid ? 
tearc, scarce, rare, Ir. tearc, E. Ir. terc : *ter{s)qo-s, rare, root ters, 

dry (as in tart) ; Lat. tesqua ( = tersquo-s), deserts. 
tearmann, a sanctuary, protection, so Ir., M. Ir. termain, termonn, 

W. terfyn; from Lat. termo{n), terminus, end, "end of race 

for life by reaching church lands" or Termon landes (Ducange). 
tearr, tar, Ir. tearr ; from M. Eng. terve, Norse tjara. 
teilruinii, save, escape, te^rnadh (inf.), Ir. tearnaim, E. Ir. 

ternaim, ternam, an escape, irnaim,, I escape : *es-rn-, root rn, 

Eng. run ? 
teas, heat, Ir. teas, 0. Ir. tess, g. tesa, W., Corn, tes, Br. tez : *testu-, 

for *tepstttr, root tep, bum, heat; Lat. tepeo, be warm, Eng. 

tepid ; Ch. SI. teplo, hotly ; Skr. tap, be hot, Zd. tap, bum. 

See, also from tep, teine, teth. Hence teasach, fever. 
teasairg, save, deliver, Ir. teasargaim, 0. Ir. tessurc, servo, 

dumesurcsa, defendo me : *to-ess-arc, root ark, defend; Lat. 

arceo, ward ofif; Gr. dpKeo) (do.). See adharc. 
teasd, die, Ir. teasdaighim, die, fail, M. Ir., 0. Ir. testa, deest, fails : 

*to-ess-td, from td, I am. Cf., for force, Lat. deswm. 
teasg, cut, cut off, Ir. teasgaim, E, Ir. tescaim : *to-ess-sc, root sec, 

cut, Lat. seco, Eng. saw. 
teibideach, irresolute : " halting, failing ;" cf. Ir. tebim, disappoint, 

fail, for which see theab. 
teich, flee, Ir. teithim, E. Ir. techim, 0. Ir. teichthech, vitabundus, 

W. techu, skulk, M. Br. techet, flee : *tekd, *tekk6, flee, I. E. 

root teq-, flow, nm ; Ch. SI. teku, a run, Lit. tekii, flow ; Skr. 

takti, runs, Zd, taka-, course, 
teididh, wild, fierce (H.S.D.), wild fire (M'A.) : 
teilg, a fishing line : " a cast," from tilg, cast, Ir. teilgean, casting ? 
teilleach, a blub-cheeked fellow (Dial.) ; cf. meilleach. 
teine, fire, Ir. teine, 0. Ir. tene, g. tened, pi. tenti, W. tan. Cor., Br. 

tan (La proper names also tanet) : * tenet-, *tenos, Celtic root 

te, from tep, hot, as in teas, q.v. Not for *te(p)ne-, as usually 

328 firfMOLOGlCAIi tolCtlONAKt 

said, which would give Uine now, nor *<eps»e-, which would 

produce tenne now. 
teinn, calamity, strait ; an abstract noun from teann. 
teirig, fail, be spent, die, teireachduinn (inf.), Jr. teiricim (O'B.), 

E. Ir. tarnic, it ended, from *tar-ic, transire (tar, across, and 

ic or nic of thig, thainig). Atkinson joins it with tairieim, 

arrive ( = to-air-ic-), as in tair, but the meanings scarcely suit, 
teirinn, te^rn, descend, Jr. teamaim, tik-naim, E. Ir. taimim, 0. Ir. 

tairinnvd, dejectio { = to-air-innud), from *end6, go, root end, 

edy I. E. Tped, go (Eng. foot, Lat. pes, etc., G. uidhe, q.v.). 
teirisi ! the dairymaid's cry to calm a cow ; see iniris. 
teirm, a term, Ir. tearma, earlier terma (F.M.) ; from M. Eng. 

terme, from Lat. terminus through Fr. 
tearmasg, tiormasg, a mistake, mischance ; cf. eimds. Here te 

may be for de, on the analogy of to, do. 
t6is, a musical air ; see sSist for derivation, 
teismeid, last will and testament ; from Lat. testamentum. 
teis-meadhon, the exact or very middle ; teis — to-ess, as in teasairg. 
teist, testimony, Ir. teisd, teist, 0. Ir. teist, W. tyst, Br. test ; from 

Lat. testis, Eng. test, etc. 
te6, te6dli, make warm ; from teb-, q.v. The Ir. verb is teighim, 

inf. tdaghadh. 
teo-, warm-, ted-chridheach, warm-hearted : *tepu-, Skr. tapus, 

hot, root tep as in teth. Cf. Keating's {Three Shafts, 282) 

ted-ghrdMMiglieas, qui ardentius amat, where Atkinson con- 
siders ted a comparative. 
teoma, skilful, expert : 
teth, hot, Ir. teith, comp. teotha (G. and Ir.), M. Ir. te, comp. teou : 

*teps (?), root tep, hot, as in teas. The 0. Ir. is tee, ti, 

fervidus, pi. teit, from *tepents, g. *tepentos, Lat. tepens. 
teuchd, congeal, be parched, Ir. teuchduim, curdle, coagulate, 

M. Ir. tichtaige, frozen, 0. Ir. coiteichtea, conoretionis : 

*tankto-, from I. E. tenq, firm, fast ; Eng. tight, Gar. dicht, 

teud, a string, Ir. teud, tiad, 0. Ir. t4t, fidis, W. tant : *tntd, chord; 

Skr. tdntu, tdnti, cord : root ten, stretch, thin, as in tana. 
teug^hail, battle, contest, disease, Ir. teagmhdil, a meeting, 

retribution : *to-ex-com-dhdil, see comhdhail. In the sense of 

" disease," see eugail. 
teum, a bite, sudden snatch, wound, E. Ir. temm, W. tarn, a bite, 

Corn, tarn, pi. tymmyn, Br. tamm : * tendmen, root tend, cut ; 

Lat. tondeo, shear, tinea, a worm ; Gr. tevSu, gnaw ; Ch. SI. 

t§ti, caedere. 
tha, is ; see ids. The aspiration is due to the use of to, in relative 

sentences, where the t is intervocalic. 

6F ITHE GABtilC LANGtJAGii. 329 

tMinig, came, Ir. thdnaic, thdinig, venit, 0. Ir. tdnic, rdnic, venit, 

tdnac, veni : *ananka, I have come — a reduplicated perfect ; 

Skr. dnamca, has reached ; Gr. rjveyKc, brought :. root enh, 

nak {nank), attain, bring, for which see thig. The aspiration 

is due to the analogy of other perfects which follow do. 
thairis, over, across, Ir. tairis, E. Ir. tairis, over it, him ; from tar 

{thar) and se or e, he, it. The aspiration is due to a suppressed, 

or supposed suppressed, do or a. 
thall, over, beyond, Ir. thall, O. Ir. thall, tall : *t-all, from to- and 

all as in nail, q.v. The form thallad stands for thall-vd. 
thalla, come, come along, " age," thallaibh (pi.), E. Ir. tallaim, 

take away, *talnd, root tel, bear (see tlatk, tail, etc.). Also 

interjection : thalla ! thalla ! well ! well ! 
thar, across, Ir. tar, 0. Ir. tar, dar, W. tra-, over, track, beyond, 

root ter, through, past, Lat. trans, termimts ; Skr. tar-, pass : 

I. E. ter, pass through, bore. See tora, troimh. 
th&rladh, accidit, Ir. tarla, E. Ir. dorala, dorla, 0. [r. tarla : 

*to-ro-la, the la being the remains of root plu, as in dol 

theab, nearly did (with inf.), Ir. do theib se, he failed (O'B.) : 

"grazed" it, from *tebb, graze, cut, as in teabaid? 
theagamh, mayhap, perhaps, 0. Ir. tecmaing, accidit, teanang, 

eventus, do-e-cm-aingim, acoido, for *to-ex-comrang, root ang, 

near, as in cumhang, q.v. 
th^id, will go, Ir. t&d, goes, 0. Ir. tiit, venit, it : *to-eit, *ent6, 

*pent6, go, reach, root pet, pent, go, fly, fall ; Lat. pet, seek, 

"fall on" ; Gr. iriirTio, fall; Gat. finjian, 'Eng. find. 
their, will say ; see deir. 
thig, will come, Ir. tigim, come, E. Ir. tic, ticc, venit, 0. Ir. ticfa, 

veniet : *t6-ice, from ice, '''enkd, come, reach, root enk, nak, 

nank, attain, bring ; Gr. T/vey/ca, brought ( = G. thetinig), a 

reduplicated perf. from ey/c ; Skr. anamfa, attained ; further 

nank of adhlac and Lat. nanciscor. 
thoir, give, G., Ir. tabhair, give thou, q.v. The G. is for toir, a 

crushed form of tabhair, and this is aspirated on the analogy 

of bkeir, gheibh, and especially of thug, its past tense. 
thud, an interjection of dislike or impatience : Sc. hoot, hoot-toot, 

Swed. hut, whence Eng. hoot. The G. is borrowed. 
thug, gave, brought, Ir. thug, thujas (1st pers.), E. Ir. tuc, tucas, 

do-fue, from uc, ucc, *vjd-ge, from s- aorist *e-ges-s-t, *e-ges-s-m, 

root ges, cany, Lat. gero, gessi (Zimmer, Zeit.^", 156-7); whence 

also W. dv^, he bore. Cor. duk,'5x. dougas. 
thugad, thugaibh, thuige, etc., to thee, to you, to him; for 

chugad, etc., q.v. Similarly thun is for chun, gun, gu, q.v. 
ti, any one, person, Ir. ti, person, an ti, an te , see te, ni. 



ti, intention, Ir., E. Ir. ti : 

tiachair, perverse, ill-disposed, sick, a dwarf, Ir. tiackair, perverse 

(O'Cl., Lh., O'B.), M. Ir. tiachair, troublesome, E. Ir. tiachaire, 

affiction, peevishness : 
tiadhan, a little hill, small stone, Ir. tiadhan, a stone, testicle : 
tiamhaidh, gloomy, lonesome, Ir. tiamdha, dark (O'CL), E. Ir. 

tiamda, dark, afraid : 
tiarmail, prudent ; cf. tlorail. 

tide, time ; from Icel. ti&, So., Eng. tide, Ag. S. tid, Ger. zeit. 
tigh (for taigh), a house, Ir. tiph, 0. Ir. teg, tech ; see feocA. 
tighearn, tighearna, lord, master, Ir. tigheama, 0. Ir. tigeme, W. 

teym, 0. W. -tigem, Cor. teem, O. British tigernus:*tegemo-s, 

tegemio-s, root teg of tigh, q.v. 
tighil, caU when passing (M'A.); the t being as in tigh, the word 

seems a variant of tadhal. 
tighinn, coming, Ir. tighim, I come, E. Ir. tiagaim, 0. Ir. tiagu, 

tichtu (tichtin), adventus : *tig6, *teig6, from root steigh, stigh, 

go ; Gr. o-Tei'xtD, walk ; Got. steigan, ascend, Ger. steigen, 

Eng. stair ; Skr. stigknute, stride. 
tilg, cast, cast out, vomit, Ir. teilgim, 0. Ir. teilcim : to-es-leic, " let 

out," from the original of G. leig, let, q.v. 
till, pill, return, Ir. tillim (Kesiting), fillim,pillim (O'B.) : *sveln,i-, 

turn round, W. chwylo, turn, revolve, ehwyl, a turn, course, 

while (for which see G. seal). Cf. fill. 
tim, time ; from the Eng. 
timchioU, around, a circuit, so Ir., 0. Ir. timchell : * to-imm-cell, 

from I. E. qel, move, go ; Lat. colo, tend, celer, swift ; Gr. 

irtXofw.i, go, be, d/i^HToAos, attendant ; Skr. cdrdmi, move, go. 

See imachaill. 
tinn, sick, Ir. tinn, E. Ir. tind : *tenni-, root ten of tana, teann, 

teinn. Cf . Ir. tinaim, evanesco, Lat. attenuo, Eng. attemiate. 
tinne, a chain, link, piece of a column, M. Ir. tinne, flitch, E. Ir. 

tinde, ring, link, bar, 0. Ir. tinne, chalybs ; from the root ten 

of tana. Cf. Norse pind, diaphragm. 
ftiobart, a well, 0. G. tiprat (gen., Bk. of Deer), Ir. tiobar, 

tiobrad, E. Ir. tipra, d. tiprait, * to-aith-hrevant-, Celtic verb 

* berv6, seethe, boil ; Gr. <t>peap, (ftpearos, a well ; Ger. 

brunnen, Eng. bum. See tobar. 
tiodhlac, a gift, Ir. tiodhlacadh, E. Ir. tidnacul, 0. Ir. tindnacul, 

traditio, do-ind-naich, distribuit : to-ind-nank-, root nank, 

bring, get, Lat. nanciscor, obtain ; also root enk as in thig, 

q.v. Hence also tiodhlaic, bury, and adhlac, q.v. 
tiolam, a short space, a snatch : 
tiolp, snatch, grasp eagerly, Ir. tiolpaim : 


tiom, soft, timid, Ir. time, fear, E. Ir. tim, soft, timid, timme, fear : 
*temmi-, root tern, faint, Lat. timeo, fear, Eng. timid ; Skr. 
tarn, to faint, Zd. tam, perish. 

tiomnadli, a will or testament, Ir. tiomna, 0. Ir. timne : *to-immr 
ne, the n of ne being the remains of -dn-, mandare, mittere 
(Ascoli) ; of. 0. Ir. adroni, deposuit; immerdni, delegavit, 
G. ^ithne, command, q.y. 

tiompan, a musical instrument — a cymbal, Ir. tiompdn, tabor, 
cymbal, drum, E. Ir. tiompan, a small stringed instrument; 
from Lat. tympanum, a timbrel, drum (Windisch). The 
difference of meaning between E. Ir. and Lat. has caused some 
to doubt the connection ; and Stokes gives the Celtic root as 
temppu-, a chord or string. Lit. tempiu, stretch, Ch. SI. t^tiva, 

tiomsach, collecting, bringing together, Ir. tiomsughadh, E. Ir. 
timvm&ugvjd : * to-imm-sag-, root sag as in ionnsuidh, q.v. 

tionail, gather, Ir. tionolaim, 0. Ir. tinolaim, tinolaim, do-in-ola, 
applioat : * to-in-ola-im, "where ola is referred by Stokes to 
*oklo-, *poMo-, joining, uniting, Ger.fiigen, to &t,fiige, joint ; 
Lat. paciscor, bargain, bind ; Skr. pdfos, a knot, Zd. pa^, bind. 
Ascoli regards it as *to-in-od-lu, root lu, plu of dol, but *od-lvr 
would rather mean " go out," " go off." W. cynnull, gathering. 
Com. cunteli, 0. Br. conttdlet, are, according to Emault, 
borrowed from Lat. contuli. 

tionnail, likeness of any person or thing : 

tionndadh, turning, Ir. tiontodh, 0. Ir. tintuith, g. tintvda, 
tintathigh, interpretes : *to-ind^s(mt-, root swof iompaidh, q.v. 

tionnsgainn, a beginning, devising, tionnsgal, ingenuity, Ir. 
tionnscnadh, a beginning, device, plotting, tionsgiodal, manag- 
ing, industry, 0. Ir. tinscnaim ( = to-ind-scannaim), I begin, 
tindscetal, a beginning, root sqend, start, spring, Lat. scando, 
ascend, Skr. skandati, hurry, spring. The W. has cy-chwyn, 
ortus i^sqend). The form -scetal is for sqen4- (?). 

tiop, pilfer (M'A.) ; cf. tiolp. 

tlor, dry (as corn), kiln-dry, Ir. tiortha, kiln-dried (Con.), M. Ir. 
ti/rad, kiln-drying, E. Ir. tir, to dry ; from the root of tioram 
(0. Ir. tirim). 

tiorall, warm, cosy, sheltered, Ir. tioramhuil; cf. Ir. tioramkuil, 
tiorthamhuil, homely, national, from ttr. Dr Cameron 
regarded it as taken from the root of tioram, which is ulti- 
mately the same as that of tw. Borrowing from Eng. cheer- 
ful is unlikely. 

tioram, dry, Ir. tirim, M. Ir. tirimm, 0. Ir. firim, tir (vb.) : 
*tersmi-, root ters, dry, as in tart, q.v. See also tir for 



^tiofc^ save, deliver from peril : *t-erc-, *to-arki-, root ark of 

Aeasairg, q.v. 
tiort, an accident : 
tiosan, water-gruel ; from Eng. ptisan, Lat. ptisana, barley water, 

from Gr. ■TTTuravrj. 
tiot, tiota, tiotan, a moment, while : 
tir, land, earth, Ir., 0. Ir. tir, W., Com., Br. tir, tellus, la terre : 

*tSrsos {*tSrses-) ; Lat. terra (*<ersd), Oscan teerwm, terri- 

torium. The further root is ters, be dry, as in tart ; the idea 

of tir, terrd is "dry land" opposed to sea. 
tit, an interjection expressive of wet being perceived suddenly 

(H.S.D.) : 
tiugainn, come,'let us go ; from deaspirated thiigainn, " to us," for 

chugainn, q.v. 
tiugh, thick, Ir. tnigh, E. Ir. tiug, W. tew, 0. W. teu, obtuso, Com. 

tew, Br. teu : *tegu-, thick ; Eng. thick, Norse pykkr, Ger. 

dick; Gr. crreyvo's, fast, tight, 
tiurr, a beach out of reach of the sea ; for an t-iv/rr, from Norse 

eyrr, a gravelly bank by a river or a promontory, Swed. or, 

Dan. orr. 
tlachd, pleasure, so Ir., M. Ir. tlacht : tl-lco-, " willing," from toil, 

will, q.v. 0. Ir. todlugvd, petitio, tothlaigim, I desire, is from 

* tloq-, of altach. 
tlam, teaze (wool), handful of wool. Strachan and Stokes give 

the stem as *tlagm (read tldg-s-m-) allied to G&r.flocke, flock 

of wool, Eng. flock. 
tlath, mild, smooth, Ir. tlaith (tldith, O'B.), tlatfi, E. Ir. tlaith, W. 

tlawd : * tldti-, "long-suffering," from tel, bear, endure; Gr. 

tA,i;tos, tAcJo), endure ; Lat. tollo, raise, tuli, Idtus (for *tldtus), 
t borne; Eng., Sc. thole. 
tlus, pity, tenderness, E. Ir. tlus (S. n. E.) ; from root tl, tel of 

tlath, q.v. 
tniith, envy, Ir., E. Ir. tniith ; from the root ten, stretch : 

" grasping ?" 
to-, do-, verbal prefix = to, ad, Ir., 0. Ir. to-, do-. Stokes compares 

Gothic du- to, from J)U (?). W. has du-, dy-, y. Cor. dhi, Br. 

do, da. 
. toban, wreath of wool or flax on a distafi" ; from Sc. tappin. 
tobar, a well, Ir. tohdr, 0. Ir. topur, fons : *to-od-iur, root ihur, 

hhru, to well, boil ; Gr. <j>vp<ii, mix ; Lat. ferveo, well, Eng. 

fervid ; Skr. hhv,r, move quickly : further see root hhru in 

brnith and hhrev in tiobar. Some have .referred tobar to 

the root ber of inbhir, abar (phair). 
tobha, a rope, from Sc. tow, rope, Eng. tow, puU, Norse tog, rope, 

Lat- duco. 


tobhta, tota, turf, roofless walls, knoll ; from Norse toft, topt, a 

clearing, a space enclosed by roofless walls, Eng. toft, tuft, 

and top. 
tobhta, tota, a rower's bend ; from Norse }>opta. 
toeh, hough or thigh of an animal : *t-Jioch, from the Sc. hough. 
tochail, dig, Ir. tockuilim, tochlaim : *to-cladh; see cladh. 
tochar, tochradh, dowry, Ir. tochar, M. Ir. tocra (ace.) ; cf. 0. Ir. 

tochur, placing, from cuir, put. The idea is " something 

assigned to one." Hence Sc. tocher. 
tcchd, tech, an unpleasant smell : 

tochd, a disease of the eye in cattle ; cf. Sc. hock (H.S.D.). 
ttochmharc, a wooing, so Ir., 0. Ir. tochmarc : * to-com-arc ; see 

for root iomchorc. 
tocsaid, a hogshead ; from the Eng. 
todhar, manure, a bleaching, Ir. tiuir, a bleach-green, tuarachan, 

a bleacher : 
tog, raise, togail, lifting, Ir. t6gaim, tdgbhail, E. Ir. tdebaim : 

* to-od-gah-im-, from gah, gabh, take, q.v. 

togair, desire, Ir. togairim, please, choose, G. inf. togradh, Ir. 

togra : *to-od-gar, root gar of goir. 
.toghaidh, attention, care (H.S.D.) ; a variant of taidhe. 
toghlainn, exhalation (M'A.) ; cf. tbch. 
toithbheum, reproach, blasphemy, Ir. toihhJim, blemish, reproach, 

E. Ir. toibeim : *to-heim, from heim, that is, heiim, q.v. 
toic, wealth, riches, Ir. toice ; cf . taic. 
toic, a swelling, a puiFed up state of the face : 
toiceil, purse-proud ; from tbic. 
toichiosdal, arrogance (Sh., O'B.) ; see'tostal. 
toigh, agreeable, cordi (mihi est), docha, preferable, is docha leam, 

I prefer, O. Ir. toich, acceptus, tochu, acceptior : *to-gus-, root 

gus, choose, as in tagh. It has also been analysed as *do- 

sech, or *do-fech, roots seq, veq ? 
toil, wiU, Ir. toil, 0. Ir. tol : * told, root tel, take, lift, endure ; Lat. 

tollo, tolero ; Eng. thole, tolerate, etc. See tlachd, tlath. 
toill, deserve, Ir. tuillim, 0. Ir. tuillim, add, enhance, deserve, 

arillim, mereo, G. root -ill- : * elnid, *pelni6; Lit. pelnas, 

wages, earnings, merits, pelnaii, earn ; Skr. panas, play for a 

stake, pan, wager, bargain (Windisch, Stokes). 
toimhseachan, a riddle, Ir. toimhseachdn, a riddle, measure ; from 

tomhas, q.v. 
toinisg, understanding : 

toinn, twist ; from Norse tvinna, twine, twist thread, Eng. twine. 
toinneamh, the miller's share of meal for grinding (S. Argyle) : 
.toir, torachd, pursuit, Ir., E. Ir. t6ir, Ir. toruigheachd, toireacM : 

* to-fo-racht, root reg of dirich. Cf. 0. Ir., toracht, successus. 



processus { — to-rcuiht), tiarmdracht, pursuit (* to-iar7nrfo-racht). 

From Ir. t&ruighe, pursuer, comes Eng. Tory. 
toirbheart, efficiency, bounty, Ir. toirbheart, gift, munificence; 

see tairbheartach for the roots. 
toirleum, a mighty leap ; cf. E. Ir. tairlingim, jump out of, jump 

off, alight, turlaim (inf.) : * to-air-Ung-, for which see leum. 

Hence tbirlinn, alight (M'A.). 
toirm, a noise, Ir. toirm, tormdn, E. Ir. tovrm, tairm : * tors-men, 

root tor of torrunn. Cf. W. twrf, tumult, Lit. tarme, declar- 
toirmisg, forbid, so Ir., M. Ir. tairmiscim, prohibit, hinder : 

*tarmi-sc, from tarmi, the composition form of tar, across, and 

sc or sec, say, as in caisg. 
toirn, toirne, a great noise, sound, Ir. t&irn ; root tor of torrunn. 
toirp, a sod (M'A.) ; from Norse torf, Eng. turf. 
toirsgian, a peat-cutting spade, toirpsgian (M'A.) ; a hybrid 

from Norse torf, turf, peat, and G. sgian. Cf. Norse torf- 

skeri, peat-cutter. 
toirt, respect, value, taste, Ir. toirt, quantity, value : 
toirt, giving ; for tabhairt. See tabhair, thoir. 
toiseach, the beginning, front, Ir. tosach, 0. Ir. iossctch, initium. 

See the next word, 
tdiseach, a beginning, a chief, Ir. toiseach, a captain, 0. Ir. t6isech, 

praestans, leader, W. tywysog, dux, princeps, Welsh Ogmic 

tofisac and tovisaci (Lat.) : * to-vessiko-s, root ved, lead, bring ; 

Lit. wedu, lead, Ch. SI. vedc/., duco ; Zd. vddhayeiti, bring, 

lead. 0. Ir. has also do-fedim, I lead. 
toisg, an occasion, opportunity, Ir. toisg, circumstances, state, 

journey, business, M. Ir. toisc, business, 0. Ir. Udsc, necessity : 

* to-sech, root seq, follow, as in seach. 
toisgeal, the left, unlucky : 
toit, smoke, fume, Ir. t6it, M. Ir. tutt, smoke : *tutto-, root tu, stu, 

Eng. steam ? See toth. 
toitean, a little heap ; from Eng. tuft. In the sense of " piece of 

flesh," Ir. toitedn, this is from t6it, roast, smoke (see toit), 

scarcely to be derived from Fr. t6t, hastily roasted, from Lat. 

tolg, tulg, a hollow in metal, dent, Ir. tola, hole, crevice, E. Ir. 

tolc, W. tolc : 
toll, a hole, Ir., E. Ir. toll, W. twll, Br. toull : *tukslo-, root tuk, 

pierce, punch ; Gr. tvkos, hammer ; Ch. Slav, root tuk, pierce, 

is-tuknati, effodere, tiikalo, cuspis. 
tolm, a hiUock of round form ; from Norse h6lmr, a holm, islet, 

" inch," Sc. holm, Eng. holm, Ag. S. holm, mound, billow, 

Qer. holm, hiU. 

of THE GAELIC LAlfGtJAGfi. 335 

torn, a hillock, Ir. torn, M. Ir. tomm, W. torn, Br. das-tum, to heap : 

*tiimbo-, hillock; Gr. rv/i^Sos, cairn, mound, Eng. tomb; Skr. 

^wnjfa, high, height ; further Lat. tvmmlus. W. torn has been 

regarded as from the Eng. tomh. 
tomad, tomult, bulk ; see tomult. 
tomh, offer, threaten, M. Ir. tomaithim, 0. Ir. tomad, g. tomtho, 

minationes : * to-mat-, root mat, throw. Lit. mMu, throw. 
tomhas, measure, so Ir., 0. Ir. tomus : * to-mus, where mus 

(*me«sit-) comes from root met, mi, measure ; Lat. metior, 

mensus, Eng. measui'e ; Gr. fskrpov, a measure. Allied is G. 

meas, q.v. 
tomult, bulk ; also tomad. Cf. somalta, large, bulky : 
t6n, anus, Ir., E. Ir. t6n, W. tin : *tuknd, tHkno- (Welsh), root 

teuk, Ag. S. Jyedh, Eng. thigh, Teut. *theu/ia- (Strachan, 

Stokes) ; from root tu, swell. 
tonn, a wave, Ir., E. Ir. tond, 0. Ir. tonn, W., Com. ton, Br. tonn : 

*tv,nnd, root Ui, swell ; Lit. tvanas, a flood, tirinti, swell ; 

further Lat. tumeo, swell, Eng. thumb. Stokes gives the 

Celtic as '''tundd, Ag. S. pebtan, howl, Norse }}j6ta, whistle 

(as the wind, etc.). Some have correlated it with Lat. tundo, 

beat, root tund, tud, Skr. tud-, push. 
ttonn, ftoinnte, skin, Ir. tonn, hide, skin, E. Ir. tonn, skin, 

surface, W. tonn, cutis, Br. tonnenn, rind, surface, hair of the 

head : tunnd, skin, hide, whence possibly Low Lat. (9th 

cent.) tunna, a cask, " wine-skin," now Eng. ton. 
tonnag, a woman's shawl or plaid ; from Lat. tunica. Cf. M. Ir. 

tonach, tunic, 
tora, augur, Ir. tarachair, E. Ir. tarathar, 0. Cor. tarater, W. 

taradr, Br. tarazr, tarar : *taratro- ; Gr. reperpov ; Lat. 

terebra : root ter, through, as in thar. 
toradh, produce, fruit, so Ir., O. Ir. tor ad : *to-rad, from ^rato-, 

root rat, ra, give, as in rath, q.v. 
toranach, grub-worm, Ir. torain, corn maggots (O'B.), tordn (Con., 

etc.) ; from tor, bore, as in tora ? 
tore, a boar, Ir., 0. Ir. tore, W. ttvrch, Cor. torch, Br. tourc'h, 

0. Br. tiMTch : *t-orko-s, from *orko-, in ulreean, q.v. :'l. E., 

porko-B, swine, Lat. pm'cus, Lit. parszors, Eng. farrow. 
torchar, a fall, killing, torchuir (vb.), Ir. torchair, fell, 0. Ir. 

torchar, I fell, doro-chair, cecidit, ara-chrinim, difficiscor, root 

ker, Skr. far, break to pieces, frndmi, break ; see crion. 
torghan, a purling sound ; from tor of torrunn. 
ton, a hill of conic form, heap, castle, Ir. tor, tower, castle, crest, 

E. Ir. tor, tuir, d. turid, a tower, W. twr, Cor, tur, Br. tour : 

*ttvri-, *turet-, I. E. root tver, hold, enclose, Lat. turris, Gr. 

rvpcris, tower. Some hold that the Celtic is borrowed from 


Lat. G. tdrr, with rr, is possibly for tmih (cf. *twe(r). It 

also means " crowd" in G. and E. Ir., and " heap" also in W. 
torrach, pregnant, Ir. torraeh, pregnant, fruitful, E. Ir. torrach : 

*toTth-aco-, from *torato-, toradh, fruit, q.v. W. torwy, big- 
bellied, has been compared, from tor, belly, G. tarr. 
tbrradh (torradh, H.S.D.), burial, funeral solemnities, Ir. tdrradh, 

watching or waking of the dead, E. Ir. torroma, attending, 

watching : 
tprrunn, thunder, Ir. toran, a great noise, E. Ir. torand, thunder, 

W. tarann, Cor. taran, tonitruum : *toranno-s ; Gr. to/jos, 

sound ; Lit. tarti, say. Gaul. Taranis, the Gaulish Jove or 

Thor, and G. taimeanach show an a grade of the root. 
tosd, silence, so Ir., E. Ir. tost : '''tmto-, root tiis, tens, whence 

E. Ir. td, ttM, silent; 0. Pruss. tussise, silet, Ch. Slav, tichu, 

silent ; Skr. ttish, silere, tushnim, sUently. 
tosg, a tusk ; from the Eng. 
tosg, a peat-cutter (Dial.) ; from Sc. tiisk in tusk-spawd (Banflf), 

tuskar (Ork. and Sh.), tusk, cut peats. 
tosgair, an ambassador or post, Ir. toisg, a journey, business 

See toisg. 
tostal, arrogance, Ir. tdsdal, toichiosdal (O'B.), 0. Ir. tochossol, 

violation : *<o-c(wi-sa^, from sal, leap (see tuisleadJi)^ Also 

tota, rower's bench, turf ; see tobhta. 
toth, a foul blast of vapour : see toit for root, 
trabhaeh (trabhaeh, M'F.), rubbish cast ashore, the grass fiorin ; 

from trhigh t Of., however, drabhas. 
tr^bhailt, mill-hopper (M'A.) ; possibly from Lat. trabula. 
traehdadh, negotiating, proposal, so Ir. ; from Lat. tracto, treat. 
trachladh, fatigue ; from So. trackle, draggle, fatiguing exertion, 
tiadh, a lance, fishing spear, Ir. tradh, lance, treagh, spear ; from 

the root tar, tra (see thar), through, Lat. trdgula, a dart. 
tldigh, the shore, Ir. trdigh, E. Ir. trdig : *trdgi- ; see traogh. 
traill, a slave, Ir. traill (O'B.), M. Ir. In-dill (not well known to 

glossographers) ; from Norse firaell, Eng. thrall. 
traille,' the fish tusk : 
trait, trdidht, a poultice,, cataplasm, rag, Ir. i/reata {treata. Con.), 

plaster : 
tramailt, a whim (M'A.) : 
trang, busy ; from Sc. thrang, Eng. throng. 
traogh, ebb, Ir. trdighim, traoglwdm, E. Ir. trdgim, W. treio, ebb, 

trai, ebb-tide, traeth, shore : *trdg6, from trdg, I. E. tragh, 

draw, Lat. traho, etc. ; see troidh for root. 
traona, the corncrake, Ir. traona ; see trean^i-tr^an. 
trapan, a cluster, Ir. trapdn : 


trasd, across, trasdan, cross beam, crozier, 0. Ir. trost, trabs, from 

tar, tra of thar. Cf. W. trawst, rafter, which Stokes and 

Loth think to be borrowed from Lat. transtrwm, as also 0. Ir. 

trost mentioned above. Sc. has trast or trest, beam, from 

early Fr. traste, Lat. transtrum. 
trasg, a fast, Ir. trosgadh, 0. Ir. troscud : *trusk6, *trud-sk6, root 

trvd, distress, burden, Lat. trddo, push, Eng. threaten. See 

trod, trom. 
trith, time, season, Ir., E. Ir. trdth : *1/rdtu-, root tra, tar, through 

(see thar). Cf. W. tro, turn, time, Br. tro, occasion, round ; 

Eng. turn. 
tre, through, Ir. tre, tre, E: Ir. tre, tria, tri, 0. Ir. tri, trl, tre, 

0. W. troi, now trwy. Corn., Br. dre, 0. Br. tre, dre : *trei, 

*tri, root ter, pass over, through ; Lat. trans, across ; Skr. 

tirds, through, over, Zd. tard (do.). See the root in thar, 

tora, troimh ; also in Eng. through. 
treabh, plough, till, Ir. treahhaim, E. Ir. trebaim, inhabit, cultivate, 

treb, a dwelling, W. tre/, homestead, 0. W., 0. Br. treb : 

*trebo-, a house ; Lat. tribus, trebus, a tribe, Eng. tribe ; Eng. 

thorp; Lit. troha, dwelling, building. Hence treabhair, 

houses, treibhireach, prudent. 
treabha, a thrave ; from Norse }>refl, Eng. thrave. 
treachail, dig : *tre-clad; see cladh and cf. tochail. 
treaghaid, a darting pain, stitch, Ir. treagh{d)aim, I pierce 

through, M. Ir. treghat, pangs, smart, treaglad, transpiercing ; 

Ir. treagh, a spear : " piercing." See tradh. 
trealaich, lumber, trash, Ir. trealamh, lumber, apparel, instru- 
ments, E. Ir. trelam, weapons, furniture, apparel : *tre-lam; 

for lam, see ullamh. 
trfealamh, indisposition (M'F.) : 
trealbhaidh, adult, grown-up (M'A. for Islay) : 
trtan-ri-trean, corn-crake, Ir. traona : 
treas, third, Ir. treas, 0. Ir. tress : *tristo-, from tris, thrice, Gr. 

rpi's, Skr. tris, root tri of tri, three. W. trydydd, third, is for 

t treas, battle, skirmish, Ir. treas, E. Ir. tress. For root, cf. the 

next word. W. has trin, battle, bustle, treis, violence, 
treasa, stronger, Ir. treas, strong, treise, stronger, 0. Ir. tressa, W. 

trech, fortior, Br. trec'h : *treksj6s, fortior, root treg, streg, 

sterg, strong, Eng. stark, Lit. stregti, stiffen, Pers. . suturg 

(*strg), strong. Stokes refers it to the root treg, trag, draw, 

leap, as in troigh, traogh. See treun further; treasa is its 

comparative really, 
treasdach, thorough-paced (of a horse) ; cf. Ir. trosddn, a pace, 

jump : 



treasg,- refuse of brewed malt, groats, Ir. treasdmha, dross, copper 
dross, treascach, draflfy, M. Ir. tresc, refuse, offal : 

treibhireach (treibhdhireach, Dictionaries), prudent, upright, 
0. Ir. trebar, prudent, M. Ir. trebaire, prudence ; from treb of 
treabh, q.v. 

trSig, forsake, Ir. triigim, E. Ir. trecim, W. francu, perish : 
*tranlijd, abandon, root trak, push, press, as in diirachd 

treis, a while, space, also greis, Ir. treibhse, dreibhse (O'B.) ; see 

treodhair, a smith's nail mould, Ir. tre6ir, treoir ; from «re, trem, 
through ? 

tre6ir, strength, Ir. tredir, conduct, strength, M. Ir. treorach, 
strong, E. Ir. tredir, vigour : * treg-ri-, root treg of treasa. 

tredraich, guide, Ir. tredruigkim, M. Ir. treoraigim : *trag-ri; root 
trag of troigh ? 

trenbh, a tribe ; frOm Lat. tribws, a tribe. See treabh. 

treubhach, valorous, strenuous, treubhantas, bravery ; for 
*treuntas, from which treubhach is deduced. M'Kinnon 
(Gael. Soc. Tr.^^, 341) refers it to treubh, tribe. 

trend, flock, herd, Ir. tr^ad, trend, E. Ir. tret : *trento-, root trem, 
Lat. turma, troop, Ag. S. firuma, heap, company (Strachan, 
Stokes). Windisch has compared Gr. a-rparo^ {*strntos) to 

treun, brave, Ir. treun, 0. Ir. tren, fortis, W. tren, strenuous, 
force : *tregno-i root treg of treasa, q.v. Stokes gives the 
Celtic as *treksno-, which would produce *tresno-, modem 

tri, three, Ir., 0. Ir. trl, W. tri. Cor. try, Br. tri : * treis ; Lat. tres 
{*trei-es); Gr. T/oets ; Got. Jrreis, Eng. three ; Lit. trps ; Skr. 

triall, going, journey, Ir. triall, E. Ir. triall : * tri-all, "go- 
through," root ell of tadhal ? 

trian, third part, a third, Ir., E. Ir. trlan, W. traian : * freisano- ; 
see treas, tri. 

triath, lord, chief, E. Ir. triath : *treito-s. Stokes compares Lat. 
trttavus, strttavus, ancestor in the 6th degree. 

trie, frequent, often, Ir. trie, E. Ir. trice : *trekM-, root treg of 
troigh (Stokes, Strachan). 

trid, tridj through, by, Ir. trid, E. Ir. trit, per eum, id : *trei-t, 
from root trei of tre, through ; the final -* is the demon- 
strative pron. to (Eng. that, Gr. to). 
trileanta, thrilling, quavering ; cf. E. Ir. trilech, song, 0. Ir. 
trlrech, song of birds. Cf. Eng. trill, Ital. trillare, Sp. trinar : 
an initiative word. Eng. thrill is from the root tre, ter (see 


tora), " piercing," which may also be the ultimate origin of 

the G. words, 
t trills, locks of hair, Ir. 1/rilis (obs.), E. Ir. triliss ; of. Eng. tress, 

from Lat. tricia, trica, plait, Gr. rpixa, in three parts, root 

tri, three, 
trllleachan, trileachan (drilleachan, M'A.), the pied oyster- 
catcher, sea-piet : 
trillsean (drillsean, M'A.), lantern, rush-light, a glimmer, Ir. 

trilisedn, torch, lantern, earlier trilsen, facula, trillsech, spark- 
ling : " piercing," from tre, ter, as in trileanta ? 
trinnseir, a plate, trencher, Ir. trinsiur ; from Eng. trencher. 
trioblaid, trouble, tribulation, Ir. triobldid, E. Ir. freblait; from 

Lat. trihulatio, Eng. tribulation. 
triobuail, vibrate, quiver ; from Eng. tremble ? 
trlonaid, a trinity, Ir. triondid, trionoid, E. Ir. trinoit, 0. Ir. trin- 

doit ; from Lat. trinitdt-, trinitas, a trinity, from tres, three. 

The Gadelic is developed from *trin(i)tdti-. 
trinbhas, trews, trousers, Ir. triiis, M. Ir. tribus ; from Sc. trews, 

Eng. trooze, trouses, now trousers, trunkhose. 
triilcair, a rascal ; from Sc. trvker, trukier, a deceitful person, 

from 0. Fr. tricher, to trick, allied to Eng. trick. 
tiiuchan, a stripe of distinguishing colours in tartan : 
triuthach, hooping cough, Ir. triuch, trioch : root pster of 

sreothart ? 
trobhad, come thou hither to me ; opposite of thugad : *to-ro'-ad, 

* to-romh-t, "to before you?" 
trdcair, mercy, Ir., 0. Ir. trdcaire, W. trugaredd, Cor. tregereth, 

M. Br. trugarez, 0. W. trucarauc, merciful : * trougo-karja, 

" loving of the wretched," from the roots of truagk and car, 

trod, a quarrel, scolding, Ir. troid, M. Ir. trot, quarrel, combat, 

trottack, quarrelsome : *truddo-, root trud, distress, bother ; 

Eng. threat, Norse prjdta, fail, lack ; Lat. tr&do, push, Eng. 

obtrude ; Ch. SI. trudu, difi&culty. 
trog, raise, trogail, raising, Manx troggal, earlier trogell : to-ro-od- 

gab, that is to say, tog with the prep, ro inserted. See tog. 

Rhys {Manx Pray.^, 138) compares E. Ir. twrcb&l, a rising (as 

of the sun) : * to-for-gab-. 
trog, trash (Dial.), busy dealing, trdg, busy dealing, from Sc. 

trohe, to bargain, barter, trog, old clothes, troggin, pedlar's 

wares, Eng. trwjc, from Fr. troquer, barter, truck. 
trogbhoil, gi-umbling (M'A.), trogbhail, quarrel (Nich., trogbhail 

Arm., Sh., O'K): 
troich, a dwarf ; see d^oich. 
troidht, cataplasm, rags ; see trait. 


troigh, misspelt troidh, a foot, Ir. 1/roigh, O. Ir. traig, g. traiged, 
W. Praed, 0. Cor. i/ruit, pes, M. Br. troat : *traget- (*troget-?), 
foot, root trag, leap, draw, Gaul, vertragos, greyhound ; I. E. 
tragh ; Got. pragjan, run, Ag. S. Jjrah, course ; Lat. i/raho, 

troileis, any trifling thing ; founded on Eng. trifles ? 

troimh, through, 0. Ir. tremi^, trans-, super- : *trim.o-, from tri of 
tre. For the mi or mh, cf. roimh, comh-. 

trom, heavy, Ir. trom, 0. Ir. tromm, W. trwm, Cor. trom, Br. 
troum, : trud-s-mo-s, "oppressive," from *r»(^, oppress, distress; 
Got. us-priutan, oppress, Eng. threat ; Lat. irddo, push. See 
irod further. For other views, see Rhys' Lect.\ 114, Zimmer 
Zeit.^, 208. 

troman, dwarf, elder, Ir. tromdn, 0. Ir. tromm, g. truimm ; also 
G. droman (M'A.) : 

tromb, the Jew's harp ; from Sc. trump (do.), Eng. trump, from 
Fr. trompe. 

trombaid, a trumpet, Ir. trompa, L. M. Ir. trompadh ; from the 

troraid, a spire, steeple (M'F.) ; founded on Eng. twrret. 

trosdail, dull, seriously inclined, Ir. trosdamhuil, serious, con- 
fident : 

trosdan, a crutch, support, Ir. trostdn, crutch, pilgrim's staff, W. 
trostan, long slender pole. See trasd for root. 

trosg, a codfish, Ir. i/rosg ; from Norse }>orslcr, Dan. torsk, Ger. 

trot, trot, trotan, trotting ; from the Eng. 

truacantas, compassion, Ir. trvaednta (O'B.) : *troug-cati-, 
" expressing pity," from truagh and can, say. 

truagh, wretched, pitiful, so Ir., E. Ir. tr^ag, O. Ir. trdg, W. tru. 
Corn, troc, miser, Br. tru, Gaul. Trdgos : *trotigo-, miser, root 
streug, rub, wear ; Gr. a-Tpivyofuii, am worn out, distressed ; 
Ch. SI. strugati, scratch, distress. Lit. strugas, carving instru- 
ment ; Norse strjiika, to stroke, Ger. stravxheln, stumble 
(Windisch, Prellwitz). Stokes refers it to the root of Norse 
Jjrdga, press, Jyrtlgan, compulsion, 0. H. G. drdh, compes. 
From Celtic comes Eng. truant. 

traaill, a sheath, so Ir., E. Ir. trdaill : * tr<yud-s-li-, root treud, 
trud, push ; Eng. thrust, Lat. trddo. See further trod, trom. 

traaill, pollute, violate, Ir. trdaillim, E. Ir. trdalnim, 0. Ir. 
drudilnithe, corruptus, cellned, inquinatio, iUuvies, elnithid, 
violator, from ^In-, 0. Ir. as-lenaimm, polluo, G. root len (len, 
Ascoli), fcedare (Lat. lino, smear, as in lean ?). Ascoli 
analyses truaill into der-juad-len {der- intensive), while 
Thumeysen refers the tru-, dm- to the root of Lat. trux, 


trudair, a stammerer, a dirty or obscene person, Ir. trudaire, a 

stammerer (Lh., O'B., Con.). In the first sense, the word is 

Ir. ; in the second sense, it is G. only, and likely of the same 

origin as trusdar. Norse prjdtr, knave, bad debtor, has been 

adduced as its origin, 
truilleach, a dirty or base person, filthy food : * trus-Uc-, root trus 

as in trusdar ? Or from Sc. trolie, a person of slovenly habits, 

trollop ? 
truis, tear, snatch, truss ; froca Se. truss, to eat in a slovenly, 

scattering fashion (Ork.), Icel. tros, Eng. trash. In the sense 

of " truss," the G. is from Eng. truss. Hence the cry to dogs 

to get out — truis ! 
triip, a troop ; from the Eng. 
trus, truss or bundle, collect, Ir. trusdalaitn, truss up, girdle, W. 

trwsa, a truss ; from Eng. truss, 0. Fr. trusser, from L. Lat. 

tortiare, tortvs, twisted. See also triubhas. 
trusdar, a filthy fellow, filth : 
trusgan, clothes, apparel, Ir. truscdn, trosgdn, clothes, furniture; 

founded on trus. Of. Eng. trousseau from the same origin, 
truthair, a traitor, villain ; from Sc. trucker, deceiver, trickster ? 

Or from Eng. traitor ? 
tu, thu, thou, Ir., 0. Ir. tii, W. ti, Com. «y, te, Br. te ■.*ta; Lat. 

tH ; Gr. o-u ; Eng. thou ; Pruss. tou ; Zd. til. 
tuagh, axe, so Ir., M. Ir. tua^, E. Ir. tiktgach, hitting : *tougd, 

root teugh, tuq, hit, strike ; Gr. revx^, fashion, tvkos, 

hammer, tukovi/, flail ; Ch. SI. tukalo, cuspis. Stokes prefers 

comparison with Skr. tuj, hit {*tug). 
tuaicheal, dizziness, tuachioU (Sh.), winding, eddying, moving 

against the sun, left-about : *to-/o-ceU (for cell, see timchioll), 

Ir. tuachail, going, confused with *tuath-cell, "left (north) 

going"? Cf. tuaineal. 
tuaileas, reproach, scandal, so Ir. (Lh., O'B., etc.) : *to-fo-less ; 

from *lisso-, blame, discussed under leas- ? 
tuailt, tubhailt, a towel ; Ir. tudhoille ; from the Eng. 
tuainig, unloose (Dial.) ; see tualaig. 
tuaineal, dizziness, stupor : *to-fo-in-el, root ell of tadhalt Or 

tuaiream, a guess, aim, vicinity, Ir. tuairim ; also tuairmse : 

* to-for-med-, root med of m^as. 
tuaireap, turbulence : 

tuairgneadh, confusion, sedition, Ir. tuargdn, noise, discontent : 
tuairisgeul, description, report, Ir. tuarasgbhdil, M. Ir. tiiarascbal, 

description, 0. Ir. t4arascbaim, for to-for-as-gab-, root gai of 

tnairneag, anything round, a boss, tidy female, tuairuean, a 

mallet, beetle, Ir. tuaimln, mallet ; cf. next word. 


tuairnear, a turner, Ir. tdrndir ; from the Eng. 

tuaisd, a dolt, slovea, tuaisdeach, unseemly : 

tuaitheal, wrong, left-wise ; from tuath and seal : see deiseil for 
latter root and form. Ir. bas tuathal, the left hand, awk- 

tualaig, loose (Arm.), tuainig, tuanag, loosening (Dial.) : *to-fo- 
leig ; see leig. 

tuam, tuama, a tomb, Ir. tuama ; from Lat. tumba, Eng. tomb. 

tuar, food, 0. Ir. tuare : ^tavno-, root staur, place, store, Eng. 
store, Skr. sthdvara, fixed : root sta. 

tuar, hue, appearance; cf. Ir., M. Ir. tuar, an omen, presage : 

* to-vor-, root ver, vor, of fhuair ? 

tuarasdal, wages, so Ir., M. Ir. tuarustul, tuarastal : *to-fo-ar-as- 
tal, root tal, tel, take, lift, M. Ir. taile, salarium, W. tdl, pay- 
ment, Cor., Br. tal, solvit ; I. E. tel ; Gr. reXos, tax, rdkavTov, 
talent ; Lat. tollo ; Eng. thole. See tail, tlath. 

tuasaid, a quarrel, fight : to-fo-ad-sedd-, G. root sedd from sizd, 
si-sed, set, " set-to" being the idea ? Root sed of suidhe. But 
cf . faosaid. 

tuasgail, loose, untie, Ir. tvaslagadh, releasing, E. Ir. tuaslaicim : 

* to-fo-as-Mc-im, from lee of leiff, let, q.v. 

tuath, people, tenantry, so Ir., 0. Ir. tOath, populus, W. tud, 
country, nation. Cor. tus, Br. tvd, Gaul. Tout-, Teuto- : * toutd, 
people ; Lat. Umbr. toto, state, Oscan ttivtii, populus, Lat. 
tdtus, all ; Got. pivda, people, Teutonic, Deutsch, German, 
Dutch ; Lettic tdwta, people, 0. Pruss. taufo, land. 

tuath, north, Ir. triath, tuaith, 0. Ir. tiiath, left, north : * toutd, 
*touto-s (adj.), left hand, left, "good," Got. fiiu)), good; Cf. 
Gr. evcawixoi, left hand, " good-omened." Rhys (Manx 
Pray.^, 62) suggests that the root is su, turn (see iompaidh) : 
*do-huth {'^to-svr), "turning to;" W. aswy or aseu, left 
hand, being also hence — * ad-sou-i-. 

tuba, a tub ; from the Eng. 

tubaist, mischance, M. G. tubbiste (D. of L.), Ir. tubaiste : 

tuban, tuft of wool on the distaff ; see toban. 

ttich, smother, become hoarse, ttichan, hoarseness : * t-iick ; cf . 
W. ig, sob, hiccup. 

tndan, a small heap or stack (dud, M'A.) : 

tug, brought ; see thug. 

tugaidean, witticisms (Dial., H.S.D.) : 

tugha, thatch, covering, tugh (vb.), Ir. tuighe (n.), tuighim (vb.), 
E. Ir. tuga, tugim, W. to, a cover, thatch, toi, tegere. Cor. to, 
tectum, Br. to, toenn : * togio-, * togo-, root tog, steg, as in tigh, 


tuig, understand, Ir. tuigim, 0. Ir. tuiceim, tuccim : *to-od-ges-, 

root ges of tug. Some have given the stem as *to-od-cesi, root 

qes of ch), ; but this would give G. tuic. 0. Ir. tuicse, electus : 

* to-od-gus-, root gus, taste, Eng. gusto. 
tuil, a flood, Ir., 0. Ir. tuile : *tulid, root tu, swell ; Gr. ti;A.o9, 

knob, weal ; Skr. tUla, tuft ; Eng. thumb, tumid, etc. (See 

tulach). So Stokes Zeit.^\ 235. The 0. Ir. root ol, to flood, 

abound, gives tolam, a flood, imrdl, foriil, abundance, etc. 

The root pol, pel has also been suggested, as in iol-. 
tuille, tuilleadh, more (n.), Ir. tuille, tuilleadh, addition, tuilleamh, 

wages, addition, E. Ir. tuilled, tuillem, addition, inf. to tuillim, 

enhance, deserve, as in G. toill. Two words are mixed : 

*to-el'n^, deserve, and to-oln, much, more, E. Ir. oil, great, 

huilliu, plus, *olnids, root pol, pel, many, Gr. Trokvs, Lai. plus, 

etc. (see iol). Stokes equates the 0. Ir. uilliu, oil, with Lat. 

pollere, which is from *pol-no-, root pol as above (Wharton). 

The G. syntax of tuille shows its comparative force in tuille 

na (more than) as well as tuille agus, Ir. tuilleadh agus 

(addition and), 
tuimhseadh, beating, thumping, tuinnse, a blow {Gael. Soc. Tr.^^, 

260), M. Ir. tuinsim, calco, tuinsem, bruising ; founded on 

Lat. tundo, beat. 
tuineadh, an abode, possession, Ir. tuinidhe, possession (O'Cl.), 

E. Ir. tunide; also tuinneadh (Ir. and G.) : *to-nes; root 

nes as in comhnuidh, q.v. 
tuinneasach, deathful, Ir. tuinneamk, tuineamh, death : 
tuinnidh, firm, hard, Ir. tuinidhe (O'B., Sh.), immovable, elocha 

tuinidhe ; from tuineadh, the idea being " settled, fixed." 
tuir, relate, tuireadh, relating, Ir. tuirtheacJida, relation, rehearsal, 

E. Ir. turthiud, pi. tuirtheta, tale, from ret, run (as in ruith). 

Cf . aithris. E. Ir. tuirem, reciting is from * to-rim, root rim, 

number (as in aireamh). 
tuireadh, a dirge, lamentation, Ir. tuireamh, dirge, elegy ; for root 

see tuirse. 
tuireann, a spark of fire from an anvil, Ir. tuireann (O'B., etc.), 

E. Ir. turend (?) : * to-rind ? For rind, see reannag. 
tuireasg, a saw, Ir. tuiriosg, E. Ir. turesc : *tar-thesc, from teasg, 

cut, q.v. 
tuirl, tuir ling, descend, Ir. tuirlingim, E. Ir. tairlingim, 0. Ir. 

doarblaing, desilit * to-air-ling- ; for ling, jump, see leum. 
tuirse, sadness, Ir. tuirse, E. Ir. toirsi, torsi, 0. Ir. toris, toirsech, 

tristis : root tor, ter, tre, Lat. tristis, sad. 
tiiis, incense, Ir., M. Ir., E. Ir. tuis ; from Lat. tus, Gr. 6voi. 
tuisleadh, a stumbling, fall, so Ir., 0. Ir. tuisled, prolapsio, tuisel, 

casus, dofuislim, labo : * to-fo-ess-salAm, root sal, spring; Lat, 


salio, leap, dance, Eng. insult ; Gr. aXkofiai, leap ; cf . Lit. 
sele'ti, glide, creep. AbcoU analyses it into *to-fo-isl-, where 
isl is what remains of isel or \osal, low. 

tuit, fall, Ir. tuitim, 0. Ir. tuitim, inf. tutimm, ace. pi. totmMn, also 
tothimm, * tod-tim, Gadelio root -tirrv-, W. codwm, a fall (cf . Ir. 
cMc?am), corfymw, cadere. Cor. corfAa/ cf. Eng. tumble, Fr. tomber, 
fall. Usually explained as *to-fo-tMt-, from iM'rf, which would 
naturally be tuid in G., even granting that the crasis of 
-ofothe- simply landed in -ui~, not to mention the inf. in pre- 
served m (tuiteam). 

tul, entirely, Ir. tul (i.e. tuile, O'CI.), increase, flood : an adveirbial 
use of the root form of tuil, flood 1 Cf. Ir. tola, superfluity. 

tulaeh, a hillock, Ir., E. Ir. tulach ; root tu, swell ; Gr. -nJAos, 
knob, TuA.!; (v long), swelling, weal ; Lat. tumor, tuber, a 
swelling ; Eng. thumb. 

tillage, the fish whiting, Ir. tull6g, the'poUock ; cf. poUag. 

tulchann, tulchainn, a gable, posterior, Ir. tulckdn, hillock ; from 
tulaeh 1 

turn, dip, tumadh, dipping, so Ir., E. Ir. tummim : * tumid ; Lat. 
tinguo, tingo, wet, Eng. tinge, tincture ; 0. II. G. dunedn, dip. 
Gar. tunken, dip, steep. 

tunna, a tun, ton, Ir., E. Ir. tunna ; Ag. S. tunne, M. Eng. tonne, 
Norse tunna, Ger. tonne ; all from Lat. tunna, a cask. Stokes 
{Bez. Beit}^) suggests borrowing from the Norse ; Kluge 
regards the words as of Celtic origin. On this see ftonn. 

tunnag, a duck, Ir. tonn6g : 

tur, gVL tur, entirely, Ir. tura, plenty {tura namhad, plenty of 
enemies), E. Ir. tor, a crowd (dat. tur) ; see tdrr. 

ttir, a tower, Ir. t4r ; from M. Eng. tour, tur, from 0. Fr. tur, Lat. 

tin, understanding ; cf. M. Ir. ttir, research, examination, 0. Ir. 
mirim, rotuirset, scrutati sunt, for to-fo-skirim, from sir, search. 

turadh, dry weather, tur, dry (without condiment), so Ir., E. Ir. 
turud, terad, adj. tur, dry, tair ; root tor, ter of tioram ? 

turaman, rocking, nodding ; see turraban. 

turg^in, destruction (F.S.D. from MSS.), M. Ir. tuareain, smiting, 
E. Ir. tuarcaim (dat.), hitting : * to-fo-argim, root org, O. Ir. 
orgun, orcun, occisio, 0. Br. orgiat, Csesar's Gaul. Orgeto-rix : 
'''urg-, root vrg, verg, press, Lat. urgeo. Stokes suggests 
connection with Gr. kpexdm, tear ; Bezzenberger gives Zend 
areza, battle, fight ; Brugmann compares Skr. rghayati, raves, 
rages, 0. H. G. arg, what is vile or bad. 

tuTcais, tweezers (M'A.) ; see durcaisd. 

turlach, a large fire : *t-ur-lach, from Ir. ur, lir, fire, Gr. irvp, Eng, 


tarlach, a bulky, squat person ; see tbrr^ tva-adh. -''Gi/M'.' fmliacA, 

a round lump. •■' ■"■'■ ■ ■• • ■ 

turloch, a lake that dries in summer, \r. turlodh-; from <Mr and 

tiirn, a turn, job ; from the Eng. 
turraban, turraman, rocking of the body, nodding, grief (turadan, 

Sh.). Hence turra-chadal, a slumbering drowsiness, 

" nodding sleep" : 
turrag, an accident : 

turraig, air do thurraig, at stool (M'A,) : 
turram, a soft sound, murmur; onomatopoetic. But cf. toirm, 

tuitur, a turtle, so Ir., W. turtti/r; from Lat. tv/rtur. 
turus, a journey, Ir., E. Ir. twrus, 0. Ir. turwras, incursus, aururas, 

properatio : * Uyreth-s-tu, root ret, run (see ruith). 
ttis, the beginning, Ir. tus, 0. Ir. tilus, t4s, W. tywys, leading ; sise 

tut, interjection of cold or impatience ; from Eng. tut. Seei thvd. 
tilt, a quiet breaking of wind, stench, Ir. t4t, M. Ir. tiltt^ steneh : 

allied to toit, q.v. Cf. Keating's t-Atmhar, smoky, r - - ■'- 
tuthan, a slut (Arm., M'L.), Ir. tUthdn,; from the root of the 

above word. 


ua, 0, from, Ir. ua, 6, 0. Ir. wa, hva,, 6 : *ava, ab ; Skr. dva, ab, 
oiF ; Lat. au- (p/w-fero), away ; Ch. SI. M-, ab, away. Seie o. 

aabairt, expulsion : *uadA>ert-, " au-fero," from the root her (in 
hevr) and uad, off, a form of ua in composition acebrding to 
Stokes, which Windisch also joins with mcZ-, o<?-, -outj .GFot. iJ<, 
Ger. auB, Eng. out. . , ■ ■ ■• ..■.:• 

uabhar, pride, so Ir., 0. Ir. llabar, vainglory, W. ofer, wastfe, vain 
(Ascoli) : *<mbro-, root euff, rise, Gr. v^pn, insolence (see 
uasal). It has also been analysed into *ua-ber like iiabairt = 
" e-latio," elation. 

uacMar, surface, summit, so Ir., 0. Ir. wacktar, ochtar : *ouktero-, 
root eug, veg, rise, be vigorous, as in uasal, q.v. Cf. W. uthr, 

uadh- in uadh-bheist, monster, uadh-chrith, terror; see uath 

aaigh, a grave, Ir. uaigh, M. Ir. uag : *ougd, cairn, frorii root 
eug, rise (as in uachdar) 1 Not likely to be borrowed from 
Norse havjgr, grave-mound. Confused with uaiwh, cave. 

uaigneach, secret, lonesome, so Ir., M. Ir. uagneck : *uath-gen-, 
"lonesome-kind," from uath, lonesome, single; Norse au&r, 

empty, Got. aupSj waste, .desert-; Lat. Stium, rest.- • 

" 44 


uaillj pride, Ir. itaill, E, Jr. liaill, 0. Ir. wall : * ouhsld, root eug, 

veg of iiasal. 
uaimh, a cave, den, Ir. uavmh, g. immha, M. Ir. uaim, g. vawM, 

0. Jr. himm, specus (also hudd, specu) : *oumd. Bezzenberger 

suggests *poumd, allied to Gr. irw/io, a lid (*Tr<i)vfm) ; Strachan 

compares Gr. tivq, bed (Ger. wohnen, dwell). W. ogof, cave, 

den, is correlated by Ascoli. 
uaine, green, Ir. ttaine, uaithne, E. Ir. 4ci,ne. Strachan suggests 

the possibility of a Gadelio *tiffnio-, root veg, be wet, Gr. 

vypos, wet (aeefeur). 
uainneart, bustle, wallowing, Ir. linfuvrt, wallowing, tumbling ; 

also G. aonairt, aonagail : 
uair, an hour, Ir. luair, 0. Ir. huar, uar, g. Mre, W. awr. Cor. ov/r, 

0. Br. aor, Br. eur, heur ; from Lat. hora, Eng. hour. Hence 

uaireadair, a watch, time-piece, Ir. uaireaddir (^horatorium ?). 
uaisle, pride, nobility, so Ir. ; frpm nasal, q.v. 
uallach, a burden, Ir. ualach : *podl- ; 0. H. G. fazza, a bundle, 

Ger. fassen, hold (Strachan). Also G. eallach, q.v. 
uallach, gay, proud, so Ir. ; from ■uaill. 
uamharr, dreadful, Ir. uathmAar, E. Ir. liathmar ; from uaih, fear, 

q.v. Used adverbially, like Eng. awfully, to denote excess. 

Dial, uarraidh. 
uamhas, dread, horror, uathbhas, Ir. uaihhhds, E. Ir. liathbhds : 

*'uathrbds, " dread death ;" see v/ith and bas. 
uamhunn, horror, Ir. tiamhan, awe, horror, E. Ir. uatnun, koman, 

0. Ir. omun, homon, rarely drnun, fear, W. ofn, fear, awe. 

Cor. own, Br. aoun, Gaul, -obnos, Ex-obniis, Fearless : *obno-s, 

fear. Bez. cfs. Got. bi-abrjan, be astounded (but abrs means 

" powerful"), and Gr. a^vco, suddenly. 
uan, a lamb, Ir., M. Ir. nan, W. oen, pi. wpn, Cor. oin, Br. oan : 

*ogho-s; Lat. agnus ; Gr. dfivos (for aySi/ds) ; Ch. SI. jagne; 

also Ag. S. eanian, to yean or lamb (*aunon). 
uar, waterfall, heavy shower, confluence (Sutherland Dial.), Ir., 

E. Ir. Hardn, fresh spring ; see fiiaran. Arm. has uaran, 

fresh water. 
uarach, hourly, temporary (H.S.D.), homely (M'L.) ; from uair. 
uasal, noble, proud, Ir., 0. Ir. uasal, W. iichel, Br. uhel, huel, 

Gaul, uxello- : *oukgelo-, high, root eug, veg, rise, increase.; 

Gr. v\j/riX6s, high, av^w, increase ; Lat. augeo, increase, vigeo, 

be strong ; Eng. up, Ger. auf; lit. duksztas, high, 
tuath, dread, Ir. imth, 0. Ir. liath. Cor. wth, Br. eus, heuz, horror : 

*pouto-, root pu, foul ; Lat. putris, Eng. putrid, foul 1 
ub ! ubub ! interjection of contempt or aversion, 0. Ir. upp. 
ubag, ubaidh, a charm, Ir. uptha, upadh, sorcerer, 0. Ir. upta, 

fasoinatio, uptha, Mamt obbee, sorcery : *o«i-6a-i-, from ba, 

of ITHE! QA^LIC tiANGtAOte. 347 

speak (see ob, refuse). Zimmer. refers it to root^6e» of bean, 

hurt, touch, 
ubh ! ubh ! interjection of disgust or amazement ; cf. Eng. phew, 
ubh, an egg, Ir. idh, ugh, 0. Ir. og, ub (?) W. wy, pi. wyan, Cor. 

uy, oy, Br. u, vi : *ogos ; Gr. JjyScov, egg, further (iov, Lat. 

ovum, Eng. egg. The phonetics as between Celtic and the 

other languages are somewhat difficult ; but the connection 

is indisputable. 
ubhal, apple, Ir. ubhall, E. Ir. wbcdl, ubull, 0. Ir. aiall, W. afal, 

Cor. auallen, Br. avallen : * aballo-, *abaUdn-; Eng. apple, 

Ger. apfel ; Lit. oh&lys. 
{ibhla, a fine, penalty : 
dbraid, confusion, dispute, also uprait : *tid-bert-, from ber of 

ucas, ugsa, coal-fish, stenlock : 
uchd, the breast, so Ir., 0. Ir. ucht : *polctu- ; Lat. pectus ? Stokes 

and Bezzenberger give *puptu-, Lettic pups, woman's breast, 

Lit. pdpas, breast (Eng. pap from Lat. pappa). 
ud, yon, yonder, Ir. lid, E. Ir. lit ; for sud (siit), q.v. For loss of 

s, cf. the article. 
udabae, outhouse, porch, back-house (iidabac, Uist) ; from Norse 

■liti-bak, "out-back?" 
udail, cause to shake, waver, remove, Ir. vdmhall, quick, stirring 

(O'Cl.), 0. Ir. utmall, unsteady, utmaille, instability : 
iidail, inhospitable, churlish, ddlaidh, gloomy ; cf . Norse 4tlagi, 

an outlaw, 4tlag&, outlawry, 
udalan, a swivel, Ir. udaldn (Fol., O'E.) ; from vdail. Cf. ludnan. 
udhar, a boil, ulcer ; also othar, q.v. 
tidlaiche, a stag, old hart (Arm.) : 
Hdrathad, utraid, free egress and regress to common pasture ; 

from the Norse — cf. litreiS, an expedition, " out-road." 
ugan, the upper part of the breast, Ir. ugdn, craw of a fowl : 
tighdair, author, Ir. ■tLghdar, E. Ir. ugtar, 0. Ir. augtor ; from Lat. 

ngsa, coal-fish ; see ucas. 

uibe, a mass, lump (as of dough), lob ; cf. faob : '''ud-bio-, "out- 
being." But cf. Lat. offa, ball, 
uibhii, a number, quantity, Ir. uibhir, uimhir, E. Ir. numir, 

number ; from Lat. numerus, Eng. number. 
iiidh (uidh^, care, heed, Ir. uidh (obs.), 0. Ir. oid ; see taidhe. 
uidh, a ford, that part of a stream leaving a lake before breaking 

into a current ; also an isthmus (M'Kinnon, uidh, aoi) ; from 

Norse ei<S, an isthmus, neck of land. Hence Eye or Ui near 

Stornoway, older Ey, Hwy, Eie. 


U^dh, uidhe,' a journey, distance, Ir. uidhe, E. Ir. nde, 0. Ir. huide, 

profectio : *odio-n, root pod, ped, go ; Lat. pes, pedis, foot ; 

Gr. irous, ffoSos, foot; Eng. /oo</ Skr. ^a(fyd, footstep. 
uidheam, accoutrements, apparatus, Ir. ughaim, harness, trap- 
pings, W. iau, jugum, 0. Cor. iou, Br. geo, ieo, *^ouffo-, yoke ; 

Eng. yoke, Ger. jock, ; Gr. fvyoi'; lidA,. jugum ; Lit. jungas. The 

Gadelio requires a form * ad-jung-mi-. Cf. 0. Ir. adim, instru- 

mentum, pi. n. admi. 
tag, a nook, cove ; from Norse vik, bay, creek, Eng. wick, -wich. 

Hence the place-name Uig (Skye, Lewis). Hence uigean, a 

fugitive, wanderer. 
uigheil, pleasant, careful ; from aoigh in the first meaning and 

from ioidh in the second. 
uile, aU, the whole, Ir. uile, 0. Ir. uik, huile : *polio-s, root pol, 

pel, full, many, Gr. ■n-oA.Aos ( = irokios), much, many ; see iol-. 

Stokes and most philologists refer it to *oljo-s, Eng. all, Ger. 

all. Got. alls {*olnd-s, Mayhew). Some have derived it from 

*soli-, Lat. sollus, whole, Gr. oXos, whence Stokes deduces the 

Brittdnic words — W. oil,, all. Com. hoi, Br. hall, oil (see slan). 
uileann, elbow, Ir. uille, g. vdlleann, M. Ir. uille, pi. ace- uillinn, 

0. Ir. uilin (ace), W., Cor. elin, Br. ilin, elin : * olen- j Gr. 

iiA,ijv, a)Xevr] ; Lat. ulna ; Ag. S. eln, Eng. ell, elbow. 
uile^r,' enough, etc. ; see fuilear. 
uill (uill,;H.S.D.), oil thouj uilleadh, oil (n.) ; see ola. 
uilleann, honeysuckle, so Ir. (O'B.), M. Ir. feithlend, woodbine ; 

see under feith. 
uim-, circum, Ir." uim-, 0. Ir. imm- ; a composition form of mu, 

q.v. Hence uime, about him, it, Ir. uime, 0. Ir. uimbi; 

iiimpe, about her ( = imb-sl or imh-shi). 
ti;n, uine, time, Ir. uain, time, opportunity, E. Ir. ■dine, 0. Ir. 

iiain, leisure, time : *ut-nio-, root ut, vet of feith, wait. 

Strachan gives *ucn- as a reduced form, from euq, Skr. 6kas,- 

comfort, mK-qXo's, free from care, at ease. 
Mnich, bustle, tumultus ; see uainneart. 
uinneag, a window, M. G. fidnnedg, M. Ir. fuindeog ; from Norse 

windauga, Sc. winnpck, Eng. window ( = wind-eye). 
uinnean, an onion, Ir. uinniun, M. Ir. idnneamain, uindiun, W. 

wynwynyn ; from Lat. union-em, 0. Fr. oignon, Eng. onion, 

from unus, one. 
uinnseann, ash, Ir. uinseann, M. Ir. fuindseog, ash-tree, 0. Ir. 

ind-huinnius, W. on, onen, earlier onn, onnen, Br. ounnenn, 

Cor. onnen : *osnd, *osnestu- ; Lat. omus {J'osinos) ; Lit. 

usis, ash, Bxms. jasenl. Cf. Eng. ash. 
uipear, unhandy craftsman, bungler : 
uiplnn, a treasure, hoard ; cf. Mt6e. 


Mr, mould, dust, earth, Ir., M. Ir. 4ir, E. Ir. 4r, g. dire : ^Urd ; 

Norse aurr, loam, wet clay, mud, Ag. S. edr, humus. Stokes 

hesitates between *ilrd and *iigrd, Gr. vypoi, wet. 
uircean, a young pig, Ir. uircin, M. Ir. orcdn, porceUus, oircnin 

(do.), ore, porous ; *porko-s ; Lat. porcus ; Eng. farrow, pork ; 

Lit. parszas, boar. 
uiread, as much, amount, Ir. oiread, 0. Ir. erat, airet, length of 

time, distance, cia eret, quamdiu : * are-vet-to-, root vet of 

uireas, below, down ; see ioras. 
uireasbhuidh, need, poverty, so Ir., M. Ir., awresbadh ; from air 

and easbhuidh, q.v. 
uirghioU, faculty of speech, speech, Ir. uirghiol, a command 

(O'B.), uraghall, uradhall, speech (Keat.), E. Ir. uirgill, 

for ur-fhuigell, M. Ir. urfhoighill : 
uiridh, an uiridh, last year, Ir. annwaidh, E. Ir. inn uraid, 0. Ir. 

urid : *peruti ; Skr. parut, last year ; Gr. irepva-i, Dor. 

TrepvTi ; root vet of feiih. 
uirigh, a couch, bed : *air-sed-, root sed of suidhe ? 
uirioUach, a precipice (H.S.D. from MSS.) : * air-ailecA, from ail, 

rock, q.v. 
iiirlios, a waUed garden, Ir. uirlios (O'B., etc.) ; from air and lios. 
uirneis, a furnace, Ir. uimeis, fuvrn&,s (O'B.), M. Ir. forrteis ; from 

Eng. and 0. Fr. fomaise, Lat. fornacem, fornax, oven, 
tiiineis, tools, implements, Ir. liirneis (Fol., O'E.), liirlis (Con.) ; 

see airneis. 
uirsgeil, a spreading (as of dung or hay to dry) ; from air and 

uirsgeul, a fable, romance, so Ir. ; from air and sgeul. 
iiis, use, utility ; from the Eng. lose, Lat. itsus. 
Iliseag, a lark, Ir. wisedg, fuiseSg, W. uchedydd, Br. ec'houedez, also 

W. ucheda, to soar ; from *ux, up, as in uas, uasal ? 
uisg, uisge, water, Ir. uisge, 0. Ir. uisce, usee : *ud-s-kio-, root ud, 

ved ; Gr. -uStop, vSos ; Eng. water, etc. ; Skr. vddn ; further 

Lat. wnda, wave. Stokes suggests the possibility of uisge 

being for *uskio-, and allied to Eng. wash. 
uisliginn, disturbance, fury : 
uislinn, sport, diversion, Ir. uslainn (Lh., etc.) : 
uist, hist ! whist ! Lat. st ! Eng. hist ! 
ula, ulachan (pi.), beard, Ir., E. Ir. uleha, g. ulchain : *ululcon- ; 

*pulu-, beard ; Skr. pula, pulaha, horripilation ; Gr. irvXiyyes, 

hair of chairs (Hes.). Hence Ulaid, Ulster. It may be root 

ul, vel, cover (see olimn). 
ulag, block, pulley ; from Eng. pulley, L. Lat. polanus ? , 
ulag, oatmeal and water mixed : 

350 EttrMOLoaiOAJti wcfioNAlit 

ulaidh, a treasure, Ir. uladh, charnel-house, E. Ir. idad, stone 

tomb; root ul, vel, cover? A Gadelic *alvefo-, allied to Lat. 

alvus, a belly, alveus, channel, has been suggested. 
ulbh, you brute ! (Sutherland) ; from Norse «2Z/r, wolf, 
ulbhach (ul'ach), ashes, W. ulw, pi. ulwyn : *polviko-, *p6lven- ; 

Lat. pulvis, dust, pollen, pollen. 
ulartaich, ulf hartaich, howling ; from *id, bark (Gr. vXAo), bark, 

Lat. ultda, owl, etc.), and art of comhart, q.v. 
allachadh, preparation, preparing, Ir. uUmhuighim, I prepare ; 

from ulhrnih, ready. 
ullag, a mouthful of meal (Sh.) ; cf. uloug. 
ullamh, ready, Ir. ullamh, for wrlamh, E. Ir. erlam, paratus ; from 

air and lam, the latter being from lAmh, hand : " to hand, 

handy." Usually referred to root las, desire, Lat. lascivus, 

Eng. lascivious. 
ultach, a lapful, armful, Ir. ullthach (O'B.), M. Ir. utlach, lapful, 

wrtlach, lap : *ar-tl-ac-; root tol, tel, lift (see toil, tlath). 
timaidh, dolt, blockhead .- 
umha, copper, brass, Ir. vmha, 0. Ir. hwnce, ume, copper, brass, 

umaide, hwinide, aeneus, W. efydd, 0. W. emid, aere ; *umdjo- 

(Stokes), *om,ja (Ascoli), *um-ajo-, -ajo- = aes (Bez.). 
umhail, heed, attention, Ir. umhail, ilmhail (O'B., Con.) ; cf. next 

iimhal, obedient (umhailt. Dial.), Ir. umhal, E. Ir., 0. Ir. wnal, 
; W. ufyll, Com. kmel, Br. vuel ; from Lat. hwmilis, Eng. 

umpaidh, a boor, clown, idiot (Sh., O'R.) ; see itmaidk. 
ung, anoint, Ir. ungaim, 0. Ir. ongim ; from Lat. unguo. W. has 

enenio from *o'nj-. 
unnsa, an ounce, Ir. linsa, W. w«s / from Eng. The 0. Ir. is 

unga, from Lat. uncia. 
tip, push, lipag, a push ; cf . W. hwp, a push, effort. Cf . puc. 

ia, fresh, new, Ir., E. Ir. ii/r, 0. Ir. h&rde, vividarium, W. ir, fresh, 

green : *'0/ro-s, *piiro-s ; Lat. pHrus, Eng. pure. Usually 

referred to *'ugro-s, Gr. irypos, wet, Lat. wvidus, moiist, root 

urchair, a shot, cast, Ir. wrchwr, E. Ir. urchwr, awchor, erchw, W. 

ergyr, 0. Br. ercor, ictum : * are-honi-, a cast ; from cuir, 

send, q.v. 
urchall, fetters, shackles, so Ir. (Lh., etc.) : * are-eol-, root, col, eel 

of timchioll ? 
urchasg, physic, antidote, Ir. urchoeg, preservative, antidote : 

* air-chosg, from cosg, easg, stop, q.v. 


urchoid, hurt, mischief, Ir. mcMid, 0. Ir. erchoit : *are-konti-, Gr. 

Kevrim, stick, prick, Kaivm, kill. . Stokes prefers * skonti- as 

stem, allied to Eng. scathe. 
urla, face, hair, breast, Ir. itrla, lock of hair, long hair of the 

head, E. Ir. n/rla, irla : * air-la-, where la is for via, root vel 

tlTlabhairt, eloquence, Ir. urlahhair, elocution, E. Ir. erlabra : 

* air-lahhair ; see labhair. 
tirlaim, readiness (M'F.), Ir. urlamh, ready ; see uUamh. Hence 

also lirlaimh, expert, 0. Ir. erlam, irlam. 
tirlamhas, possession, Ir. lirldmhus, furlamhus ; from for, super, 

and Ib/mh, hand : " upper-handed-ness." 
drlann, a staff, Ir. -Arlann, a staff, spear staff, M. Ir. vHann, staff 

of a spear ■.*air-lann, from lann : also E. Ir. irforaci, hinder 

end of a spear or ship. 
iirlar, a floor, lowest part, Ir. urldr : *air-ld/r, from lar, floor, q.v. 
iirnuigh, a prayer, Ir. umuighe, O. G. ernacde (B. of Deer), 0. Ir. 

imigde, imichte : * are-naho, I strive for, root nak, enk, as in 

thig ? Zimmer gives the root igh, desire, Gr. IxovSv, desire. 

Lit igiju, strive after, Skr. ih, long for, dividing it into *air- 

con-ig {*air-wAg ?). 
uxra, a person, infant ; cf. next word, 
urradh, urrainn, authority, guarantee, author, Ir. urra{dh), 

surety, author, defendant, urrain, stay, prop, M. Ir. errvdus, 

responsibility ; from rath, rathan, surety. 
urrainn, power, is urrainn, can ; Ir. urra, power, urrain ,stay. 

See above word. 
urrail, forward, bold, urranta, Ir. urr&nta, bold, confident in one's 

might ; from wrradh. 
urram, honour, respect, Ir. urram, urraim, honour, deference, 

submission, M. Ir. v/rraim, homage : *air-r^im ? 
nrras, surety, guarantee, Ir. urrddhas, v/rr4s ; from urradh. 
ursainn, a door-post, Ir. ursa, g. wrsarm,, E. Ir. ursa, awrsa, irsa, 

d. v/rsaind, W. gorsin : *are-stan-, root sta, stand. 
tiruisg, a Brownie : 
us, impudence (M'A.) : 
usa, easier, Ir. usa, 0. Ir. assu, facilius, asse, facilis ; cf. W. haws, 

from hawdd, easy; further Fr. aisS, Eng. easy. Got. azets, 

usaid, querulousness (M'A.) : 

usgar, a jewel, bell on liquor : 

uspag, a push, pang, Ir. usp6g ; cf . ospag. 

nspair, an ugly or lumpish fellow, Ir. uspdn, a shapeless lump, 

chaos, clumsy fellow. See uspan. 
uspairn, strife, Ir. uspairneachd : *ud-spaim, from spairn. 


uspan, a shapeless mass, Ir. uspdn, : also asp (usp) ; cf. uibe, 
*mbs- ? 

ut ! ut ! interjection of disapprobation, Eng. tut, hoot, W. hwf, etc. 

ntag, strife, confusion ; also " push, jostle," ut, push. Cf. put, 

utan, a knuckle (Sh., O'R.) : 

tith, an udder, E. Ir. uth. Stokes gives the stem as *(p)iii'Ur, Lit. 
suputimas, a swelling, pwtlits, swollen. Lat. uber, Gr. oWap, 
Eng. vdder have been compared, but the Gadelic lacks the 
terminal -er, and the consonant is t rather than d or dh. 

uthard, above, on high, Ir. 6s, d/rd. Gaelic is for *for-ard, "on 
high ;" see air and d,rd. 

utrais, a confused mass of anything, a fidgeting. 

Of fBfi OASLtC! IiAltOtTAOE. 35$ 



Albion, Great Britain in the Greek writers, Gr. "Ak^tov, Akpimv^ 
Ptolemy's Akovimv, Lat. Albion (V]inj), G. Alba, g. Albainn, 
Scotland, Ir., E. Ir. Alba, Alban, W. Alban : * Albion- (Stokes), 
"white-land;" Lat. albus, white; Gr. dX.<j>6^, white leprosy, 
white (Hes.) ; 0. H. G. albiz, swan. 

Abmobic, belonging to Brittany, Lat. (Csesar) ArmoruMS, Aremori- 
cus (Orosius), *are-mori-, " by the sea" (see air and muir in 
Diet.), M. Br. Armory, Brittany, armor, land by. the sea, Br. 
arvor, maritime. 

Britain, G. Breatann, Ir. Breatain, E. Ir. Bretan, n. pi. Bretain, 
the Britons, W. Brython, Briton, Com. Brethon, Br. Breia, 
Brittany, Lat. Brittania (Caesar), Brittani, Britons, Bperravoi 
(Strabo). The best Gr. forms are JlpeTravoC, TLpeTTaviKrj, 
W. Prydain, Britain, E. Ir. Gruithne, a Pict, 0. Ir. (Lat.) 
Cruithnii ( Adamnan, Gruthini Populi) : * Qrtanid, root qrty 
to which Stokes refers G. cruithneachd, wheat, though- the 
usual reference is to G. cruth, picture, form, still retaining 
the notion of "pictured" men as in the old explanations of 
Pict. Stokes, Bhys, etc., regard the Lat. Brittania as a word 
of different origin from the Gr. UptTTovia, and G. Gruithne ; 
though, as a matter of fact, the Lat. seems to have been a 
bad rendering of the Greek. The Cruithne or Picts thus 
gave their name to Britain, as being, about 300 B.C., its then 
Celtic inhabitants. 

Brittany ; the Breton language ; from Britain above. Britons 
poured into France in the fifth and sixth centuries. 

Caledonia, northern Scotland (Tacitus), Gr. KaA-iySovtoi (Ptol., 
etc.), Lat. Caledonii (Lucan, Martial, etc.), 0. G. Dim- 
Gallden, Duni-Gallen, Dnn-Xeld, fort of the Caledonians, 
G. Dun-Chaillinn ; explained by Windisch as from *cald, the 
root of G. coille, the force being " wood-landers." Stokes and 
others object because of the r/ (Lat. e) in KakqS- ; but if the 
Eng. and Gaelic modem forms are the descendants of the 

word Caledonia as locally spoken, the objection cannot hold. 

■■■. ■ ■■ .. ■ ■ - - 4^5 

354'^ tolrrilOtiidAi Wc*ionak* 

Celts, Lat. Geltce (Caesai Gr. KsAtoi, KeArai, KcXtikos, appearing 
in the fifth and fourth cent. b.o. in Herodotus, Xenophon, 
etc. : *Kelto-s, " the lofty," root gel, raise, go, Lat. celsus, 
high, Eng. excel, Lit. keltas, raised. Khys refers the name 
to the root qel, slay, Ag. S. MM, war, Norse hildr, Lat. 
percello, hit. Lit. kalti, strike : the Celtee being " smiters." 

CoENWALL : Cornish, Ag. S. G&mwalas, the Walas or Welsh of 
the Com or Horn, E. Ir. i tirib Bretann Gomn (Corm.), in 
the lands of the Britons of the Com. For Walas see Wales. 

CitniTHNE, a Pict ; see under Britain. 

Cymbt, the Welsh (pL), Cymraeg, the Welsh name for the Welsh 

f language ; the singular of Gymry is, older Gymrmro : 

*Go7tMnrox, pi. Gom-mroges or Cojribroges (cf. Csesar's Allo- 

' brogeS, "Other-landers"), country-men, "co-landers," from 

hrog, mrog of hnigh in Diet., q.v. 

Erin ; see Ireland. 

Gabmo, Gael, the name of the language and people of the Scottish 
Highlands, G. Gaidhlig, Gr^idheal, Ir. Gaoidhilig, Gaedhilig, 
the Irish language, Gaoidheal, Irishman, E. Ir. Goedel (1100 
Ji..i>.), .Gaideli {Giraldvis),W. Gwyddel, Insbma.u : * Gddelo-s 
(for Sc. Gaelic) or *Gdidelo-s (for Irish), root ghddh, Eng. good, 
t Ger. gut, etc. ? The Scotch form seems the best, as its use 
has been continuous, the race being only a fourth item in 
Scotland. Stokes gives a proto-Gaelic * Goidelos or *Geidelos, 
which Bez. compares to the Gaul. Geidumni, and which 
< Stokes compares with Lat. hoedus, goat ("Goat-men," cf. 
Oscan Hirpini) or Lit. gaidys, cock. 

Oalli, Gaul, now France, Lat. Gallus, Galli (fourth to first cent. 
B.C.), Gr. VakaTqs, VaXdrai (third and second cent. B.C.) ; 
from the root gal, bravery, which see in Diet., with discussion 
of Galli and G. Gall, Lowlander, stranger. 

Ibbland, Irish ; G. 'Eireann, Ir. 'Eire, g. 'Eireann, E. Ir. 'Eriu, 
'Erenn, W. Ywerddmi, Iwerddon, M. W. Ewyrdonic, Irish, 
Ptol. 'louepvia, 'lepvT) (Strabo)j Lat. ffibemia, Ivema (Mela), 
Itme (Claudian, fourth cent, a.d.), Evemili, Irish (Adamnan) : 
*Ivery6n-, *EverJSn; usually referred to Piverjo-, Skr. pivari, 
fat, Gr. Iliepto, the Grecian seat of the Muses, ir'uov, fat 
(Windisch, Stokes) : " rich-soiled, swelling." Others refer it 
to G. iar, west, or Skr. dvara (from ava, G. bho), western, 
'• lower. No derivation can be satirfaotory which does not at 
the same time account for the similarly named Highland 
rivers called 'Eire, 'Eireann, Eng. Earn, Findhom. 

Mak, Manx; Manx Manninagh, Manx (adj.), Gailch, Caeii, the 

'' ■ - Manx Gaelic, E. Ir. inis Manann, Isle of Man, a genitive from 

*4^ajja ( = Lat. Mvna), early W, Manau, Lat. Mona (Caesar), 


Ptol. MovaotSa, Monapia (or Mona ?). The E, Ir. god-name 
Mananndn Mac lAr (son of the Sea) is connected with 
the Island; Skr. Manu, the Law-giver; Teutonic Mannua 
(Tacitus), Eug. man. , 

PiCTS ; G. Cruithnich, for which name see under Britain. The 
name Picti can scarcely be separated from the Gaul. Pictavi, 
now Poitiers ; and, if this be the case, the usual derivation 
from Lat. pictris, painted, must be abandoned. Windisch 
adduces E. Ir. cicht, engraver, carver, for which a Brittonic 
piht, pict Toaj be claimed as a parallel (*qict) ; this again 
leaves the idea of tattooing intact, and so agrees with the 
historical facts. 

Scotland, Scots ; E. Ir. Scott, pi. n. Scuit, d. Scottaih, Irishmen ; 
Adamnan — Scotia, Ireland, Scoti, the Irish, Scoti Britanniae, 
Scots of DaJriada, etc., Scoticus, Irish, Scotice, in the, Gaelic 
language, Lat. (fourth cent.) Seotti, Scdti, * Skotto-s. Stokes 
translates the name as " masters, owners," allied to 6o)f. 
skatts, money, Ger. scliatz, treasure, stock, Ch. Si. ikotil, pro- 
perty, cattle. The root skat, hmrt, scathe, cut, of Eng, 
scathe, has been suggested, either as "cutters" or "tattooed 
ones;" Rhys has suggested connection with W. ysgwthr,<a, 
cutting, carving — " tattooed or painted men." 

Wales, Welsh ; Ag. S. Wealas, Walas, the Welsh — the name of 
the people in pi. being used for the country, Wylisc, Welsh, 
Wyliscemen, the Welsh ; sing, of Wealas is Wealh, a foreigner, 
Welshman, 0. H. G. walh, foreigner, Celt, Ger. wal- in wal- 
niiss, Eng. wal-nut : from the Gaul, nation of the Volcae, 
bordering on the Germans, * Volko-s, * Volkd, " the bathers," 
from vole, bathe (see failc in Diet.). Stokes connects the 
name with Lit. wUkti, pull, referring to the restless wander- 
ings of the Gauls. 




«Adam, G. Adhamh, Aha (Fer, MS.). Awzoe (D. of L.), E. Ir. Adam, 
O. Ir. Adim (g) ; from Hebrew Adam, red. Hence Mac- 
adam, M'Caw, and from Dial. G. 'Adaidh (a diminutive from 
Sc.) M'Cadie, WAiaidh. 

-Adamnan, G. Adhmhnan (pronounced Toionan or Yonan), earlier 
- Adkamhnan (OghamJinan, M'V.), E. Ir. Adamndn, Lat. 
Adamnanus (seventh cent.), St Adamnan (died 704 a.d.), 
" little Adam," a Gaelic diminutive ham Adam. Hence the 
personal name Gilleownan (1495), Giolla-Adhamhndin, father 
of Somerled (twelfth cent.), Gilla-agamnan (1467 MS.), 
whence Skene deduces the Mac-Unnans, q.v. 

-ALBiXANDBiR, G. Alasdalr, Allex^ (D. of L.), Alaxandair (1467 
MS.), M, Ir. Alaxandair; from Lat. Alexander, from Gr. 
AAc^avSpos, " defending men." Hence G.- M'Alasdair, Mac- 
alister ; further Mac-andie (from Sandy). 

Allan, G. Ailean, from O. Br. Alan {Alanus, Alamnus), allied by 
root to Lat. alumn'us, fosterling, alo, rear (see altrum in Diet.). 
Hence Mac-allan. 

Alpin, G. Ailpein, E. fr. Alpin (Dalriadic king 693) ; from Pictish 
or Welsh som-ces — M. W. Elphin, Elfin, which Stokes sug- 
gests to be from Lat. Albinus, from alhv^, white (or allied 
rather?). Hence G. M'Ailpein, Mac-alpine. 

Andrew, G. Aindrea (Anndra, Dial.), Gilleanndrais, Eng. Gil- 
landers, St Andrew's gille, M. G. Andro (D. of L.), Ainnrias, 
Gille-ainnrias {i 4:G7 MS.), E. Ir. Andrias; from Lat. Andreas, 
g. Andrece, from Gr. AvBpka.^, a reduced double-stemmed 
name now showing only avBp-, man (see neart). Hence 
Mae-andreu>, Gillanders, Anderson. 

Angus, G. Aonghas, Ir. Aonghus, g. Aonghusa, E. Ir. 'Oengus, 
0. Ir. 'Oingus, W., Cor. Ungust : Oino-gustii-s, "unique 
choice," from aon and giis, choice (Eng. choose, Lat. gustus, 
taste, as in G. tagh). Hence M'Aonghuis, Mac-innes ; further 

Abohibald, G. Silleasbuig, Bishop's gille (see easbuig in Diet.), 
M. G. Gillespih (D. of L.), Gilla-espic (1467 MS.). Hence 
Gillespie. The name Archibald, Ag. S. Arcebald, Areenbald 
or Ercenlald, which vaguely means " right-bold" (0. H. G. 
erchen, right, real), has no apparent connection with Gillespie 
in meaning or origin (of. similarly Ludovic and Maol- 


Arthub, 6. Artair, M. G. Artuir, E. Ir. Arlmir, Artur, Ir. Lat. 
Artwrius, son of ^dan (Adamnan), W. Arthur, to which the 
Lat. Artorius (Juvenal) has been compared and suggested as 
its source (it being maintained that the Gens Artoria of 
Yorkshire lasted from Roman to Domesday-Book times, where 
Artor appears in the days of Edward the Confessor). If 
native to Brittonic (which is probable), it is from *arto-s, 
a beai", W. arth, 0. Ir. art, whence the names Art, Artgal, 
Artbran. Rhys prefers to render the *arto- as " cultor," 
from ar, ploiigh [Arth. Leg., 40-48), allying Arthur to the 
idea of a " Culture God." Hence G. M' Artair, Mac-arthur. 

Bain, from G. ban, white. The Bains of Tulloch appear in the 
sixteenth century variously as Bayne or Bane, with a con- 
temporary near them called John Makferquhair M'Gillebane 
(1555). This last name is now M'llle-bhiin, "■ Fair-gille," 
rendered into Eng. by Whyte ; whence also M'Gilvane. 

Bartholomew, G. Parian, Ir. Parthalon, E. Ir. Partholdn, Lat. 
Partholomceus or Bartholomceus (Nennius, ninth cent.), the 
name of a personage who is represented as the first invader 
of Ireland after the Flood (278 years after !). The p proves 
the name to be non-Gadelic ; and as the historians take 
Variholon from Spain, the Spanish Bar Tolemon of legend 
has been suggested as the original. Prof. Rhys thought it 
came from the Ivemians or Pre-Celtic race in Ireland. Hence 
the Clan Mac-farlane, G. M'Pharlain. 

Brown, G. M'A'-Bhriuthainn, M. G. M'abhrium (1408 Gaelic 
Charter), from brithnamhain, the former (Sc. Gaelic) genitive of 
britheamh, judge, q.v. Hence Mac-brayne. 

Cameron, G. Camshron, Camaran, M. G. Cdmsroin, g. (M'V.), 
Gamronaich (D. of L.), Gillacamsroin (1467 MS.), Charter 
Eng. Camroun (1472) ; explained as from cam^srbn, "wry- 
nose," which is the most probable explanation (cf. caimbevZ, 
E. Ir. cerrhil, wry mouth). Connection with camerarius or 
chamberlain (of Scotland) imlikely, or with the fourteenth 
century De Cambruns or Cameron parish in Fife. 

Campbell, G. Caimbeul, M. G. Cambel (1467 MS.), Cambell 
(1266, etc.), from cambel, wry-mouthed (cam and beul ; see 
Cameron). There is no De Cambel in the numerous early 
references, but De Campo-bello appears in 1320 as a Latin 
form and an etymology ; this, however, should naturally be 
De Bello-campo as Norman-French idiom and Latin demand — 
a form we have in Beavr-champ and Beecham. De Campello 
or De Campellis (little plain) has been suggested ; but 
unfortunately for these derivations the earliest forms show 
up de ; Qambell was an epithet, not a place-naine. 


Oarmichabl, 6. M'Gillemhicheil, Son of the gille of St Michael, 

M. G. Gillamichol (1467 MS.), O.G. GilUmicel (B. of Deer). 

, The name Garmichael is really Lowland — from the Parish 

name of Garmichael in Lanark (Michael's caer or cathair q.Y.). 

Cattanaoh, Chattan, G. Catanach, M. G. plural Gattanich (D. of 
L.), " belonging to Clan Chattan," Glann Gillacatan 
(1467), which claims descent from Gillacatain (1467 MS.), 
servant of St Catan, whose name denotes " little cat" (see eat), 

Charles, G. Tearlach ; in origin the same as Sc. carle, and 
meaning " man." Hence M'Kerlie. 

Chisholm, G, Siosal, Siosalach, De Ghesholme (thirteenth century 
documents), De Gheseholme (1254), a Border name, the place- 
name Chisholm being in Roxburgh : Ghes-holm (a holm, but 

Clark, G. Cl^ireaeh ; see cMireach in Diet. Also M' A'-Chl6irich, 
whence Galwegian M'Ghlery.- 

Coll, G. CoUa, M. G. GoUa (M'V., 1467 MS.), E. Ir. Golla : *Col- 
navo-s, from col, eel, high, as in GeltcK (App. A above). 

Colin, G. Cailean, M. G. Gallane (D. of L.), Cailin (1467 MS.), 
Golinus (Lat. of 1292). This is a personal name, once more 
or less peculiar to the Campbells, the Chief being always in 
Gaelic M'Cailein. Its relation to Eng. and Continental Colin 
is doubtful ; it cannot be from the old name Guilen, Catulus 
(Caniculus) or Whelp, by which a tenth century Scotch king 
is known. Cf . G. caileag. 

Crbrar, G. Criathrar, the name of a Lochtay-side clan who regard 
themselves as Mackintoshes, explaining the name as "riddler," 
from eriathar (which see in Diet.) : the derivation is right, 
but for the meaning compare the Eng. noun and name 
Sieve{w)right. See Celt. Ilagfi, 38. 

CuMMiNG, G. Cuimein, Cuimeanach, earliest Eng. form Gomyn, a 
Norman family dating from the Conquest, belonging to the 
Norman house of De Comines, a territorial designation. 

David, G. Daibhidh (Classical), Diidh (C.S.) ; hence Clann D^idh 
or the Davidsons, a branch of the dan Chattan. In C.S., 
Davidson appears as D^ibMosdan. 

Dermid, G. Diarmad, M. G. Dermit (D. of L.), Diarmada, gen. 
(1467 M.S.), E. Ir. DiarTwiit, 0. Ir. Diamnmt, Diarmit, Ir. 
Lat. Diormitius (Adamnan). Zimmer explains the name as 
Dia-ermit, " God-reverencing," from dia and ermit : *are- 
ment-, " on-minding," root ment, as in dearmad, q.v._ 

Dewar, G. Dedir, Deoireach, documents Ddire (1487), Jore 
(1428) ; from debradh, a pilgrim, q.v. Hence Madndeor. 

PONALD, G. Domhnall, M G. Domnall (1467 M.S.), gen. Donil 
(D. of L.), 0. G, Domnall (B. of Deer), K h.^Dommll, Ir, 



Lat. Domnallus (Adamnan), Domnail (do., iablative), Early W. 
Dumngual, later Dyfnwal : * Dwmnovalo-s, from dvhno- of 
domhan, and valo- (seeflafk), meaning " world-wielder, world- 
ruler," much the same in meaning as Dumnorix, world-king, 
Caesar's opponent among the Aedui. See domhan, flath. 
Hence M'Domhnuill, Mac-donald. 

Duff, M. Ir. Dvhh {Glann Dubh, Clan Duff, of which was Macbeth, 
etc.), earlier Dub, King Duff in tenth century ; from Gadelic 
dvh, now dvhh, black, q.v. As a personal name, it is a cur- 
tailment of some longer or double-stemmed name (cf. Fiorm, 
Flann, red). Hence Macduff {Clen mP Duffe, 1384). The 
family name Duff is merely the adjective duhh used epitheti- 

Duffy ; see Maopftee. 

DuGALD, G. Diighall, M. G. Dowgall, g. D(ywle (D. of L.), Duhgaill, 
gen. (1467 MS.), thirteenth century documents give Dugald, 
(1289), Dufgal (1261), M. Ir. Dvhgall (first recorded Dubgall 
is at 912 A.D.), from Early Ir. Dubgall, a Dane, "Black 
stranger," as opposed to Finngall, a Norwegian, "Fair 
foreigner.'' See, for derivation, fionn and Gall. Hence 
M'Dhiighaill, Mac-dougall, Mac-dowel, etc. 

Duncan, G. Donnchadh (Dial. Donnach), M. G. Duncha (D. of L.), 
Donnchaid, gen. (1467 MS.), 0. G. Donchad (B. of Deer), 
E. Ir. D&nnchad : * Donno-catUrS, * Dunno-catu-s, " Brown 
warrior," from dorm and cath, q.v. The Gaulish Donna- of 
personal names has been referred by De Jubainville to the 
same meaning and origin as M. Ir. donn, king, judge, noble — 
a word occurring in O'Davoren's glossary. 

Edwabd, G. 'Eideard ('Eudard, Dial.), Imhear, lomhar ; the first 
is the Eng. Edward borrowed, the second is the Norse Ivarr 
borrowed (see Mac-iver). Hence M "Eideard, M^ Edward. 

EwEN, G. Edghann (Dial. Eoghainn), M. G. Eogan, Eoghan, E. Ir., 
O. Ir. Eogan :* Avi-gono-s (*Avigenos, Stokes), " well bom, 
good," from *avi, friendly, good, Skr. dvi (do.). Got. avi-liud, 
thanks, Lat. aveo, desire, possibly Gr. ev-, good (of. here 
Evyevtjs, Eugenvus), W. has Eu-tigirn, Eu-tut, 0. Br. Eu^ant, 
Eu-hoear, Gaul. Avi-cantus. Ehys {iSib. Led. 63) refers Ir. 
Eoghan and W. Owen to *Esu-gen-, Gaul. Esugenus, sprung 
from the god Esu^. Zimmer regards Owen as borrowed from 
Lat. Eugenius. Cf., however, the evo- of Ogmic Eva-cattos, 
now Eoehaidh. Hence Mac-ewen. 

Farquhae, G. Fear char, M. G. Fear char. Fear chair, Ir. Fear chair 
(F. M., year 848 a.d.) : * Yer-caro-s, " super-dear one ;" for 
fear, see Fergus, and for car see Diet, above. Hence 
M'Phearchair, Mao-erchar, Farquharson, M'Farquhar. 


Fergus, G. Pearghas, M. G. Fearghus, Fergus, E. Ir., 0. Ir. 
Fergus, g. Fergusso, W. Gurgmt, 0. Br. Uuorgost, Uurgost : 
* Vev-gustu-s, " super-choice ;" for ver- or fear-, see in Diet, far, 
air (allied to Lat. super), and for gmtus, see under Aonghus 
above. Some regard Fer here as G.fear, man, *viro- or *vir. 

FiNGAL, G. Fionn, Macpherson's Gaelic Fionnghal, which really 
should mean "Norseman," or Fair-foreigner, M. G. Fiotm- 
ghall, a Norseman (M'V.), ri Fionn-gal, king of Man and the 
Isles (M'V.), Fingal (Manx Chrm.), king of Man and the 
Isles from 1070 to 1077 : from fiorm and Gall, q.v. Fingal 
as the name of the Gaelic mythic hero is an invention of 
Macpherson's, as Ukewise is his Gaelic Fionnghal. As a 
matter of fact the name is a Gaelic form of the female 
name Flora ! See Fionnaghal in the addendum to this list. 

FiNLAT, G. Fionnla, Fionnlagh (misspelt Fionnladh), M. G. 
Finlay (D. of L.), Finlaeic, gen. (1467 MS.), Fionnlaoich, 
gen. (Duan Alhanach), E. Ir, Findlcech (Lib. Leinster), Finrv- 
loeck and Finlaeg, gen. (Marianus Scotus). Those early 
forms and the Norse Finnleikr seem to prove that the name 
means " Fair hero" (fionn and laoch). It has been explained 
as " Fair calf," which would suit the phonetics also. The 
name is not Irish, and appears first as that of Macbeth's 
father. The Irish name like it is Finnluch, fair mouse ? 
Hence Finlayson, Mackinlay (M'Fhionnlaigh). 

Forbes, G. Foirbeis, Foirbeiseach, early document form Be Forbes 
(thirteenth cent.), so named from the place-name Forbes in 

Eraser, G. Friseal, Frisealach, circ. 1298 the patriot's name is 
variously Simon Fraser, Frasel, Fresel, Frisel, in Domesday 
B. Fresle, Battle Abbey Rolls (?) Frisell or Fresell ; usually 
referred to 0. Fr. freze, a strawberry, *frezele, from Lat. 
fragula, fragum, Fr. fraisier, strawberry plant. For sense, 
cf. the name Plantagenet (broom). Strawberry leaves form 
part of the Fraser armorial bearings. The word may also 
mean "curled" (Kng. frizzle, frieze). 

Galbraith, G. M' A'-Bhreatnaich, son of the Briton (of Strath- 
clyde). The name appears in the thirteenth century in 
Lennox, etc., as Galbrait (from Gall and Breai- of Breatann 

George, G. Se6ras, Seorsa, Deorsa, ultimately from Gr. yeupyds, 
a farmer, "worker of the earth" (y^, earth, dpyos, Eng. work). 
Hence the Border M^George. 

Gilbert, G. Gilleabart, Gillebride. Gilbert is from Ag. S. Gisle- 
bert, "Bright hostage" (aee giall in Diet.); Gillebride is St 
Bridget's slave, an exceedingly common name once, but now 
little used. 


Gilchrist, G. Gillecriosd, M. G. Gillacrist, Ir. Gillacrist (several 
in eleventh century) : " servant of Christ." Hence M'Gilr 
christ. It translates also Christopher. 

Gillespie, G. Gilleasbuig ; see Archibald. 

Gillies, G. Grilliosa : "servant of Jesus." From M'A-Lios 
comes the " English" form Lees, M'Leish. 

Glass, G. Glas, an epithet, being glas, grey. See M'Glashan. 

Godfrey, G. Goraidh, M. G. Gofraig (1467 MS.), Godfrey (do.), 
Ir. Gofraidh (F.M.), M. Ir. Gothfrith, Gofraig, also Gofraig, 
(Tigernach, 989), E. Ir. Gothfraid (Lib. Lein.), E. W. Gothrit 
(Ann. Gamh.). The Norse name, for it is Norse-men that are 
referred to, is Godro&r or Gudrod (also Gdrocfr), but the 
earlier Gaelic shows rather a name allied to the Ag. S. 
Godefrid, Ger. Gottfried, " God's peace." Modem Gaelic is 
more like the Norse. The Dictionaries give G. Guaidhre as 
the equivalent of Godfrey ; for which, however, see M'Qtiarrie. 

Gordon, G. Gordan, G6rdon, Gdrdonaoh ; from the parish name 
of Gordon in Berwickshire. The De Gordons are well in 
evidence in the thirteenth century. Chalmers explains the 
place-name as Gor-dyn, "super-dunum" (see/ar and dhiC). 

Gow, G. Gobha, a smith, now usually gobhainn, q.v. Hence 
Mcui-cowan, Mae-gowan, Gowan. 

Grant, G. Grannd, Grant (1258), an English family which settled 
about Inverness in the thirteenth century, Eng. Grant, 
Grand, from Fr., Eng. grand. 

Gregor, G. Griogair, Griogarach, M. G. M^Gregar (D. of L.), 
M. Ir. Grigcdr, E. Ir. (Lat.) Grigorius (Gregory the Great, 
died 604), from Lat. Gregorius, Gr. Tpriyopios, a favourite 
ecclesiastical name from the third century onward (cf. Gr. 
ypi/yopeo), be watchful, Eng. care). Hence M'Griogair, Mac- 
gregor, Gregory. 

GtjNN, G. Guinne, Gunnach, early documents Gun (1601), Clan- 
gwn (1525), in' Kildonan of Sutherland, originally from 
Caithness; from the Norse Gwnni (twelfth century), the 
name then of a son of Olaf, a Caithness chief (Orh. Saga). 
This Gvmmi is a short or " pet" form of some longer name of 
two stems, with gunn-r, war, as the first and chief one (cf. 
Gann-arr, which is an old Orkney name, Gunn-hj&m, Gunn- 
laugr, Gvamrdlfr, war-woM, Gvm,n-stein, Gunn-valdr). 

Harold, G. Harailt, M. Ir. Aralt, from Norse Haraldr (same in 
roots and origin as Eng. lierald). Hence Mac-raild. 

Hector, G. Eachunn (Dial. Eachainn), M. G. Eachuinn, g. (M'V.), 

Eachdhuin, g. (M'V.), Eachdhann, g. Eachduinn (1467 MS.), 

Ir. Eachdmm (year 1042) : * Eqo-dmvno-s, " horse lord," like 

Each-thiqhearna of Mac-echem, Of course ' Brown-horse" is 

■ 46 



possible; cf. Gr. UavBiiriros. The phonetics are against 
*Each^uine, , " horse-man," as an explanation. 

Henry, G. Eanruig; from 0. Eng. Henric, now Henry, from 
Germanic Meim-rik, "home-ruler" (Eng. home and ric in 
in bishop-ric, rich). Hence Mackendrick, Henderson. 

Hugh, G. 'Uisdean (Hiiisdeaii), in Argyle E6ghan, M. G. 
Huisduinn, which comes from Norse Eysteinn, " Ey(?)-sUyae." 
The Dictionaries also give the G. Aodh (see Motckay) as equi- 
valent to Hugh, which is itself from Germanic sources, 
Teutonic root hug, thought. 

James, G. Seumas, M. G. <iiV»iws (M'V.) ; from the Eng. James, a 
modification of Hebrew Jacob. 

Kathbl, G. Cathal, M. G. Gathal (M'V.), Ir. Cathal (common 
from seventh century onwards), O. W. Gatgual : * Katvrvalo-s ; 
see cath, war, and val under Donald. Hence M'AU, Mackail. 

Kennedy, G. Ceanaideach. Kennedy (Kenedy, John M^Kennedy, 
fourteenth century) is the family name of the old Earls of 
Carrick, now represented by the Marquis of Ailsa; it is a 
famous Irish name borne by the father of Brian Boru in the 
. tenth century — Ir. Geinneidigh, E. Ir. Gennitich, gen. ; from 
ceanre, head, and *etech, protector? The Highland Kennedys 
are also called in G. M'Uaraig or M'Ualraig, Ir. Ualgharg, 
proud-fierce (?). 

Kenneth, G. Coinneach, M. G. Goinndech, Goinnidh, g., Goinndigh, 
g. (M'V.), 0. G. Gainnech, g. Gaennig (B. of Deer), E. Ir. 

J Gainnig, gen , Ir. Lat. Gainnechus ( Adamnan) : * Gannico-s, 
" fair one," from the same stem as cannach (root qas), q.v. 
The Eng. Kenneth is a difierent word : it is the old Scotch 
king name Ginced (E. Ir. form), 0. G. Cinathd (B. of Deer), 
Ir. Ginaedh, " fire-sprung," from cin of cinn and aed of 

Lachlan, G. Lachlann (Dial. Lachlainn), Lachuun, M. G. Loch- 
linn, g. (M'V.), Lochloinn, n. and g., Lachlan, g. (1467 MS.), 
Ir. Lochlainn Mac Lnchlainn (F.M.,. year 1060) ; probably 
from Lochlann, Scandinavia, possibly commencing as Mac- 
Lochlainne, a Scandinavian (" son of L."). Lochlann 
evidently means " Fjord-land." 

Lamond, G. M'Laomuinn, L&man, M. G. Ladmann, early docu- 
ments Lawemtmdus (Lat. of 1292), Laurrmn (circ. 1230), 
M. Ir. Laghmand, Lagmand ; from Norse lagamjafSr, logmatSr, 
lawman, pi. logmenn, "law-men," by meaning and derivation. 

Laurence, G. Labhruinn, M. G. Ldblvran (1467), Ir. Laurint 
(Saint), from Lat. I/avrentiun, St Laurence, the ultimate stem 
being that of Lat. lawrus, a laurel. Hence M'Labhruinn, or 


Lewis, G. Lathais; from Fr. Louis, from Chlovis, the Frankish 
king (fifth century), degraded from old German Chlodwig, 
now Tmdwig (* Kluto-vigo-s, famed yarrior, roots in clvk and 
Eng. victory). Hence Eng. Lvdovic, which is rendered in 
G. by Maolddnuich, shaveling of the Church. 

Livingstone, G. M'An-leigh ; see Mac-leay. 

LuEE, G. Ltlcais. Hence Mac-hocas. 

Magnus, G. Manus, M^nus, M. G. Magnus, Manuis, g. (1467 
MS.), Ir. Maghnus, Norse MagtvAss, from Lat. magriMs, in the 
name of Charlewia^'ree — Carolus Magtms. 

Malcolm, G. Calum, earlier Gillecalum, M. G. MykoUum (D. of 
L.), Maekolaim, 0. G. Malcoloum, Maleolwm, Gilliecolaim, 
L:. Maelcoluim : from maol, bald, and calum, a dove (Lat. 
columbd), the particular Calum, meant here being St Columba. 
Hence Maccallum. 

MaTiTSE, G. Maoliosa, E. Ir. Maelisu, servant of Jesus. Hence 
also Mellis. 

Matheson, G. M'Mhathan, Mathanach, M. G. Mac-Matgamna 
(\i:61 MS.), Macmaghan {Exchequer Rolls for 1264), the 
•Ir. Mac-mahon, "son of the bear," for which see math- 
ghamhuin. Matheson in Perthshire is, as elsewhere outside 
the Highlands, for Mathew-son, G. M'Mhatha. 

Menzibs, G. M^innear, Mfeinnearach, early documents de Mengws 
(1487), de Meyners (1249) ; De Meyneria would mean much 
the same as De Camera, that is, " of the household," from 
Ttiesn-, masn-, giving Fr. men- (our manage, menagerie, menial), 
from Lat. mans- (our mansion), from maneo, remain. The 
root anyway is man of mansion and manor, and the name is 
allied to Manners and Mainwaring. 

Moegan, M. G. Clann Mhorguinn (M'V.), 0. G. Morgunn, g. 
Morcunt, W. Morgan, Cor. and 0. Br. Morcant : Mori-canto-s, 
" sea-white," from the stem of muir and root knd, burn, as in 
connadh (Lat. candeo, shine, Eng. candle). See MaAay. 

MoEEisoN, G. Moireasdan, earlier M'Gille-mhoire, Mary's servant, 
M. G. GiUamwe, whence Gilmowr. The name Morris is for 
Maurice, from the Latin saint's name Mawricius, " Moorish." 

MuNEo, G. Rothach, Mac-an-Eothaich (Dial. Munro). In the 
fourteenth century the name is " of Monro," which shows it 
is a territorial name, explained as Bun^oe, the mouth of the 
Eoe, a river in County Derry, Ireland, whence the family are 
represented as having come in the eleventh century. 

MuEDOCH, G. Muireach, Murchadh, really two different names; 
the first is M. G. Muiredhaigh, gen. (M'V.), Murreich (D. of 
L.), Muireadlmigh, g. (1467 MS.), Ir. Muireadhaeh, E. Ir. 
Muiredaxh, 0. Ir. (Lat.) Muirethaohus, Adamnan's Muire 

364 El'tMOLoGICAL biCTIOilABt 

dachus, explained in old glosses as "lord, king" : *Mori- 
adakos, from muir, sea, and *adako-(1). For this last part, 
cf. Feradach, Dunadach. The form Murchadh is in Ir. the 
same, E. Ir. Murchad : * Mori-catu-s, see warrior. Hence 
(from the first) M'Mhuirich (in Arran, etc., becoming Cwrrie), 
and from the second, Mwehison, Murchie, and Ir. Murphy. 

Murray, G. Moirreach ; from the county name Moray or Murray, 
early Gadelic forms being Moreb, Mwref, and Norse Morhesfi 
(influenced by Norse haf, sea) : *Mor-apia, from morol muir, 
sea, and *apia, the termination of several Celtic place- 

Mtles, G. Maolmoire, servant of Mary, an old and common name. 
Myles is from the Med. Lat. Milo, with a leaning on miles, 
soldier — a common name in the Middle Ages. 

Mac-alister ; see Alexander. 

Mac-andrew ; see Andrew. 

MAO-ARTHUR J see Arthur. 

Mac-askill, G. M'Asgaill ; from Norse 'Askell, for * 'As-ketill, the 
kettle (sacrificial vessel) of the Anses or gods : " a vessel of 

Maoaulat, G. M'Amhlaidli, Ir. Mac Amhlaoibh. M. Ir. Amlaihh, 
E. Ir. Amldib, 'Alaib ; from Norse 'Oldfr, Anlaf (on coins), 
" the Anses' relic" (Eng. left). 

Mac-bean, G. M'Bheathain, from Beathan, Englished as Bean 
(1490, Beane, 1481) or Benjamin : *Bitdtagno-s, life's son, 
from beatha, life, with the termination -agno-s, meaning 
" descendant of," Eng. -ing, now used like the Eng. to form 
diminutives. Also Mac-bain, Mac-vean. 

Mac-beth, G. M'Bheatha (Dial. M'Bheathain), M. G. Maebethad, 
0. G. Mac-bead (B. of Deer), M. Ir. Mac-bethad, Macbeth 
1058, 1041 A.D.) : " son of life," from beatha, life. It is a 
personal name originally, not patronymic. 

Mac-caig, G. M'Caog, Ir. Mac Taidhg, son of Teague, E. Ir. Tadg, 
possibly allied to Gaul. Tasgivs, etc. 

Mac-oallum, G. M'Calnim ; see under Malcolm. 

Maooodbum, G. M'Codrum ; from Norse Guttormr, GotSormr, 
Ag. S. Guthrum : " good or god serpent" (orm). 

Mac-coll, G. M'CoUa ; see Coll. 

Mac-combib, G. M'Comaidh, M. G. M'Comie (D. of L.) : " son of 
Tommie," or Thomas. 

Mac-conachie, G. M'Dhonnchaidh, son of Duncan, which see. 
The Clan Donnachie are the Kobertsons of Athole, so named 
from Duncan de Atholia in Bruce's time : the English form 
of the name is from Robert, Duncan's great-grandson, who 
helped in bringing the murderers of James I. to execution. 

ot Tfia gaslic Language. 365 

Mac-coemic, G. M'Cormaig, from Cormae (Cormag), E. Ir. 
Cormac, Adamnan's Cormacus : * Corb-mac, charioteer, from 
corb, chariot, Lat. corbis, basket. See carbad. From corb also 
comes Cairbre, 0. Ir. Coirbre. 

Mac-cokquodalb, M'Corcadail, M. G. Gorgitill, g. (D. of L.), early 
documents Makcorquydill (1434) ; from Norse ThorhetiU, 
Thor's kettle or holy vessel (see Mac-askill). 

Mac-cbimmon, G. M'Cruimein ; from Hitmun (on a Manx Eune 
inscription), from Norse Hrdmundr (for Hrdd-mundr, famed 
protector) ? 

Mac-oullooh, G. M'CuUach, early documents M'Culloch (1458), 
M'CuUo, M'CuUach (1431)— in Easter Eoss : "son of the 
Boar" (cullach) ? M'Lulach, son of Lulach (little calf ?), has 
been suggested, and this appears as M'Lulich. 

Mac-deemu) ; see Dermid. 

Mac-donald ; see Donald. 

Macduff ; see Buff. 

Mao-bchben, G. M'Eachairn, M. G. M'Caychvm (D. of L.), early 
documents Mackauchern (1499), Ir. Eckthighern (Annals 
846 A.D.) : " Horse-lord," from each and tighearna. 

Mao-fadyen, G. M'Phaidein, early docxunents M'Fadzeane (1540) ; 
from Paidean, Pat, a pet form of Patrick. 

Mac-faelane ; see Bartholomew. 

Mao-gill ; from a G. M'Gille, used as a curtailment, especially of 
Mac-millan or M'Gille-mhaoil. 

Mac-gilliveay, G. M'Gillebhr^th, son of the Servant of Judg- 
ment, from brdith, judgment, q.v. 

Mac-glashan, G. M'Glaisein, a side-form of M'Ghilleghlais, the 
Grey lad, M. G. M'lUezlass (D. of L.), documents M'Gille- 
glasch (1508). For the formation of this name, of. Gille- 
naomh (Mac-niven), Gille-maol (Mac-millan), M'Gillebane 
(1555), M'Gille-uidMr (M'Clure, dun lad), (filroy, red lad. 

Mac-gowan ; see under Gow. 

Mac-geegoe ; see Gregor. 

Mac-haedt, G. M'Cardaidh : 

Mao-indeoe ; see Dewar. 

Mac-innes ; see Angus. 

Mac-inttee, G. Mac-an-t-saoir, son of the carpenter ; see saor. 

Mac-ivee, G. M'lamhair, M. G. M'Imhair (1467 MS.), Ir. /»iAar, 
E. Ir. Imair, g. ; from Norse 'Ivarr. 

Mackay, G. M'Aoidh, from Aoidh, 0. G. Aed, 0. Ir. Aed, Adam- 
nan's Aidus, g. Aido : *Aidtir-s, fire, E. Ir. aed, fire, Gr. aWos, 
fire, brand, Lat. aedes, house ( = hearth), aestus, heat, 0. H. G. 
eit, fire, pyre. Hence the Gaul. Aedui. 


Mao-kellar, G. M'Ealair, M'Eallair, for M'Ceallair, old docu- 
ments Makkellar (1518), Makalere (1476) M'Gallar (1470), 
all " of Ardare" in Glassary, Argyle ; from fceallair, cellarer 
(of a monastery), Ir. ceallaire, any church officer (O'E), 
cealldir, superior of a church (O'B.) : these meanings seem 
guesses, for E. Ir. celldir means butler, cellarer, or steward, 
a most important personage in a monastery, from Lat. 
cellarius, steward, cella, a cell, store (see ceall). The G. 
Eallair (for Ceallair) has given rise to the Christian name 
Ellar, as in Ellar M'Kellar. 

Mao-kenzib, G. M'Coinnich; from Goinneach, which see under 

Maokerchae, G M'Fhearehair ; see Farquhar. 

Mackessack, for G. M'Isaac, son of Isaac. 

Mackillop, G. M'Fhilib, for Philip ( = A'%), where /( =^A) is 
aspirated and disappears ; from Lat. Phillipus, from Gr. 
^lAwnros, lover of horses (see ga/)l and each). 

Mackinlat, G. M'Fhioniila(idli) ; from Finlay. 

MACKINNON, G. M'Fhionghuin, M. G. Fumghuine, g. (M'V.), in 
Macfingon (1400), 0. G. Finguni, gen. (B. of Deer), Ir. 
Finghin, M. Ir. Finghin, Finnguine, E. Ir. Finguine : * Vindo- 
gonio-s, " fair-horn" {fionn and gin) ; cf. for force and partial 
root Gr. KoA,A.£.yevijs, and -yovos in proper names. 

Mackintosh, G. Mac-an-toisich, the Thane's son (see tbiseach), 
M. G. Clanna-an-tdisaigh, Clans Mackintosh (M'V.), Toissich 
(D. of L.), Mackintoshes, Clannran-toisigh (1467 MS.), early 
documents M'Toschy (1382). 

Mac-lachlan, G, M'Lachlainn ; see Laehlan. 

Maclagan, G. M'Lagain (Lathagain in its native district of 
Strathtay), documentary Maklaagan (1525) : ''' M^GilloMgan, 
sed quid % 

Mac-laebn, G. M'Labhruinn ; see Lawrence. 

Mac-labtt, G. M'Labhartaigh, from Flaithhheartach, Eng. 
Flaherty : " dominion-bearing" {seeflath and heartach). 

Mac-lean, G. M'lUeathain, for Gill' Sheathain, John or Seathan's 
servant, M. G. Giolla^din (M'V.), Gilleeoin (1467 MS.), docu- 
ments Makgilleon (1390) ; from gille and Seathain (Iain) or 
Foin, John, the latter being the classic G. for the name. 
John means in Hebrew " the Lord graciously gave." 

Mac-lbarnan, so G. ; from Gill' Fman, St Ernan's gille. The 
Latin name of this saint is Ferreolus, " Iron-one ;" from 

Mac-leat, G. M'An-16igh, or earlier M'Aii-16ibh, documents 
M'Conleif (1498 in Easter Ross), Dunslephe, gen. (1306-9, 
Kintyre), Dunslaf Makcorry (1505), M. G. Dwinsleiie, gen., 


Ir. Donnsl£bhe, E. Ir. DuindsUbe, gen. : " Brown of the Hill," 
from donn and sliaiih (not " Lord of the Hill," as other 
similar names exist in dvhh, e.g. Duhhdiihhe ; see Mac-phee). 
Capt. Thomas regarded the M'Leays of the north-west as 
descended from Ferchar Leche, F. the physician, who gets 
lands in Assynt in 1386, being thus M'An-leigh, physician's 
son, Manx Gleg, Legge. The Appin M'Lea clan Englished 
their name as Livingstone, of whom was the celebrated 

Mac-lellan, G. M'Gillfhaolain, M. G. M'Gillelan, (D. of L.), Gilla- 
faelan (1467 MS.), St Fiilan's slave, E. Ir. Faeldn, 0. Ir. 
Fdilan, from fail, now /aoZ, wolf , q.v. Hence Gilfillan. 

Mac-lenkan, G. M'lllinnein," Servant of St Finnan, Ir. Mac- 
Gillor-finnen (common in fourteenth and fifteenth century), 
M. Ir. Finden, E. Ir. Finni-an, Adamnan's Vinnianus — Finnio, 
Finnionis = Findbarrns ; from jinn, finnn, white : the full 
name, of which Finnan is a pet form, was Findbarr or " Fair- 
head," Eng. Fairfax. Skene deduced Mac-lennan from M. G. 
M'Gilla-agamnan, Adamnan's gille, documents Gilleganan 
Macneill (1S45), Gilleownan (1427). 

Mac-leod, G. M'Leoid, M. G. M'Gloyd (D. of L.), M'Leod (MS. 
1540), documents Madoyde (fourteenth century), 0. G. Liot 
(B. of Deer), Norse Sagas Ljotr, earl of Orkney in tenth 
century, and otherwise a common Norse name ; the word is 
an adj. meaning "ugly" (!), Got. liuta, dissembler, Eng. little. 

Mac-mahon, G. M'Mhathain ; see Matheson. 

Mac-maetin, G. M'Mhairtinii, no doubt for earlier Gillamartain, 
gen. (1467 MS., an ancestor of the Cameron chiefs) : Eng. 
Martin, from Lat. Martinus, the name of the famous fourth 
century Gaulish saint ; it means " martial." 

Mac-mastee, G. M'Mhaighistir, son of the Master. 

Mac-michabl, G. M'Mhicheil, doubtless for earlier Gillamichol ; 
see Carmichael. 

Mac-millan, G. M'Mhaolain, M'Ghille-mliaoil, son of the Bald 
gille (cf. M'Glaslian). To Maolan must be compared the 
Ogmic Mailagni. 

Mac-nab, G. M' An-aba, M. G. m' ynnab (D. of L.), M' An Aba 
(1467 MS.) : " son of the Abbot ;" see aba. 

Mac-naie, G. M'An-uidhir ; for Mac Iain uidhir, son of dun 
(odhar) John (cf. Mahaneroy, 1556, now Mac-inroy, and 
Makaneduy, 1526, now Mac-indoe). Such is the source of the 
Gairloch branch of the name. The Perthshire sept appears 
in documents as M^Inayr (1468), Maenayr (1390), which is 
explained as M' An-oighre, son of the heir. M'Nuirs in 
Cowal (1685), John Mahnewar (1546, in Dunoon) ; Tho. 
M'Nuyer '(1681, Inverness). Prof, Mackinnon suggested 


Jf' AvrfhvXbhir, son of the smith or faher ; nor should 
M'An-fhuidhir, the stranger's son, be overlooked as a possible 

Mac-naughton, G. M'Weachdainn, M. G. M'Neacktain (1467), 
0. G. Nectan, Pictish Naiton (Bede), from necM, pure, root 
nig of nigh, -wash. 

Mao-nee, G. M'Eigh, son of (the) king; for W-'N-Bi; but, in 
any case, for phonetics, cf. cruimh and cnuimh. 

Mac-neill, G. M'Neill, documents Makneill (1427). See Neil. 

Mac-nicol, G. M'Neacail, M. G. M'-Mcail, from Lat. Nicolas, Gr. 
N7KoAas, " conquering people." Hence Nicholson. 

Mac-nish, G. M'Neis ; from M'Naois, the Naois being a dialectic 
form of Aonghus or Angus. 

Mac-nivbn, G. M'GMlle-naoimh, the saintly gille (cf. for form in 
Eng. Mac-glashan). Documentary form Gilnew M'llwedy 
(1506). The M. G. and Ir. Gilla Nanaemh, servant of the 
saints (1467 MS.), is a different name. The Ir. M'Nevin is 
for M'Gnaimhin. 

Mac-phail, G. M'Phd,ll ; son of Paul. See Paul. 

Mac-phee, G. M'a-Phi, M. G. M'a ffeith (D. of L.), M'Duibsithi 
(1467), documsnts Macduffie (1463), for Dub-shithe, Black of 
peace (duhh aul sith). 

Mac-pherson, G. J.i'Phearsain, son of the Parson, M. G. 
M^a pharsone (D. of L.), documents M^Inphersonis (1594 Acts 
of Pari.), Bean Makimpersone (1490, Cawdor Papers), Mah- 
farson (1481, Kilravock Papers), Archibald M'Walter vie 
Doncho vie Per sown, (who in 1589 has lands in Glassary 
of Argyle) ; Tormot M'Farsane (vicar of Snizort, 1526). The 
Badenoch M'Phersons are known as Clann Mhuirich; the 
Skye sept are called Gananaich (from Lat. canonicus, canon). 

Mac-quarrib, G. M'Guaire, M. G. Guaire, M'Ghiaire (1467 MS.), 
Macqvharry (1481), WGoi/re of Ulva (1463, Makquhort/ in 
1473) ; from Gadelic Guaire, *Gaurio-s, E. Ir. guaire, noble ; 
Gr. yavpos, proud, exulting; further Lat. gaudeo, rejoice, 
Eng. joy. 

Mac-queen, G. M'Cuinn, documents Sween M'Qiteen (1609, Clan 
Chattan Bond), M'Qmyn (1543, Swyne then also as a personal 
name, in Huntly's Bond), Makquean (1502, personal name 
Soyne also appears), M. G. Suihne, gen. (1467 MS., Mackin- 
tosh genealogy), M'Hoenith (D. of L.), documents Syffyn 
(1269, the Kintyre Sweens), Ir. Suihhne (Sweeney), E. Ir. 
Suhne, k.di&xreaa,VL& Suibneus : *Subnio-s, root ben, go : "Good- 
going?" The opposite Duibne (O'Duinn, etc.) appears in 
Ogam as Dovvinias (gen.). Cf. duhhach, subhack. Usually 
Mac-queen is referred to Norse Eng. Sweyn, Norse Sveinn, 
which gives G. M'S%ain, now Mac-Swan, a Skye name, 


Mao-hab, G. M'Rath, M. G. gen. Mecraith, documents M'Grath 
(1383 in Rothiemurohus), Ir. Macraith (years 448, onwards): 
" Son of Grace or Luck," from rath, q.v. A personal name 
like Macbeth. 

Mao-raild ; see imder Harold. 

Mac-banald, G. M'Raonuill ; see Ranald. 

Mao-roet, Mac-euet; see Bory. Documents give Makreury in 

Mao-taggaet, G. M'An-t-Sagairt, son of the priest. 

Mag-tavish, G. M'Thiimhs, for M'Thtohais, son of Thomas or 
Tammas, M. G. Clyne Tawssi (D. of L.), documents M'Cawis 
and M'Cause (1494, 1488, in Killin of Lochtay). 

Mac-vicae, G. M'Bhiocair, documents Makvicar (1561, when 
lands are given near Inveraray to him) : " Son of the Vicar." 

Mac-vueioh, G. M'Mhuirich, M. G. M^Mhuireadhaigh (M'V.) : the 
Bardic family of M'Vurich claimed descent from the poet 
Muireach Albanach (circ. 1200 a.d.). They now call them- 
selves Macphersons by confusion with the Badenoch Clann 

Neil, G. Niall, so Ir., E. Ir. Niall, Adamnan's Nellis, gen. : 
'''Neillo-s, *Weid^s-lo- ; see niata for root, the meaning being 
" champion." Hence Mac-neill. The word was borrowed 
into Norse as Njdll, Njal, and thence borrowed into Eng., 
where it appears in Domesday Bk. as Nigel, a learned spelling 
of Neil, whence Nelson, etc. 

Nicholson, G. M'Neacail ; see Mac-nicol. 

NoEMAN, G. Tormoid, Tormod (Dial. Tormailt for earlier Tor- 
mond), documents Tormode (David II.'s reign) ; from Norse 
Tk6rm6&r, the wrath of Thor, Eng. mood. The form 
Tormvmd alternates with Tormod (1584, 1560) : "Thor's 
protection ;" whence the Dial. ToTmailt (of. iarmailt for 

Pateick, G. Pidruig, Paruig (with pet form Para), for Gille- 
phadruig, M. G. Gillapadruig, Ir. Pddraig, Giollaphdtraicc, 
O. Ir. Patrice ; from Lat. Patricius, patrician. Hence Max- 
pkatrick, Paterson. 

Paul, G. P61 (Classic), P41 (C.S.) ; from Lat. Pavlus, irompaulus, 
little, Eng. /«w. 

Pbtee, G. Peadair ; from Lat. Petrus, from Gr. HeT/aos, rock, 

Philip, so G. ; see Mackillop. 

Kanald, G. EaonuU, M. G. Raghnall (M'V.), Bagnall, Baghnall 
(1467 MS.), Ir. Bagnall (common) ; from Norse Bognvaldr, 
ruler of (from) the gods, or ruler of counsel, from rogn, regin, 


370 fiTYliOLOaiCAL WCttONAfiY 

the gods, Got. ragin, opinion, rule ; -whence Reginald, Rey- 
nold, etc. Hence M'Raonaill, Mac-ranald, ClamranaM. 

EoBBET, Raibert, Robart, Rob, M. G. Robert (D. of L.), Boibert 
(1467 MS.) ; from Eng. Robert, Ag. S. Robert, from hr6, hrdtS, 
fame, praise, and berht, bright, now bright, "bright fame." 
Hence Robertsons ( = Clann Donnchaidh), Mcu^obbie. 

Roderick, Roet, G. Ruairidh, M. G. Ruaidri (U67 MS.), 0. G. 
Raadri, Ir. Bimidhri, gen. Rtiadrach (Annals at 779, 814), 
0. Ir. Rnadri, E. W. Rotri, Rodri ; from rvadh, red, and the 
root of righ, king ? The Teutonic Roderick means " Famed- 
ruler" (from hrd(F and rik, the same root as G. righ). 

Rot, G. Rnadh, red. Hence Mac-itvroy, earlier Mahmeroy (1555), 
for M'lain Rnadh, Red John's son. 

Samuel, G. Samuel, Somhairle. The latter really is Somerled, 
M. G. Somuirle (M'V.), Somairli ((1467 MS.) ; from Norse 
Smnarliifi, which means a mariner, viking, " summer sailor," 
from sumar and liS^i, a follower, sailor. 

Shaw, G. Seaghdh, M. G. Disiab (?), Tsead, Tead (1467 MS.), 
documents Scayth (1338) ; evidently the same as Ir. Seaghdha, 
for Segda, " strong one, sensible one," from seagh. Shaw is 
Englished as Seth. In Argyle, the Shaws are called Clann 

Simon, G. Sim. This is the Lovat personal name ; hence 
M'Shimidh, Simmie's son, the name by which the Lovat 
family is patronymically known. Hence in Eng. Sime, Mac- 

Somerled ; see Samuel. 

Sutherland, G. Suthurlanach ; from the county name. 

Taqgart ] see Mae-taggart. 

Thomas, G. Tdmas, Timhus (M'F.), M. G. Tamos (1467 MS.). 
Hence Mac-tavish, Mac-combie. 

ToHQUiL, G. TorcuU (Torcall) ; from Norse Thorkell, a shorter 
form of Tkorketill, which see under Mac-corqitodais. 

White, G. M'lUebh&iii ; son of the fair gille. See Bain above. 

WiLLLiM, G. Uilleam, M. G. William (1467 MS.); the G. is bor- 
rowed from the Eng., 0. Eng. Willelm, Ger. Wilhelm, " helmet 
of resolution" (from will and helm). Hence Mac-william. 


Beathag, Sophia, M. G. Bethog (M'V.), Bethoc (Chronicles ofPicts 
and Scots : name of King Duncan's mother), for *Beth6c, the 
fem. form of Beathan, discussed under Mac-bean. 

Bride, Bridget, E. Ir., 0. Ir. Brigit, g. Brigte or Brigtae : *Brgnti 
(Stokes), an old Gaelic goddess of poetry, etc. (Corm.); 


usually referred to the root h-g, high, Celtic Brigantes, high 
or noble people ; Skr. h-hati, high (fem.) ; further Ger. herg, 
hiU, Eng. burgh. The Norse god of poetry was Bragi, whose 
name may be allied to that of Brigit. The name of the Gr. 
goddess 'A<f>poSiT7j (Bhrg-Ud) and the Teutonic name Berhta 
(from the same stem as Eng. bright), have been compared to 
that of Bridget (Hoffman, Bez. Beit.^% 290) ; but this deriva- 
tion of Aphrodite (" foam-sprung" ?) is unusual. 

Diorbhail, Diorbhorguil, Dorothy, M. G. Derbhfdil (M'V.), Ir. 
Dearbhail, Dearbhforghaill, respectively translated by O'Don- 
ovan '' true request" (see etill) and "true oath" (E. Ii.forgall, 
0. Ir. foreell, testimony, from geall). Hence the historic 
name Devorgilla 

Fionnaghal, Floba, M. G. Fionnghvala (1469 MS.), documents 
Finvola (1463), Fynvola (1409), Ir. Finnghuala : " Fair- 
shouldered " ; from iionn and guala. 

Mdr, Mdrag, Sarah, M. G. Mdr (M'V.), Ir. M6r (year 916) ; from 
7»rfr, great, while Hebrew Sarah means " queen." 

Muireall, Marion, Muriel, Ir. Muirgheal (year 852) : Mori-geld, 
" sea-white;" from muir and geal. 

SoTcha, Clara, Ir. Sorcha ; from the adj. sorcha, bright, the 
opposite of doreha, q.v. 

Una, Winifred, Winnt, Ir. Una ; usually explained as from lina 
(older niina), hunger, famine, whence the Ir. proverb : " Ni 
bhion an teach a mbion Una la na leath gan niina" — 
The house where Una is is never a day or half one without 
hunger." Una, daughter of the King of Lochlan, is repre- 
sented by Keating as Conn Cedcathach's mother (second 



abaisd, a brat, trifling, impudent person : 

adharcan, lapwing, " horned bird ;" from adharc, Dial, daoireagan. 

atach, cast-off clothes (Uist, &c.) : 

bac-moine, turf-pit or bank (N.H.) ; from Norse hahki, a bank, 
Eng. hank. Hence also place-name Back. 

bualtrach, cow-dung, so Ir., buartlach (Dial. Ir.) ; from b^Mr, cattle. 

buileach, total, entirely ; another form of haikach. E. Ir. has 
Jmlid, blooming. 

carbh, a particular kind of ship or boat (May) ; from Norse karfi, 
a galley for the fjords. 

cas, fire (as a stone) — a Sutherland word; seemingly founded on 
Erig. cast. 

cld.idlieag^, the last handful of com cut on the farm, the " maiden" 
(Badenoch) ; Sc. claaik-slieaf (Aberdeen, (fee), from claaick, 
the harvest honae, the state of having all the corn in. 

crppan, a deformed person (Suth.) ; from Norse kroppinn, deformed. 
See under crub. 

farachan, death-watch beetle : "hammerer;'' from /aircAe, hammer, 
Ir. farachan, a hammer. The possibility of its being from 
faire must not be overlooked. 

fionnachd, refreshment : "coolness," * ionnrfhiiachd , ct. fionnar. 

Gearran, the 4 weeks dating from 15th March onwards (H.S.D.). 
This forms a part of the animal nomenclature given to the 
several periods of Spring-time : first the Faoilleach, explained 
as "Wolf-month" (but see Diet.); then the Peadag, or 
Plover, a week's length ; then the Gearran or Gelding, 
variously estimated as to length and time ; then came the 
Cailleach, or Old Woman, a week's time ; then perhaps the 
three days of the 'Oisgean, or ewes. See Nich., pp. 412-414. 



acarach : add Tr. acarack, obliging, convenient, which shades ofif 
into acartha, profit. M'A. has acarra, moderate in price, 
indulgence, which belongs to acartha. 

aillean : add M. Ir. eillinn (Eev. Celt.% 231). 

aoine : Stokes suggests that it may be cognate with Gr. ireivdo), 
I hunger, Lat. penuria. 

arsa : Stokes takes it from the root ver, speak, seen in Gr. epew, 
speak, Eng. rhetoric, word. 

arsaidh : I did not observe that Stokes had the word ; but we 
come to the same conclusion. His stem is "^ {p)arostdt